This study evaluated the physiological and psychological response of humans to whole-body,sinusoidal, low-frequency horizontal vibration between 0.2 to 4 Hz. The physiological effects of vibration on the autonomic nervous system were estimated through measurements of pulse, respiration and salivation rates. For psychological responses, the relationship between the intensity of vibration and psychological levels was measured by semantic differential method. A correlation between the intensity of vibration and pulse was observed so a dose-response relationship was considered to exist. In addition, significant correlations between the dynamism factor, evaluation factor, and pulse were observed.
This study investigates the effect of evaluation scene and attributes of constituent elements on these color evaluation. The stimuli were presented as color transparencies composed by a color image processor. As for the exterior color of buildings, every evaluation is most strongly dependent upon the influence of chroma, and is also influenced by the characteristics of evaluation scenes. As far as a billboard tower is concerned, every evaluation relies rather upon its proportion than upon its color. It is necessary to improve the existing law on the size of billboard towers.
Since several years ago, we had conducted measurements of thermal performance for a semi-underground room as well as computersimulations. It is very important for comparing measurement results with computational results to make detail thermal model of the soil around the test house. To obtain fundamental information for the modelling, the following measurements and analysis for the soil thermal properties were done: 1) Measurement of the properties for soil test pieces sampled from the site, 2) Long-term on-site measurement of thermal conductivity and voluminal heat capacity, 3) Long-term measurement of soil temperatures and their spectral analysis by techniques of a maximum entropy method, 4) Estimation of average thermal diffusivity from the data obtained by the spectral analysis. As the result, the average diffusivity was estimated as 039×10^<-6>m^2 but it was also found that the actual diffusivity depended on time and distributed along depth from ground surface. Additionally, a simple calculation model for soil temperature having constant thermal diffusivity was compared with the temperature measurement and the prediction error was illustrated.
In order to make clear the effect of rooftop lawn-planting on the thermal environment, outdoore xperiments were carried out with lawn-planting mock-ups throughout two years. This paper for the first part of our study describes the outline of mock-ups and measurement items and measuring methods. Main subjects of the paper are about diurnal and annual characteristics of heat budget for the foliage layer of lawn-planting. The following items were analyzed with the experimental data. 1. Reflected solar radiation from the surface of lawn. 2. Radiant temperature of lawn and temperatures in the lawn-planting layers. 3. Heat flow below the layer of foliage. 4. Heat capacity of the layer of foliage.
Related surveys were carried out in summer of 1992 and winter of 1993 on energy consumption, indoor climate and life style in residential buildings. Samples of the surveys consist of three types of residential buildings, i.e., detached houses, condominiums and apartments. They are located in eight city areas of broad climatic conditions. Life style factors were measured with questionnaires, indoor temperature was measured in each living room for at least a week with originally designed automatic temperature recorder, and energy consumption data other than that of kerosene was obtained from supply companies. The data of kerosene was obtained in the questionnaires. In this paper, actual energy consumption for difference uses in thirty-nine resi-dential building groups are estimated with the same procedure. Determinant factors of energy consumption for heating, cooling,domestic hot water, lighting etc. and cooking are analyzed, and as a result estimation formulas are obtained.
The data not only in a downward looking mode but also in north- and south-side looking modes by using airborne MSS at noon on a winter clear sky day have been obtained to clarify the radiant temperature distribution over observed area by taking account of unevenness of the area. Based on observed data and GIS data, sensible heat flux from the overall surface to air at each developed area was calculated, which is considered as a main factor in determining air temperature. Moreover, the relationships between land coverage conditions and amount of sensible heat flux were analyzed.
The field survey is conducted to clarify the actual problems of high-rise living. We analyzed following aspects. (1)most people attatch the iaportamce to the price of house and the living environments, when they decide where to live. (2)the people who lived in the detached house before, have the tendancy to live highrise sections of the appartment building. (3)about the children's playing place, there are no clear effects of the height of present living floor. (4)the effects of housewive's frequency of out-goings, are not only the height of living floor but housewives' work, age, and the existence of low-age children.
In the architectural and engineering fields,there was no way of prediction for the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. A theoretical equation which is used in antenna engineering for the electric field strength of electromagnetic waves radiated by small dipole antennas was applied to the analysis on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of a square opening. Before using the theoretical equation in the analysis. It was necessary to establish analytical conditions of the electromagnetic wave radiations. After various simulations and comparisons with laboratory measurements, analytical conditions were extracted and established. It was demonstrated that the theoretical equation is able to use for the prediction of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.
This is a sequel to the research report on a detached houses in Hokkaido that examines the influence of various temperature level on a living activity, living space, living time, and living goods. The main features are as follows: 1. The interior thermal environment influence the dweller's living time. 2. When there is a change in the interior temperature condition, the living goods needs to be replaced a more suitable space with a thermal condition that is best for their quality.
This paper analizes the preservation of agricultural land use in rural settlements from the view point of their structural changes. This study confirms the following. 1) Farming scale, settlement management and others become the category to divide the structure of agricultural land use in rural settlement. And we make some settlement types according to the relationship between the structure of land use and their location. 2) Conserning the structural change about agricultural land use, the farming scale of a settlement are kept by the force of forming group, although its regional base became weakended. 3) On the other side, conserning the conditions of farm labor, the mutual aid of settlement community compensates for the shortage of manpower in underpopuration area.
The study clarifies the structure of dwelling styles of people living in rural housings where civilization of present age has been in progress, focusing on their contemporary and traditional aspects. The dwelling style which predominates among them and the way in which parts of the dwelling style are formed into a whole can be obtained using the relations between superficially observable elements such as how such action is taken, how they before, how the field of their family life is made up. Behavioral patterns related to the rural dwellings are diversified, but can be classified into several dominant categories. This categorization became possible because the way these dwelling styles were consolidated through socialization and firmly lodged as permanent in our society. Has been actualized. The dwelling style is making steady progress under the influence of the above elements which increase in number in their multicultural community. There is a gradual change in the style of their houses resulting from that of their family life which has a long tradition.
Through the questionnaire to visitors and inhabitants of Kyoto, traditional elements in the city image of Kyoto are picked out. Assuminng the attributes of these elements, the corelationship between these attributes and image probability is analyzed, and the dominant factors of image probability for each subject are clarified. Ddominant factors of the image of Kyoto for its visitors are "knowledge through mass-media, cultural and artistic value and remarkableness". For its inhabitants they are "knowledge through mass-media, natural environment and visibility". 2)Dominant factors of the image of intimate place for its inhabitants are "spaciousness, historical atmosphere and familiarity".
This paper studies on the way of living in traditional houses, those are called MACHIYA and NAGAYA in Kyoto. How inhabitants have managed to realise housing needs and improved their houses according to the change of a family make-up and life style with jeneration are cleared. In the improvement of traditional houses, some rules are kept by inhabitants as follows. 1 Basic plan of MACHIYA and NAGAYA with Tori-Niwa is followed. 2 Little coutyard called TUBO-NIWA is kept even when they extend their houses. 3 Tipical way of living in MACHIYA and NAGAYA to use a room two ways is succeded.
This is a study about the utilization actual condition and estimation of Shinsui Parks in the 23 wards of Tokyo, we want to know the influences that Shinsui Parks exercise around it. We examined about the present state of the Shinsui Parks in the 23 wards. In the parks, we chose five parks (KOMATSUGAWA-SAKAIGAWA,HURUKAWA,SHIN-AGASHIMAGAWA,YOKOJUKKENGAWA,OTONASHI). And we examined how many people used the parks in a day during in summar and how they used it. The findings are following: 1.Well used Shinsui Parks are those which provide their users the direct access to the water. 2.Shinsui Parks with water accsess are frequently used by families,but Shinsui Parks without water access are mostly used by passers. 3.Many people stay at home in ample spaces along Shinsui Parks. 4.Shinsui Parks with convenient transportation access have large utility areas.
The preservation systems for historical environment of Japan, which propagated to Taiwan and Korea during Japanese occupation period had been influencing each other the way of the preservation systems after the World War n. The purpose of this thesis is first to grasp and compare the transition of the preservation systems for historical environment of Japan and Taiwan. And then, to clarify the feature bythe relative viewpoint for each other.
Views-points and view-objects of mountain-views in kyoto were settled in the following 5 aspects: 1)photos carried in magazines and sightseeing brochures 2)paintings 3)literature 4)tourist sights 5)daily sights favorable to view scenery. The 196 views from 164 views-points were discribed by 7 special qualities, and analysed by quantification 3 and Ward method of clustering. As a result, the views were classified into 12 types, and the trait of each of them was recorded.
I have examined in this thesis the form,material and finising of munafuda(dedication board) of Shinto shrines and Bud-dhist temples in the northern part of Kyushu and adjacent area.The outcome is as follows: The examination of the size (the total height,the thickness,the upper and under width,and the side height) of munafudahas shown that the size which "Daisho tekagami" dictated was not always observed,and that dedication boards were not necessarily made according to an auspicious scale. That is, the size of a dedication board was determined by the very length of the description sentence and the size of letters, and the space on which various dedication boards were attached.The forms of munafuda can roughly be classified into three types---sento style(a point-headed type), square style(a level-headed type)and ento style(a round-headed type). In each type,there are ones with their upper or lower corner cut off. This deliberate cutting-off of one of the corners was meat to turn the dedication board into an amulet. As for the finishing tools of munafuda, adzes and yariganna were used in the middle ages, but in the early modern age planes were common. The material of munafuda is generally wood obtained nearby. In the northern part of Kyushu and adjacent area, Japan ceder occupies about 55% of the all materials, followed by Japanese cypress, then nine, camohor, and zelkova.
The forms and dynamics of 84 lots of build-up area called "Tijiri-Nenguti" showed the growth of Kyoto in the first half of the 17th century. This area which was located in front of the streets was the strip of land with small depth. This strip corresponded to the condition that small town houses stood along the streets densely. It can be said that there were no property boundarylines of adjacent land in this strip of land. It was typical in this period that town houses stretched into the periphery of the city with no plot division.
This paper is an attempt to study on the suburban developments around Nagoya in the modern age and here is analyzed Shinmaiko Bunka-mura "Syoroen" in terms of its historical background as well as its spatial characteristics of the town and the houses. Although Shinmaiko was developed as a seaside resort town in 1910's, it was redeveloped as a suburban residential area named "Syoroen" by a railway company during 1920-1930's. The town was planned by Susumu Shinoda who was the part-time architect of Aichi-denkitetsudo Co.Ltd. In those days. Its road and public facilities such as station, clubhouse and houses are organized around a roundabout and harmoniously designed.
In 1932 occupaying there, the Kwantung Army erected the Northeastern Province of China "Manchuria" into Manchoukuo. Manchoukuo Government established the Architecture Bureau in order to build some new buildings, for example, government offices, official houses, and etc. This paper shows a history of the Architecture Bureau and compares it with the Architects' Office of South Manchuria Railway Co. Ltd.
Here is analyzed the syntactic relations between urban and housing designs in the English garden suburbs, which is epitomized in Hampstead Garden Suburb, Middlesex, planned by Raymond Unwin from 1906. The model designs of road junction illustrated in Unwin's book, Tom Planning in Practice,1909, are compared to the executed designs in Hampstead Garden Suburb, where most of the important road junctions are formed as hexagonal plazas surrounded by so-called butterfly houses. Cnwin wisely combined Sitte's idea of the plaza with the Edwardian experiments of butterfly house, while other architects, such as M.H.Baillie Scott, G.L.Sutcliffe and C. M.Crickmer, transformed Onwin's concept into various designs to create a series of characteristic nodes in Homestead Garden Suburb.
This paper is to reconstruct the design process of Louis I. Kahn's Kimbell Art Museum through a morphological analysis of the basic form and its vocabulary which were applied by the Architect.The sequence of the discussion is as following : 1) An analysis of design sketches etc. to induce the basic form and its vocabulary. 2) An examination of their adaptability to the Museum's architectural program. 3) An explanation of the vault, the main vocabulary in the design, which plays an important role incontrolling the relationship between program requirements and formal transformations in the design.
Issues of the journal Shinkenchiku published between 1966 and 1992 and showing seventy-nine buildings in Kyoto were used to test the level of awareness towards architecture. The SD test was administered using a questionnaire and slides. The purpose of the experiment was to establish the factors determining the perception of the buildings and what caused some factors to become more important. The results show that the factors found relevant to most subjects were, the materials, the period of construction, the architect, and the exterior covering. The nature of the building has a relationship between these factors.
Before the modernization, the cities in China had been planned based on the Jyo-boh system, while most cities in Japan had also been planned based on either this system or the castle town tradition. However, since 17th centuty, in both countries, many cities have developed naturally instead of following these traditions. Asa result, the narrow streets, irregular arrangements, and the crowded houses are seen in these cities. This paper is to study the characteristics of the street space in these cities, by examining two typical examples: Suzhou Yue-Cheng in China developed since Ming Dynasty, and Hiroshima Mitarai in Japan since Edo Period. It is suggested that this type of urban developing might be due to the transportation system in that time, which mainly depended on ships, human and horse powers, instead of carriages.