The purpose of this study is proposing environment for a child with disability taking a bath safely. The questionnaire was carried out for the family who has a handicapped child. As a result, a child's weight and physical action were related with the care burden . When the child was classified and analyzed in four types in the synthetic characteristic of the physique and physical action, the feature of care environment, care method and care burden became clear. It turned out that about 60 percent has experienced the near-miss, especially under the situation of holding their child in their arms.
Infill can be classified as fixed infill or variable infill. It is possible fixed infill to have a role of a guide for variable infill. This paper aims to clarify the effectiveness of the fixed infill role when installing and changing variable infill using data from the experiments of installing and changing infill conducted in the ‘Infill Laboratory Glass Cube’ located in NEXT21. The results of the experiments are as follows; 1) The fixed infill role was effective when we change the variable infill arrangement without adjusting between the next variable infill. 2) The fixed infill role was effective when not only specialists change variable infill but also non-specialists change.
Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (TWSIs), which help visually impaired people traveling alone, could be an extra barrier for pedestrians, wheelchair users, and baby carriage users. The purpose of this study is to develop TWSIs having less heights of flat-topped elongated bars (guiding patterns) than TWSIs compliant with the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). This study relates particularly to indoor guidance for visually impaired people. This study examines easily detectable heights of guiding patterns and distinction between guiding patterns and warning patterns. The result indicate that the evaluation of the combination of a guiding pattern which has two bars with a height of 2mm and a warring pattern which has 20mm or 30mm in diameter with a height of 2mm is good.
This study was intended for a pioneering psychiatric hospital, and analyzed by the following three aspects. 1. Analyzing the records of hospitalized patients, we clarified the facilitation of the hospital discharge status of hospitalized patients and the dynamic flows of inpatient in recent years. 2. Conducting observation survey, we clarified the characteristics of the shared use of space in the wards of five different therapeutic strategy. 3. Conducting continuous observation survey, we clarified in detail the behavioral characteristics of the patients in the shared space in the acute ward, and obtained the knowledge about the configuration of the environment for therapy in the acute ward.
The aim of this study is to make it clear how space recognition process of psychiatric patients develop and how patients give meaning to space through their use. Observation survey was carried out in a psychiatric hospital with space hierarchy. There are two types of patient ward in it, the one consists of all single bed rooms, the other has all four-bed rooms. Findings are as follows; 1. Type of patient room and disease have great impact on patients' behavior. Schizophrenia patients in four-bed room and depression patients in single bed room use more semi-public space. Schizophrenia patients in single bed room for short stay and patients in four-bed room for a long time use more semi-private space. 2. It is revealed that space recognition process can be classified into three stages: learning stage in treatment period, understanding stage in trial and recovery period and establishing stage in rehabilitation period. Especially at the learning stage, staff involvement and activity program play an important role for patients to use space. 3. Patients regard public space as four specific types of their own: private space, part of patient room, buffer zone and urban area.
This study aims at clarifying the changes in facility planning for Hansen's disease sanatoriums under the Leprosy Prevention Law based on a review of the literature. The results are as follows: 1) In the late 1940s, the national sanatoriums were planned to accommodate all Hansen's disease patients despite of the unnecessary isolation, as the result of developing effective therapeutic agents. The residents submitted a petition to the authorities to establish the Leprosy Research Center etc. 2) The nationwide organization of the residents negotiated improving the medical service and living environment, preparation for aging, income growth and so on, with the government.. 3) In the fourth stage, the nationwide organization prioritized the serious cases by improving their living environment. 4) In the fifth stage, under the limited budgeting resources, an individual facility planning was implemented rather than standardized planning.
The aim of this study is to clarify a class room, a playground and a gallery in the educational theory written by Samuel Wilderspin and to investigate the roots of them with the research in some old educational entities in Scotland, such as the New Institution of Formation of Character, the University of Edinburgh, the High School of Edinburgh and the Edinburgh Academy. At the High School of Edinburgh, the word of ‘class' emerged in 1644 and class rooms existed in the old building built in 1777. Furthermore, in 1764, a gallery could be seen at the anatomy theatre in the University of Edinburgh. Since then, a gallery had built in a class room for a lecture, like a simultaneous education, which enabled a professor to teach a lot of students at once.
This study conducts verification experiments for a minimum measurement of restrooms for wheelchair users in a public toilet. From our inquiry, one of the most difficult task to a wheelchair user in a public restroom is to make a favorable approach to the toilet seat through switching back. This verification experiments suggested that the ideal space should be kept at least a scale of 1100×1500mm in front of the toilet seat, and this would make more flexibility about designing a public toilet for wheelchair users, especially in renovating old facilities.
This paper aim to clarify the situation of the individualization and the isolation in suburban area and city center district among residents in the view point of recreational life, as it had already occurred in cities. It makes clear as follows. 1. The recreational activities are tended to be done in houses, districts far from the area and not to be done in the area. 2. The recreational life individualization is observed. About 70% -80% of city residents, newcomer village resident, native village resident and full-time farmer, are mainly spend recreational life alone or with their families. 3. The isolation is observed. i) 24.9% of city residents,16.6% of newcomer village residents,5.9% of native village residents are isolated in the regional society. ii) 9.6% of city residents, 6.8% of newcomer village residents, 2.8% of newcomer village residents are isolated in not only the regional society, but also the outer of regional society.
This study is on developing Zoning system in Switzerland, examining actual situation of industrial zones in Geneva. Analyzing organization and procedure of modification project of zone limits of Praille-Acacias-Vernets area, effects of Zoning system on urban planning are summarized as follows. 1. ‘Development zone’ of Zoning plan could be space to reexamine actual land-use of site, such as changing industrial zone into residential zone, or reorganizing locations of activities according to business type. 2. County policies such as population are reflected on project because of volumetric regulations of Zoning plan and Block plans, and their combination.
This paper aims to clarify the role and methods for revitalization of campus surrounding area by partnership between university and community in local city through reviewing activities of UPP founded by Clark University and Main South community. The results were as follows: 1) Recognition as a community member and leadership to local subjects of the university contribute to community revitalization. 2) Framework for relationship between university and community helps various activity. 3) Effective use of resources, complementarity of activity, combination of plural results, ripple effect to community brings effective revitalization.
There are mainly three ways for urban redevelopment in Qingdao city. They are the rehabilitation redevelopment with residents' transfer, the redevelopment with residents' transfer and the redevelopment with residents' return. In this study, we selected a typical case of the redevelopment with residents' return: the smallware market, and analyzed the advantages, the imperfections of the residential and business environments and the evaluation of the redevelopment from the viewpoint of the new residents and the returning residents. Finally, we confirmed the characteristics of redevelopment with residents' return. The findings show that, firstly, the residents are satisfied with the living environment and their neighbors, and the community has been inherited. However, the characteristics of Liyuan after the redevelopment are being low-valued due to the disappearance of the historical atmosphere. Secondly, the merchants pay much attention to retain working in the Jimo road. And most of the merchants are satisfied with the residential and commercial function of Liyuan has been inherited. Finally, in regard of sustainable development of Liyuan, we think the rehabilitation redevelopment with residents' return is required for the future redevelopment of LiYuan districts.
In recent years, DCP (District Continuity Plan) as well as BCP (Business Continuity Plan) assuming a devastating earthquake is a big concern in many private companies and local governments. However, a large number of people are expected to have difficulty in commuting, since public transportations are presumed to be paralyzed and unavailable in the aftermath of a devastating earthquake. In this paper, first, we construct a simulation model which estimates possibilities and probabilities of commuting, which is composed of a model describing employees' intentions of commuting, and a model describing their physical strength of moving on foot or by bicycle. Next, we attempt to estimate the number of people who would experience the difficulty in commuting, and to discuss the spatial distribution of commuters, which varies according to their detailed attributes, such as sex and occupations. Finally, we evaluate the reduction-rate of people with difficulty in commuting through simulations assuming the restoration works for damaged railroad lines.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics when grasping landscape from view points in real-space. Six view points were examined with an eyemark recorder to investigate the contribution of eye movements of the participants. In the experiment, participants blindfolded themselves with an umbrella except when they grasp landscape at the view points. The results are as follows. Some participants showed initial eye fixation range, and wide-ranging existed. And we have reached the conclusion that eye fixation points and the ranges of eye fixation during grasping landscape in initial stage were influenced by landscape structure.
The purpose of this study is to clarify a part of the process of the spatial cognition by analyzing the relation between the eye fixation behavior and the pedestrian movement. This moving experiment was performed on the street inside 3 arcade of busy quarter in Sendai city. From the experiments, the following can be concluded : 1. The average frequency of the eye fixation per walking time of the resident in Sendai city is more frequent. 2. The eye fixation subject with low degree of the spatial cognition focuses on the facade of building and the subject with high degree of the spatial cognition focuses on the pedestrians. 3. It is extremely difficult for visitors to search the specific shop in the arcade space closed by the floor, wall and ceiling.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the landscape changes that are caused on the re-buildings by dwellers in the townhouse estates in Kobe city. We analyzed 8 estates in new towns in Kobe city, and we carried out the observation of the dweller's re-buildings and made the questionnaires for the dwellers about the motives of the re-buildings and the landscape in estates. The results are as follows: 1) There are many re-buildings in the cases and the amount differs from the development time, dweller's attributes, and the rules by the management associations. 2) The motives of re-buildings are classified in 3 types, as living demands, fabric oldness, design taste. 3) There is assimilate design to the total landscape at the beginning and dissimilate design to the living landscape.
Recently, the potential value of railway stations is attached great importance again in cities. Research on development of integration station with urban area has being carried out. With the decreasing in surrounding shops, the purchasing of daily necessities is becoming more and more inconvenience, as well as the coming of the aging society. The central urban area such as the area around stations declines not only in outer suburbs but also in city centers. The shops of daily necessities and fresh food decrease sharply in shopping street. The railway station gathers commercial and business functions. In order to promote the formation of intensive urban area, the service convenience of station should be enhanced further. Selecting the small-scale railway stations in Fukuoka City as research objects, we studied the distribution situation, annual change of shops and commercial types, as well as their relationship with population and number of users. For promoting the station-central urban renewal and improvement of service convenience, we determined the location characteristics of shops and different commercial types, using the adjoint index of nearest distance. The conclusions of our research are as follows: 1) the number of shops showed a decreasing tendency with the passing of time; 2) the location of shops was closer to agglutination distribution; 3) the characteristic of commercial types distribution showed both gathering and dispersion tendency.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the change in accessibility of the residents to gas stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures damaged by Great East Japan Earthquake, and to evaluate the effect of temporary small gas stations establishment. Road distances between the residents and gas stations were calculated on GIS network analysis. The results shows the disadvantage of areas in deeply indented coastline in terms of accessibility and its degradation after the earthquake, and also shows the effect of the temporary small gas stations establishment.
SLoT Map is the town map that integrates the collective information of snapshots (S), their locations (Lo) and the descriptive texts (T). It is constructed by the two stage procedure: classification of snapshots and locations, and correspondence analysis of words in the texts. The additional information on the classification stabilizes the analysis of sparse matrix peculiar to the text-mined data. By using collective intelligence, SLoT Map method can translate subjective individual impressions into rather an objective comprehensive expression. We demonstrate the efficiency of the procedure by the SLoT Map around Hongo area in Tokyo.
The study aimed to clarify whether paintings which have been painted based on the real view or created scenery. There are two stages involved. First, we have designed 3DCG model based on the view of Pirna city. Second, the outcome has been compared with 3DCG images and the paintings itself. As a result, we come out with two findings. 1) 3DCG model can be used as a reference to view the real situation. 2) Comparison analysis between 3DCG images and paintings which supported by t-test method, shows that five referring paintings used the real view.
In the recent Japan, some statistics and results of investigations which cover plenty of construction companies become available in the form of digital data. This research uses them, and analyzes and understands the overall picture of Japan's construction industry. Especially in this analysis, the Business-Evaluation results (BERs) created and released under the Construction Business Act is used mainly. Since most public purchasers use this evaluation, many of construction companies take it every year. The number of micro data obtained as of March 2012 was 147,152. The contents of data released are corporate profiles, evaluation points, amount of completed works and number of engineers, labor welfare situations, and financial conditions. The coverage of BERs is examined by contrast with the Construction License information or the total value of completed work amount of the Statistics on Construction Undertaken. This analysis is conducted according to prefectures or construction work types. In some construction work types, it turned out that the coverage of BERs is comparatively high. The concentration ratios are calculated on the main construction work types with high value of coverage.
The research results are summarized as follows: 1. The discrimination in housing against foreign residents has decreased in the past 10 years. The main factors are as follows: 1) The number of unoccupied tenements has increased by the depression, so that real estate agents and landlords have gone over to rent tenements to foreigners, 2) If foreigners don't have a guarantee, they have been able to use a rent liability guarantee service. 2. Global financial crisis 2008 brought serious housing problems to Japanese-South American. A lot of people lost their homes. Their housing problem occurred mainly in 2009. 3. In recent years, the counseling cases for needy foreigners have been increasing. In order to solve these cases, it is important for the Kanagawa Housing Support Center for Foreign Residents to cooperate with local governments and other NPOs.
The state of the art of interior finish work, including services, of high-rise condominium buildings is far from being well planned and controlled because of the numerous components/activities and complicated interfacial relationship between them. The authors have attempted to apply the synchronized multi-site scheduling method using the interface matrix (IFM) developed by the authors to deduce possible optimum scheduling solution under fully synchronized condition (100% operating rate). A new method developed and employed in this paper is the further application of IFM to output resource- conflict-free scheduling. Our solution to a sample project shows the possibility of fully modularizing interior finish work while enabling full operating rate within much shorter time.
Once, buildings are completed and started to use, various failures and troubles occur on a daily basis. However, while they have never released and analyzed the data, the basic information for the maintenance plan is insufficient. The purpose of this study is to clarify the maintenance characteristic of hospital facility and give the fundamental information for the maintenance plan. The maintenance records have ever been collected from five hospitals. First, this paper gave an outline of the collect data and the way to adjust it for detail analysis. Next, the employment systems of the maintenance workers in each hospital were shown and were compared with the office building one. Based on all equipment data, the maintenance characteristic of hospital facility was brought out from the total view point. And the feature of the failures and troubles were shown by the analysis on the architectural medical items which are most unique of all.
Japanese architectural reference books "KIWARI-SHO" are known as the method of architectural design for Japanese traditional architecture used by the rules of proportional relationship and module. In this design technique, there is the inevitable problem that one model is not application to various scales of architecture. This paper traces the contents of "KIWARI-SHO" from this point of view, in order to understand its method for various scale of architecture.
This study aims at revealing the name, directions and its changes of the Tenjo-no-ma. The results show mainly the following points. 1. It's recognized that Tenjo-no-ma is the space where respected to the user's status and the rule of the Tenjo-no-ma's spatial order, the establishment of manners and directions are also the characteristics of the Tenjo-no-ma. 2. During the Emperor Uda and Murakami's era, the Emperor sometimes appeared on the Tenjo-no-ma with tenjobito. The Emperor Enyu hadn't appeared on the Tenjo-no-ma, and the Tenjo-no-ma's directions had been changed in this period. 3. Since the Emperor Uda's era, the waiting place in Imperial Palace for tenjobito, which was called Saburaidokoro by the Emperor, and Saburaidokoro, Saburai, Tenjo-no-saburai and Tenjo by the senior officers, assumed to follow the name process as Saburai, Saburaidokoro → Tenjo-no-saburai → Tenjo → Tenjo-no-ma.
Bracket sets were important parts of Chinese wooden architecture. After the Song Dynasty, there was no difference between the appearances of bracket sets. However, before the Song Dynasty there were obvious differences not only between pillar-top. bracket sets and interior bracket sets, but also among interior bracket sets depending on their position, especially in Liao and Jin architectures. By researching the development of bracket sets structures, various interior bracket sets of Liao and Jin architectures could be explained.
This study, focusing on the urban space of the old Beijing city which is a legacy of the pre-modern period, deals with the development of its modern commercial district and historical evolution of town houses. The results are as follows. The commercial district reflected the social background and urban structure of the pre-modern period, and the evolution of the town houses reflected the land use and site conditions of the commercial district. This evolution could be seen in their facades and spatial compositions. For example, there were Chinese Baroque and Art deco style facades. With regards to spatial composition, multi-storey buildings, atriums, and staircases for each story were used to ensure effective use of the land. By applying these three construction methods, new commercial facilities were also constructed.
Bernini's architectural theory is generally regarded as stale and incompatible with his practice. But if we take its context into account, the meaning of his words will become clear. For example, he utilized the architectural anthropomorphism to oust the architects with no experience of fine art. this time, Le Vau, especially. When we review the key concepts of his theory, contrapposto, greatness, etc. likewise, they all will turn out to support this thesis: Bernini, who can produce the design based on the Bible and Vitruvius with practical knowledge of the ancient art, should design the Louvre palace.
Concerning the thought of Erich Mendelsohn around the time when Einstein Tower, the masterpiece of Expressionism, was designed, the records of lectures and the personal letters etc. were analyzed in comparison to the visionary architectural sketches, and the theoretical base for the formation with curved surface was examined. As a result, it is clarified that there was a structure of synthesis based upon the dualism, namely, the pursuit of the monolithic unification by means of curved surface and the pursuit of the technological rationalism under the influence of the works by H. van de Velde and W. Gropius.
This paper has examined the sketches by Erich Mendelsohn for the Einstein Tower, classified them by formal features and performed the formal analysis of them. It has clarified various features from the analysis of the podium the expression of the continuation to the ground, from that of the tower the contrast between verticality and horizontality, and from that of the main body the rhythmic expression of masses and the delicate expression of lighted surface. And also characteristic aspects of his design method concerning symmetry, two-point perspective, effect of light on curved surface and linear expression were discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to show the sequence from Gottfried Semper's theory of dressing to Konrad Fiedler's theory of pure visibility. The following are the results of this study. Being guided by Semper, Fiedler grasped for the first time the idea of "purification of form by self-denial of material elements" as a whole which is core concept of the theory of pure visibility. Semper's theory of dressing had potentially the basis of Fiedler's theory understanding the artistic activity as intuitive cognition and the moment triggering visual activity treated in the theory of pure visibility.
The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive vision of architectural academism through the network analysis of architectural studies based on “KAKEN”, the database of the Grants-in-Aid for scientific research in Japan. 4224 researchers are derived from 8062 research projects since 1972, and 6863 edges are identified from their research cooperation. Then, the research community is configured as a complex network. The network is examined from the view of three properties, i.e., scale-free, cluster cohesion, and small-world. Consequently it is confirmed that the formation of the academic community is subjected by “preferential attachment”. All keywords registered to the research projects are also extracted, and the academic interests of the traditional research fields are reviewed. Finally, to break these traditional categories, the whole network is divided into the 43 clusters by the Newman fast greedy clustering method, and the practical research communities are characterized by assigning their keywords.