The zoo plays a key role in preserving biodiversity through species conservation by breeding rare animals. Hence, it is important to maintain facilities that encourage reproduction. Although tower facilities for arboreal apes (e.g., chimpanzees, orangutans) are being introduced in many of Japan's zoos with the aim of promoting environmental enrichment, few studies on tower facilities exist that consider arboreal locomotion, which plays an important role in animal behavior. In this research, we analyzed the chimpanzee tower at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo by breaking it down into its components (e.g., columns, beams, pier, deck, pipe, rope, etc.), according to their form and materials, and conducting a behavioral survey of the elements used by the animals for arboreal behavior. We measured the number of combinations of elements used in arboreal locomotion and elucidated the flow lines of the animals on the tower. As a result, we found the following six matters concerning the use of these spaces by chimpanzees for arboreal locomotion. 1. The combination of upper and lower deck along with their handrails is used as the base point of action when the distance between the top and bottom is within a 1.3 m range of body height. 2. The pier is used more frequently in a combination of elements than as an element in itself and is highly important as a flow line. The ladder-like pier inclined from the ground is excellent in terms of safety as it provides stable support for the trunk as well as the facility for grasping. Furthermore, the inclined form makes it possible labor-saving up and down movement. Thus, economy of movement is achieved and its utilization as a major flow line was found to be high. 3. On the deck which is often used as the base point of motion, vertical members are avoided when going down as they can be dangerous. If composite materials such as a pier, which is long and offers grip, are placed so as to intersect the deck diagonally, these may be regularly used as flow lines. 4. There is a strong positive correlation between the number of flow lines connecting to the deck and the frequency of its use. Places with several options for movement directions are preferred both for postural behavior and arboreal locomotion. 5. The lowest deck, which may be overlooked by those who do not belong with the crowd ( spectators, in the case of a zoo ), is used as a traveling route, but seldom as a place to stay for a long time. 6. While adult animals have the widest range of actions, the younger ones use more varied kinds and combinations of elements, exhibit more types of behavior, and have a greater variety of actions. It is these young ones who can best demonstrate the effectiveness of the tower as a spectator attraction. Based on the information above, we formed the following three recommendations for creating tower structures that encourage arboreal locomotion that is similar to the natural behavior of animals. 1. Place decks that serve as base points for motion at locations that are higher than the spectators. Install decks in sets with one on top and on the bottom (the separation should be within the range of the body height of the animal) along with structures that can be gripped, such as handrails. 2. Arrange several composite materials (ladder-shaped piers and truss beams) inclined from the ground so that they intersect with the decks. 3. Avoid creating dead-ends, and connect decks with beams and piers in a polygonal shape to ensure navigability within the upper part of the tower.
In Japan today, the decline in birth rate and aging of society are accelerating due to the effects of the recession. The decline in population is considered a serious issue. As the decline in birth rate and aging of society accelerates, the working age population decreases, and the production capacity of Japan is expected to fall greatly. Therefore, to prevent the reduction in production capacity due to the continuously declining labor force, it is necessary to increase individuals' production capacity.
The purpose of this study is to study color and space size as environmental elements that make up a space to determine desirable environmental design that support individuals' mental activities. In this study, to obtain more detailed results from the evaluation of impressions, kansei (emotional sensitivity) semantic differential of direct feelings is used. Also, near-infrared spectroscopy as a neuroscience technique is used to investigate the effects of different combinations of color and space size on brain activity. We clarify the physical environmental design that promotes mental activities. We also clarify what colors and space size stimulate individuals' mental activities.
In the experiment, 50 university students performed a mental activity, such as circulations for 15 minutes while wearing a wearable optical topography device in small white, large white, small yellow and large yellow booths. The study also carried out a questionnaire survey before and after the start of the mental activity in order to understand the subject`s condition and impression.
In this study, cerebral blood flow during information-processing mental activities, a method of measuring brain activity, was measured with a cerebral blood flow measurement device. An impression evaluation survey was also carried out using kansei semantic differential. Also carried out were surveys on subjects' state of fatigue and state of mood. By combining analysis of information-processing in the brain and subjective evaluation, the following results were obtained. (1) The two types of booths—large and small—used in the experiment, in the area of information-processing bigger booth size tended to improve the correct answer rate of the calculation problem. (2) It is possible that the combination of color and space affects information-processing mental activities. (3) It is possible that space size affects physiological conditions before and after information-processing mental activities. (4) The adjectives common to yellow booths and large booths, may affect improving information-processing mental activities. (5) It is possible that simulation of brain activity has an effect on the correct answer rate and reaction speed.
In the future, we believe it is necessary to increase the number of patterns for both color and size of space to elucidate the environmental elements that most improve information-processing mental activities, as well as consider the shape of spaces. Going forward, there is the need to study mental activities by increasing the time for tackling calculation problems and study what kinds of environment most improve information-processing mental activities for each work time period.
This is an analysis on common passages of Seoul Gangnam Housing A3 block, where residents put their personal goods freely. Through a survey on each common passage, we try to find out what kind of situation provokes this situation. As Gangnam Housing A3 block has an enough number of units for statistical analysis and its design has both unity and diversity, it is suitable for analysis. And what is more, as this housing puts more emphasis on cultivating community than securing privacy, it can be a good example for us to find a key to design a common passage of collective housing as a communal street where various kinds of activities can be seen. First of all, we draw a “spilling-outs area map” defined by personal goods in common passages, and check what kind of building conditions have effects on appearance of spilling-outs using decision tree methods. In this analysis we picked up these 6 conditions: direction, traffics of residents, cluster, alcove, balcony, and size of units. At the same time we clarified spilling-outs area into these three patterns according to its plotting type: only alcove side (only Al+Pa), only balcony side (only Ba+Pb), both alcove side and balcony side (ALL), and drew decision tree in a same way. From these decision trees we found that spilling-outs area is likely seen in a place which has redundant space, especially where the passage is facing to the South. What's more, we focused on a difference between balcony and alcove and found that balconies likely provoke spilling-outs area not only in its surrounds but also in alcove side but that alcoves provoke only in its surrounds and sometimes deprive from balcony side. Second, we calculated partial correlation of existence ratio of spilling-outs area and its distribution type with those six building conditions. Here we also got a conclusion that South facing passages, alcoves and balconies are positively related to appearance of spilling-outs area and traffics have negative relation, and alcoves have a negative relation with appearance of spilling-outs area at balcony area. Third, we checked correlation of doors' conditions, open or close, with the building conditions and the plotting type of spilling-outs area and found that a unit which has spilling-outs area in both side most likely has its door open and the only-alcove-side type unlikely lets a door open. Considering this point with the positive relation with traffics, only-alcove-side type seems to be a kind of buffers which isolate units from a common passage and its meaning is different from both-side type, which can be regarded as an extension of a unit, or only-balcony-side type, which is more like a garden of a unit. Through these analyses we found a possibility that not alcove but balcony, especially south-facing balcony, in a common passage can be a key to make a common passage as attractive as traditional street.
This research aims to develop the logical process by which local governments can promote the consolidation and reorganization of public housing estates while fulfilling accountability. Therefore, this research developed the evaluation method based on the PDCA cycle using in the policy evaluation of local governments. 1) For the preliminary evaluation method at the planning stage, this research developed the method by which local governments can quantitatively evaluate the improvement effect of the convenience in everyday life and the reduction effect of the environmental load on future unspecified large number of households. Local governments can objectively select targeted housing estates, such as housing estates to be consolidated and housing estates to be abolished. 2) For the ex post evaluation method after completion, this research developed the method by which local governments can quantitatively evaluate the improvement effect of the convenience in everyday life and the environmental load reduction effect on actual occupied households of the housing estates to be consolidated. 1. The development of preliminary evaluation method Travel distances in four basic living behaviors, such as commuting, shopping, parenting and attending school, were set as evaluation indicators. For each evaluation indicator and for each housing estate, all housing estates were compared on the basis of estimating the travel distance and converting the travel distance into opportunity cost, travel expenses and CO2 emissions. 1) In all evaluation indicators, the numerical values of each housing estate are dispersed, and there are clear differences between housing estates. 2) There are large differences in standard deviations for each evaluation indicator, and the commuting distance is the largest. 3) In order to reduce opportunity costs and CO2 emissions, shortening commuting distance is most effective, and when selecting the target housing estate for consolidation and reorganization, the rationality to prioritize commuting convenience was confirmed. 2. The development of ex post evaluation method In order to verify whether the housing estate to be consolidated is expressing the expected effect of reducing opportunity cost etc. after completion, eight kinds of evaluation indicators including hospital, administration, community and junior high school are selected. Then, based on numerical values obtained by measuring the travel distance of the household member who actually moved into and converting the travel distance into opportunity cost etc. for each evaluation indicator, changes per person before and after moving into were calculated and the degree of influence of the evaluation indicators were compared and the effect of development of the housing estate to be consolidated was verified in total. 1) In the comparison of the influence degree of the evaluation indicators, it was confirmed that the commuting distance is most effective for decreasing opportunity cost etc. as predicted in the preliminary evaluation. 2) Regarding the evaluation indicators other than the commuting distance, there are some cases in which the opportunity cost etc. increased or decreased, but it was confirmed that the project effect was totally achieved. 3) By comparing the estimated value of commuting distance in the preliminary evaluation with the measured value in the ex-post evaluation, the accuracy of the estimated value was confirmed.
Brooklyn Navy Yard (BNY) is a rare example of adaptively reuse of historic industrial site into urban manufacturing enclave, unlike repurposing it for residential or commercial uses. In my previous research (Morokuma et al. 2016), by using BNY as a case study, the background and measures of revitalization of the old shipyard as manufacturing hub was revealed. Despite the relatively low interest in preservation on the operator's side, authenticity of the historic resources has been maintained to some extent due to the frequent involvement of the New York State Historic Preservation Office (NY SHPO). In this paper, by using the same case, SHPO's involvement is extensively studied to analyze the roles and effect of its review system based on National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). In the existing Japanese literatures on the U.S. preservation system, the general roles and review system as well as its National Register have been studied, however, actual use and effects of reviews through the case studies have not been fully explored. Additionally, the use of preservation covenant in transfer of nationally owned land was applied to the BNY, but this preservation tool has not been researched in the academic field, even in the U.S. The research method is the interviews to the SHPO and operator of BNY (BNYDC) as well as the preservation experts in NYC, and analysis of the applications and correspondences between SHPO and BNYDC. In BNY, the covenant was applied to a partial land and introduced as mitigation to ensure preservation of historic resources in the future redevelopment by having BNYDC gain permit from SHPO whenever they touch on the historic resources, which increases the level of SHPO's involvement compared with the regular review. The process and outcome of the review triggered by covenant and those of regular reviews by SHPO are similar, but the use of covenant over NAVSTA site virtually led the BNYDC to pursue pro-preservation redevelopment approach unlike the Admirals Row site. This study revealed that within BNY there were twelve redevelopment projects which were realized through rehabilitation or demolition of the historic resources and most of them were reviewed by SHPO due to BNYDC's reliance on state and federal funding in addition to the covenant. Lack of finance of BNYDC caused this reliance on public grants, which triggered SHPO's frequent reviews. Even though SHPO did not necessarily succeed in preserving all resources, it succeeded in identifying the underrepresented historic resources, proving the significance of BNY as a historic district by taking advantage of series of reviews, and led BNYDC to register BNY to make its significance more official. In conclusion, although SHPO's regulatory power over historic resources is relatively weak compared with that of municipal governments, it is still quite effective in the recognition of underrepresented historic places like BNY through the series of reviews triggered by public funding and covenant. At the same time, having SHPO involved in BNY was quite important in raising awareness to historic resources and safeguarding them to some extent, as the city's preservation authority was not interested in protecting BNY as a historic district due to the political reason or lack of constituencies. The benefits of covenant such as facilitating pro-preservation redevelopment, giving oversight to all potential historic resources, and mandating new owners to maintain them during interim period, in exchange of transfer of public properties were recognized in the case of the BNY.
According to the technical advice from the government of Japan, continuous walking distance tends to range from 500 m to 700 m and the distance tends to be shortened as people get older. In the literature, it was found that (1) 65% of elderly persons are satisfied if the interval between resting places is shorter than 100 m; and (2) 70% of elderly persons are satisfied if its interval is shorter than 50 m. In particular, when walking around Tokyo central station and Otemachi station, continuous walking distance is more than 100 m. Although continuous walking distance tends to be longer than 100 m, a sufficient number of resting places is not provided. To make urban space more walkable for elderly persons, continuous walking distance needs to be decreased by increasing the number of resting places. However, the relationship between the continuous walking distance distribution and the density of resting places has not been sufficiently theoretically investigated. In this article, we investigated the aforementioned relationship with the application of the nearest neighbour distance distribution. Based on this theoretical model, we evaluated the number of resting places in order to improve continuous walking distribution. As the empirical study area, Tokyo central station and Otemachi station and their surroundings were selected. It was found that (1) the number of benches is 81 (67 (on the ground), 14 (under the ground)); (2) the number of resting places is 97 if flower beds are used as resting places; (3) the probability that the nearest distance between locations of benches is longer than 100 m is 0.28; (4) if flower beds are used as resting places, then its probability is 0.14; and (5) if its probability is to be close to 0, the number of additional resting places would be increased to 194 which is approximately 3 times larger than the present number. Based on these theoretical investigations, we proposed the following practical ways rather than increasing the number of benches per se. First, flower beds are improved such that their edges have the appropriate width to provide resting places. Second, stairs are improved to provide resting places. In particular, on the eastern side of Tokyo station at Yaesu gate, the number of resting places needs to be drastically increased. Improvement of stairs is a practical way because stairs are already used as resting places. Third, a practical way would be to provide resting places that are not for sitting.
This study aims to find out care points of greening plan in re use plan of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma. Research methods were observed daily spring water flows, multiple regression analysis, analyzed out and in flow characters of each spring waters, and then assuming the subsurface structure. At first, by using observed daily value of each spring waters (total 489 times), we developed estimation formulas, which described as form of multiple regression analysis formulas, of daily spring waters and cumulative total value of short & long term precipitation. The results were that these adjusted R2 of estimation formulas are from 0.51 to 0.77, these mean that formulas could give explanations of existing circumstances. These estimation formulas are called response models in hydrology which explains interconnection of amounts precipitation and spring waters. On Second, we analyzed out and in flow characters of each spring waters by response models. The results of this step, we got 3 types (subdivided in 4types) of out and in flow characters of each spring waters. Type I is spring waters which explain by constant term mainly. It means that these spring waters gush out stably and constantly, and so, it assumed these spring waters flow out from one depthless and broad tank. (Fig. 6, spring water(3)(6)(9)) Type II is spring waters which explain by influence of long term precipitation mainly. It means that these spring waters flow around from 1to 3 months behind precipitation, like very long and slow pace rivers. So we assumed these spring waters come from small surface area tank or the come from thick Ryukyu lime stones layer(Fig. 8, spring water:(11)(13)). Mixture type I and IIis spring water (8). This spring water has both character of I and II. Type III is spring water influenced by short term precipitation. It means that the spring water flows out comparatively soon after rainfall, within few days. So we assumed the spring water is connected with cave and it works like a underground river.(Fig. 9, spring water:(7)) Considering our all results, we proposed and discussed to local government and land owners about the point of greening plan in reuse plan of Futenma. 1) Greening plan which located type I, Mixture Type I and II, and watershed C and D should be care for quantitative approach. Because these springs are assumed to be shared a depthless and broad underground tank, every precipitation will be penetrating and finally reach same water basin. So, the point of greening area is not a location but the enough quantity for recharging amounts of spring waters. (Fig. 14 enough quantity greening in the same water basin, watershed C and D, type I) 2) Greening plan which located above the underground water vein, like type II and watershed D and E should be care for on-site approach. Because these springs are assumed be pooling precipitation in the gryke of Ryukyu lime stone layer, if the surface of this site be covered by buildings or be paved, it will be directory influenced to recharge spring water. (Fig. 14 on-site greening above the underground water vain, watershed D and E, type II) Conclusion of our proposal-based research is that our proposals were adopted in the official reuse planning as a policy in March 2017. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K06714.
In this research, we focus on the actual conditions of the inhabitant parking spaces and the parking spaces for tourists in the Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings (IPDGIB), how these parking conditions developed overtime in the historical city area and in the history of land use. We use Makabe town, where the density of historic buildings is low, as a case study.
We carried out field investigation for the research, we found a setting pattern of large parking spaces for tourists, and the parking spaces for residents were counted. With the help of the house register, we clarified the characteristics of the appearance of the parking spaces.
As a result, both the residents 'and the tourist's in Makabe town are captured inside the IPDGIB, recording changes to the historical townscape. In addition, the parking space occupies 16% of the area we surveyed. Looking at the existence situation of the parking spaces, in the residential areas parking can be in front of the building, a large number of parking spaces are dispersed in the historic urban space of Makabe town. On the other hand, parking spaces were provided at vacant lot for both residents and tourists to park for a monthly fee. It was confirmed by the state of the site in Meiji 35, the traditional industry declined with the modernization (brewing industry), or the building which became unnecessary by the change of society was demolished (Jinya, public building), vacant lot and it turned out that the space was diverted to a large parking space.
When considering the relationship of Makabe town and IPDGIB System, as a result of selecting the district, the buildings that became a specific property are preserved, but the other buildings are demolished and become useful parking spaces. In other words, the system can not prevent that to happen. Efforts toward preservation at the mural wall is relatively late, and it is in the background that it was selected as the IPDGIB since the appearance of the parking spaces advanced. In particular, having both residents and tourist parking spaces held inside is a fact that should be consulted carefully for other historical urban areas where no preservation measures have yet been taken. In the future, while promoting utilization of historical buildings, devise a method of reconstructing and shielding the site already vacant, refining the installation method of the parking space in consideration of the history of the historic city, it is required attention.
The process of planning a university campus is expected to be open to all as a regional spatial resource because regional revitalization and regional creation are urgent issues in Japan. It has been argued that a university campus is an important spatial resource in a region. An “Opened Spatial Posture” is an important physical space in a campus as a point of contact with the surrounding area to enable the university to help solve regional problems by talking with people from these areas and working together with them. However, the planning of an open space in a campus is different from planning buildings, which are directly linked to educational research. A society may have many kinds of needs, and thus, it is difficult to arrive at a consensus and create a budget when planning the open spaces of the campus. Furthermore, it is thought that national universities take time to make decisions because of the characteristics of their governance and legal constraints. The aim of this study was to clarify two points, namely, the factors to enable the projects in relation to the campus master plan (CMP), and the contribution and effects of dialogue with local stakeholders to the projects. The target was Toyonaka Campus of Osaka University where the improvement projects of three approaching open spaces were conducted in cooperation with diverse entities. In the university, they exchanged views of the campuses with five city governments and explained the thinking of the whole campus with CMP, not as concrete projects. They also exchanged opinions of the “Framework-plan for greenery design and maintenance” (GFWP), which they formulated as a guideline for CMP for several administrations. Accordingly, the three cases cited in this article were realized. This exchange of opinions was conducted by the faculty organization, referred to as “Campus Design Laboratory”, which played a central role in formulating CMP and GFWP in collaboration with the Facility Department. Through these opinions, they discovered the existence of regional organizations, the issues and demands of these organizations, and the possibility to obtain subsidies for administration. Thus, it was possible for the plan to be materialized as a university. They were able to exchange concrete opinions with these organizations and the student faculty staff on the improvement. This resulted in consensus building and budgeting within the university, the cooperation of the administration, subsidies, donations, acquisition of prizes, and voluntary maintenance activities in conjunction with local organizations. In addition, the administration has improved the pond under the jurisdiction of the administration of the university and the road which faces the campus. I can conclude that this collaborative improvement beyond the site boundary is based on three factors, 1) matching and harmonizing designs and plans, 2) avoiding topographical constraints, and 3) the immense regional and administrative needs. Campus planning and a university seems to be still closed like a black box from neighboring societies in Japan. These methods will be useful to design open spaces in university campuses. Because these methods succeeded at national universities where it is difficult to arrive at a consensus, it would be easier to realize these methods in a private school.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, the housing lease program for disaster victims provided over 60, 000 privately rented houses as temporary housing for households displaced by the disaster. The number of rented houses exceeded the number of newly constructed prefabricated temporary dwellings. Victims in the damaged area who wanted to use this housing lease program tried to occupy rental houses near the area or in the municipalities where they had lived. But available housing was acquired very quickly in the damaged areas, and there were few rental homes in tsunami-damaged coastal regions. Those victims who could not acquire local accommodation had to move from their original location to other municipalities where they could find rental properties. Such transfer of residences will have an effect on the number of locations where permanent homes will be rebuilt. If disaster reconstruction projects in a damaged area are delayed, those victims who cannot wait for reconstruction projects to be completed in their hometown should begin rebuilding their new houses near the site of their rental houses. Alternatively, households that become familiar with the area around their temporary houses should decide to stay in that area or municipality. Thus, the number of affected households who intend to return their original municipalities will decrease. This study used approximately 20,000 cases of lease termination six years after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture in order to analyze the actual condition of population movement between municipalities when victims moved into leased houses and the influence of movement between municipalities on the number of places where houses were rebuilt. The analysis produced the following results. (1) Approximately 70% of households could acquire leased houses in their original municipalities. Thirty percent of households moved to other municipalities bigger than their original municipalities or to less-damaged municipalities. (2) Sixty percent of households that moved to other municipalities under this lease program have not returned to their original municipalities; they established their new permanent residences in the municipalities where leased houses were located. (3) In the case of households moving from their original municipalities through this lease program, households who owned their houses before the disaster tended to return to their original municipalities and built new owned houses. But if they did not reconstruct new homes, they selected rental houses in the municipalities where leased houses were located. The results of this analysis reveal that it is likely that this housing lease program will encourage changes in residential movement after a disaster, especially the movement from small towns in rural areas to large cities. In the future, this situation should be taken into account in the implementation of the housing lease program for the provision of temporary housing after large-scale disasters.
Hayakawa residence is a rural mansion, which is a preeminent modern Japanese-style house in Gifu prefecture. Most heads of rural mansions had interaction with entrepreneur and major merchants. They were highly sophisticated, intellectual and also tea ceremony masters. Furthermore, before architects gained its profession, the heads of the family, which had deep insight and intuition for architecture mainly planned and designed the residences, rather than the carpenters. There are many historical materials preserved at Hayakawa residence. In detail, they describe the role of the head, when constructing residences. Also, many buildings of Hayakawa residence were severely damaged by the Nobi Earthquake that took place in 1981 and was reconstructed immediately after the Earthquake. The following details of the seismic countermeasure taken place whilst the reconstruction can be identified: 1) The ground water level is 2.4m below the current ground level. 40 holes were dug at ground water level. In each hole, 9 to 10 pine pillars were placed for the foundation. The pillars' diameter is 15cm and is about 3m long. 2) Concerned of the thin pillars at the formal Japanese room weakened by the penetrating tie beam, the master carpenter's suggested binding the pillars and the penetrating tie beam with round iron bolts. 3) A round timber called "Jishinbari" was put together in a cross above the ceiling as a brace. 4) Besides "Tokobashira" pillars' sizes are all over 15cm squared. 5) A specific joint is used at the foundation, where it cannot be seen from the outside, to prevent it from sliding. 6) The main Carpenter gave and advice on whether the number of braces is enough or not. 7) Penetrating tie beams are all plugged to the pillars. 8) The pivot used at pillars alternatively reaches to the base. 9) The beams were not patched, using one timber. 10) In addition to the seismic countermeasures that can be verified by the historical materials, which are listed above, it can be seen in the remaining buildings that an angle beam is inserted at the corner of the girder and the roof boards are attached diagonally. Since Last of Edo and Meiji Era, along with the modernization of architecture in our country, traditional timber construction has also changed and innovated in modernization. Especially from the repeated seismic disaster after the Nobi Earthquake in 1891, seismic countermeasures have evolved through architects with the degree. They pointed out the weakness of the traditional construction and devised a resolution plan. As one of the first examples, "A Document on seismic countermeasure of timber structure residences" was published by the Investigation Committee for earthquake disaster prevention, which was established in June 1892, after a year from Nobi Earthquake, to use it as a guideline at Yamagata Prefecture, Sakata area's reconstruction residence's structure. In addition, Tamekichi Ito insisted the necessity of braces and foundation, as well as devising fixed hardware and showed an example of how to use them in the thesis he publicized at “Journal of Architecture and Building Science”. He devised that there are four defects in the traditional wooden frame construction: 1.The weight of the roof is too heavy. 2. The pillars are isolated. 3. The structures are being cut for joints and elongating. 4. The binding done by penetrating tie beam and wedges are only temporary. Under these circumstances after Nobi Earthquake, Shuzo Hayakawa analyzed the seismic damage by himself, and when at reconstruction, he introduced construction method of foundation and wooden frame structure as a countermeasure for the earthquake. His pioneering acts are admirable.
The author has considered the "THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891." (hereinafter referred to as GEJ) compiled by W. K. Burton and J. Milne and others at the Nobi Earthquake that occurred on October 28, 1891., and showed that the date of publication of the first edition and the second edition of this book, and 25 sheets of disaster area photographs were taken by Burton. By the way, among the photos of the GEJ collection, there are some of the four photos taken at Neo valley where specific photography spots were not considered. Meanwhile, Barton shot 72 pictures in the disaster area, but there were 25 photos taken to GEJ, and there were possibilities that there were phots taken in the Neo valley in 47 unfilled pieces. Therefore this article showed the photos which were not put in GEJ although Burton photographed in Neo valley. The photos which Burton shot in the Nobi earthquake stricken area of Neo valley of the GEJ collection are four pieces of first edition PLATE XVIII. (Photo (1)), first edition PLATE XIX. (Photo (2)), first edition PLATE XX. (Photo (3)) and first edition PLATE XXI. (Photo (4)). After the Nobi earthquake, Burton reflected and explained the filmslides in the Japan Federation of Engineering Societies held on November 25, 1891, he reflected the photograph which was not unfilled in GEJ, and “one fell, and the other was the amount of 20 feet" here (Photo (5)). There is the photograph which has titled “Gihukenka-Neodani-zinka-no-zu” (Photo (6)), possessed at the Imperial Household Agency and without the second use, and this photograph is regarded as shot by Burton. Photo (1) was shot the Danto bridge, Photo (2) was shot the Takao bridge, Photo (3) was shot the afflicted houses beside the Adati shrine, Photo (4) was shot the Neo river. Photo (5) was shot the fault caused by the Nobi earthquake at Midori. The shooting location of Photo (6) is unknown.
This paper aims to clarify the transition and the characteristics of the landscape design by Kenzo Tange in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park through investigation of the drawings and the descriptions of the park published in magazines and collections of his works, and the historical materials owned by the Hiroshima City Archives. Tange's plan, proposed in the architectural design competition held in 1949, is very famous for the idea that the principle axis oriented north and south through the park crosses at right angles with the axis oriented east and west along Peace Boulevard. Both the Peace Arch and the piloti of the Peace Memorial Museum open onto the north-south axis and divide the expanse from the Peace Boulevard to the Atomic Bomb Dome into 3 parts (forecourt, the Peace Square, and the area of memorial trees). The A-Bomb Dome appears as the focal point in the view along the axis. The creation of monumentality with an invisible axis not depending on massive objects in the park is esteemed as his original and excellent design. His design work continued from 1949 to 1955 when the construction had finished, and in the 1970's he proposed a new plan to solve problems which had been caused by postwar shortages in the supply of construction materials. We examined the proposals he made in each period, focusing on the treatment of the principal axis and how the park was designed to both commemorate the victims of atomic bomb and promote peace. His plan, drawn in 1949, included a detailed landscape design. The Peace Square was covered with turf and the memorial trees, planted in a grid, were pruned cypresses. The central hourglass shaped stretch was flanked by evergreen trees on the eastern and western parts of the stretch. There were also several paths lined with deciduous trees or pine trees along the river. The original plan for the Memorial Arch was cancelled and the Memorial Cenotaph designed by Tange was aligned to frame the A-Bomb Dome in 1952. The plan drawn in 1952 shows long and narrow flowerbeds on the principal axis in the northern part. Tange's original plan for a grid of memorial cypress trees was not realized when the planting was eventually carried out. In the 1960's the Peace Flame and the Peace Pond were aligned on the axis to the north of the cenotaph. In the 1970's, Tange proposed some ideas to improve the park. The primary idea was to pave the whole hourglass stretch with stones to show the atomic bombed town map as it had been at the time of the bombing. He also presented the idea to extend the Peace Pond to the river. Regarding the principal axis, we clarified that the concept of the invisible axis became obscure when the cenotaph was built. The concept in his 1970's proposal indicated that the initial idea of an invisible axis was realized in southern part of the park and on the other hand the visible axis was distinctly shown as the extended Peace Pond. Regarding the function of the park to promote peace, we clarified that the original plan called for different purposes for the northern and southern parts of the park: The northern part was to commemorate the victims whereas the southern part would promote peace, but these separated functions overlapped in an unrealized redesign proposal which would have put markers indicating property boundaries of the obliterated buildings that had previously stood in the center of the park, and also in the view from the cenotaph.
No formula or mathematical relationship is said to form the basic for the proportions of Mies's Farnsworth House. However Golden Rectangles form the interior spaces. Furthermore a double- square forms the basic proportions of the preliminary plan. Mies's order, “the successful relationship,” in the plans of the Farnsworth House is achieved by various geometrical relationships.
This paper aims to illustrate the framework of analogical thoughts on large span buildings by contemporary Japanese architects. In the design of large span buildings, architect sometimes get the inspiration by comparing the building to other thing. This analogical thought is one of the way of architects' conception approach of design, and it can be read from analogical expressions represented on the design theories of large span buildings. Firstly, we extracted the reference object, to which is compared large span building in analogical expression. They were classified into two categories showed in Table1 (Natural object, Artificial object). We also examined what kinds of aspect were refered from these objects, they were classified into two categories showed in Fig. 2 (Visual aspect, Semantic aspect). Visual aspect is focusing on their visual character, and it was divided further; the shape of the object and the scene with the object. Semantic aspect is focusing on the impression of the object. We found that Visual aspect had larger numbers than the other, Secondly, architects' intention of analogical expression was extracted from the articles and analyzed by the “KJ - method” (originated by KAWAKITA Jiro). We found four categories of architects’ intention; [Response to building surroundings], [Represent regionality], [Clarify the mechanism of the building], [Create the spatial character](Fig. 3). [Response to building surroundings] and [Represent regionality] are about the relationship between building and environment. [Clarify the mechanism of the building] and [Create the spatial character] are about the building itself. Additionally, we considered the area of the building where these intentions direct to; inside, outside, both inside and outside, then we found [Clarify the mechanism of the building] was more related to various areas. Finally, the relationship between the reference aspect and the intention of analogical expression were examined totally (Fig. 4). There were strong relations between [Response to building surroundings] and Visual aspect with the shape of the object, and [Represent regionality] and [Clarify the mechanism of the building] had similar tendency. Only [Response to building surroundings] was also related to Visual aspect with the scene with the object. [Create the spatial character] had unique tendency, it was related to Semantic aspect. As a result, we clearly showed the analogical thoughts by architects as the following. When they represent regionality, they design the building sympathized with the regional civilizations, using the analogy with the shape of the building rooted in the area, and when they respond to the surroundings of the building, they harmonize the building shape with the existing landscape, using the analogy with the shape of the natural object, while they represent the new landscape participated the building, using the analogy with the scene with the artificial object. In addition, when they thought about the building itself, they clarify the mechanism of the building, using the analogy of the shape of a living thing or the artificial object, while they create the spatial character of the building, using the analogy with the impression of the artificial object.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the actual state of the building evacuation in Sendai and relationship between the building evacuation and preceding plans (urban planning, air defense urban planning). At the end of WWII, the building evacuation was implemented in many Japanese cities in order to reduce the damage of the air raid. At first, Japanese government executed it in big cities: Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, etc. However, in 1945, as the air raids intensified, the government began carrying it out in provincial cities. Under these circumstances, the building evacuation in Sendai was planned and carried out three times from June 1945. At the beginning, Miyagi Prefecture and Sendai City planned the building evacuation in order to protect the urban functions necessary for warfare, having the long-term outlook. However, after Sendai Air Raid, it changed into a temporary plan aimed to mitigate damage at the next air raid. The building evacuation areas in Sendai, mainly in the city center, coincided in many points with the preceding plans (urban planning, air defense urban planning). Behind this accord, the government (Home Ministry, Air Defense Headquarter) had planned the building evacuation, relating it to urban planning. Furthermore, in Sendai, the urban planning in the city center was not carried out. It may also be related to that accord. Thus the designation of building evacuation areas was strongly affected by preceding plans and it seems that intention of implementing urban planning by using the building evacuation worked.
In Japan, these days, social demand for the preservation and reuse of station buildings is growing. There are even examples of entire railway lines being registered as a network of cultural properties that includes station buildings and other related facilities as well, an approach that applies to advantage the character of a railway line. Meanwhile, registering station buildings as tangible cultural properties is also viewed as a regional opportunity. Expectations are high that more of these station buildings able to become symbols and tourism resources that contribute to regional activation will be preserved and conserved, for the sake of Japan's regional vitalization, hereafter. Amid this social environment, this study specifically examines station buildings registered as tangible cultural properties throughout Japan. By looking at both station buildings still operating as stations and former stations which have been given new roles, it endeavors to clarify the architectural concepts of the stations when first built and their current conditions, and to contribute thereby to the preservation and reuse of stations in our country. This paper (1) reveals the current situation of railway stations registered as tangible cultural properties and studies the preservation and conservation of stations in the context of the entire railway line. First, I make clear the present overall picture of nationwide station buildings registered as tangible cultural properties—60 still in operation as stations and 16 closed and being used in new ways. I present an analysis of their locations and regions, structures and scale, and trends in criterion being taken as standards for registering operating station buildings and former station buildings, respectively. Next, based on the field survey we conducted of 20 tangible cultural property station buildings on three railways registered in entirety as networks of cultural properties (stations and related facilities)—Watarase Keikoku Railway (38 sites), Tenryu Hamanako Railway (36 sites), and Wakasa Railway (23 sites)—I outline our information on the current status of each station building’s preservation or conservation, and examine the characteristic features of each railway line. Finally, I undertake comparative verification of the three railway lines and their tangible cultural property station buildings and reveal elements common to all three. The three railways all have base stations with head offices attached and facilities necessary for railway operation in the surrounding area. All are also single-story wooden buildings built before World War II. Then, all the station buildings, except Oomama station on the Watarase Keikoku Railway, basically remain in the form in which they were originally built. Moreover, the platforms of all the stations on the Watarase Keikoku Railway and Wakasa Railway are separately registered as tangible cultural properties, a fact that made me realize the importance of preserving facilities besides station buildings. In terms of other functions currently established in the station buildings, some spaces in stations on the Tenryu Hamanako Railway and Wakasa Railway are actively employed as shops. Most display a plate that reads “Tangible Cultural Property,” a device I feel to be quite effective in the preservation and conservation of the buildings. It is hoped this study will become a guidepost for considering the registration of existing station buildings as tangible cultural properties for preservation and conservation in the future.
This paper aims at describing the redevelopment method of the Bebauungsplan in Basel, Switzerland. It has been operated by the Basel municipal
authority together with other departments and architects since 1930. The conclusions in this study are as follows: the Bebauungsplan is considered
from a comprehensive perspective including architecture, civil engineering and environment. The Bebauungsplan doesn't define contents uniformly,
but flexibly specifies necessary contents for each site. The administration cooperates with architects to create superior urban space and landscape. By
overwriting the upper-level land use plan, the Bebauungsplan can deal with needs of the actual situation of the city.