In this research, we conducted a fundamental research concerning the capability of the manual-assistive evacuation chair. The results of this paper are as follows. As the operation training is enforced repeatedly, participants had shortened descending time in the staircase. The participant who had an operation experience of the manual-assistive evacuation chair marked faster and more stable descending time than inexperienced participant. When the participant goes down several floors continuously, descending time between the floors is gradually shortened. We found out that the narrowness of the stair affected the operation performance of the evacuation chair on the landing was larger than on the step of staircase. Furthermore, the weight of the passenger sitting on influenced differently by the type of evacuation chair.
In this study, focusing on the Japanese style houses which were constructed as owned house on Qing-Tian street in Japanese colonial period, the interview for the Japanese who had lived there in the period and the Taiwanese residents who are living in the houses was conducted. In addition the more the additional interview and measurement to confirm the consideration by them were conducted and the transformation of these houses are analyzed from Japanese colonial period to present. These houses were constructed as Japanese permanent house. After World War II Taiwanese residents stay living in these houses and maintaining these characteristics in their earliest days although extension and remodel were conducted. Some of extensions and remodels are not fit Taiwanese resident's life style. However these characteristics are consciously maintained by them. That is, although these Japanese-style houses on Qing-Tian street which was apart from Japanese residents, It becomes clear that Taiwanese residents have been living in them with consciously conservation.
This study aims investigate how to use the silver-peer's community room as base of neighboring area. We analyzed about the silver-peer's community room used well by three researches. The result of the analysis is as follows, (1)The community room functions as an important place. (2)The community room is used with the resident of the silver-peer and the neighboring area people without constraint. Because Wardens or Life support advisers(LSA) stay the community room every time when there open. (3)Most of the community room's events ware planed by Warden and LSA. (4)It is important that the silver-peer resident use the community room with the neighboring area people than only silver-peer resident. (5)It is often that the elderly uses the community room in a small group. Therefore it is not important that the space is large. It is important that there is always warden or LSA and there is easily usable.
This paper aimed to research about the small bases for child-care that used the environment of the cities such as parks for their childcare. First, design of institutional arrangements and actual situation of administration were arranged targeted the two systems, daytime-guardian system (Kyoto) and the branched day-nursery system (Osaka). Next, Evaluation comments to the environmental element of the urban space by the staff of bases were collected when the staff and children used the urban space as child nurturing space with Caption Evaluation Method. And, some matters pursued in the urban environment as the place of the childcare were derived by analysis and consideration.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual search with elderly persons on the type of motorway rest area. The results are summarized as follows. 1) In a type that the parking lots for small sized car and large sized cars are arranged in rows and that the distance to toilet facilities is long, it is effective to differentiate the color and shape of a sign clearly, or to indicate the information at a lower position. 2) In a type that the parking lots for small sized cars and large sized cars are arranged in parallel along the approach to toilet facilities, it is effective to indicate the information clearly for pedestrians. 3) In a type that ticket vendors or commodities are not arranged along with the main passage in shopping facility, it is effective to clarify the target so as to differentiate from others. 4) In a type that ticket vendors or a lot of commodities are arranged complexly in shopping facilities, it is effective to present information that shows the relation to various passages appropriately.
The authors investigated 457 children's orbits after school in four specific school districts by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The purpose of this paper is to clarify the children's home range in relation to their school districts' characteristics by analyzing the spacio-temporal distribution of their staying points. In the result, the children living in the urban district tends to travel on foot or by bicycle within the range from 250 to 1,000 meters from their home, at the same time the children living in the suburban districts tends to travel within the range from 50 to 250 meters and also further than 1,000 meters. There was a correlation between elementary schooler's home range and school districts' features.
The objective of this study is to disclose the evaluation indexes of industrial housing in the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC). The intension of this paper is to understand the order of evaluation indexes regarding the industrial houses by analysis of BHRC expertise during 1970's. This study is based on the analysis of a plan regarding the importing industrial houses and expertise about 4 different housing systems. As the result the most important evaluation indexes for BHRC was efficiency of houses including technical and local needs. But some element of production system such as period of assembly, modularity and material of structure were part of evaluation indexes in BHRC during 1970's.
This research elucidates the residents' opinions regarding the caretakers called Gardien(ne)s of private apartment houses in the French Metropolitan Area. The number of Gardien(ne)s is in a decline after the war. This decline is attributed to privacy issues, that is, it will be easy to obtain information on residents' private lives, and to labour cost. However, the Gardien(ne)s often provide domestic services that supported the residents' lifestyle. Furthermore, as someone who are living in the vicinity, they also give the sense of security and presence. From these characteristics, the Gardien(ne)s are being upheld by the city dwellers. Moreover, compared to other management types, the cost is not particularly high. The decline of Gardien(ne)s is not due to the actualization of full-time caretakers demerits, such as live-in issues or labour cost, instead, it is natural to think that it is due to the diversification of management types.
The Float Parade in Gion Festival changed its traditional route in 1956. This paper investigates the reason in relation with the policy of Kyoto municipality at that time. As the result, two facts have become clear: Firstly, the local government had set the Float Parade as a stake for tourism policy, and a greater street was needed for mobilizing the greater number of tourists. Secondly, there was Oike Street expanded just after the WW2, for which the Float Parade was introduced to make that use as "a new main street of Kyoto" as it were it "a new main street of Kyoto" as it were called then. These two political intentions could have been strategically combined to push the dramatic shift in the ritual inherited over generations.
This paper analyzes the agglomeration of company offices through observing the relationships between office distribution and the dynamism of the spatial structure within the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The following conclusions were obtained: 1) Urbanization is still in progress for the most part within the suburbs of Tokyo and through this process some areas are increasing their independence. This phenomenon enhances the polycentricity of the metropolitan area. 2) Company offices tend to converge in distinct areas which are highly urbanized. Especially in a place where offices are located above a certain accumulation level, more company types are attracted further increasing the economies of agglomeration. This is defined as the “Circulative Accumulation Model” within this paper.
In recent years, consciousness for ordinances on townscape and town planning has been increasing. The townscape ordinance to control townscapes has mainly been enacted by the municipality. This research investigated the present condition of townscape improvement by documents that each municipality furnished and through interviews in 6 Tokai district municipalities those are selected according to their progress in improvement of the townscapes. We examine reasons for lack of progress in improvement from the view point of resident participation as well as the regulation system. From the interviews, some problems unique to each stage of the townscape improvement process were found. There include problems concerning resident participation, regulation system, and continuation of the townscape improvement. Finally, the importance of cooperation between residents and the administration and a system to support the cooperation are clarified.
The urban sprawl has caused drastic changes of landscape in the suburban area. This paper aims to analyze the relationship between the land-use and the landscape from 1978 to 2001 in the suburb of Metropolitan Tokyo; Chiba City, and to evaluate the landscape transformation and the stability by using GIS. The first result is characterized by the following complex phenomena of land-use changes; the reduction of “natural and agricultural areas” by urban developments, the abandonment of “the farmland”, the cultivation of “the forest”, and the re-naturalization of “the field”. The second one is the stability of the land-use for each classification on the GIS map. The third one is the correspondence of the landscape with the land-use by the monitoring of typical “Yatsuda” landscape.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of art exhibition space that is performed on a historical urban area. We analyze features of locations and spaces that art works are situated and visitors' behavior that art works influence. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Old row houses, shophouses and alleys are paid attentions because they become exhibition space. 2) Narrow alleys have potential of exhibition space. Lattices and plants can be a background of art works which are hung on a wall. Small spaces such as garage and vacant space can be used as exhibition space. 3) Art works cause various behavior that are not seen on a daily life.
Making rules on urban design has become more important to sustain good townscape. This paper deals with townscape control standards which were made before Landscape Act was established. It is intended to identify what words are frequently used in townscape control standards, using morphological analysis and word frequency analysis, and why these words are extracted. These two analyses have extracted thirty words which are frequently used in townscape control standards. It has been found that three words, "Tsutomeru", "Hairyo" and "Chowa" reflect characteristics of autonomous townscape ordinance. From the results of dual scaling it is shown that "Tsutomeru" is correlated with townscape control standards on space use, and "Hairyo" and "Chowa" are correlated with townscape control standards on exterior design.
The Twenty Scenic Places in Takako region were commemorated in Chinese-style poems by Mr. Haryo Kumasaka and his descendants published as Eibohen in 1788. These long-ago revered locations had been forgotten, even among local residents, partially because of the common practice at the beginning of modern age of giving districts names borrowed from other places honored in the poems. The consequent posting of signs for the newly misnamed districts further contributed to the oblivion of the original historical sites. Through sketch map method, this paper analyzed the perceived location of the Twenty Scenic Places as understood by contemporary residents. From the commonalities and typology of subjects' spatial images, it was found that the greatest gaps in perception of target site location were found in cases where the subject had a narrow territory of daily life and the level of human-environmental relations was relatively low.
This study discusses issues for the institutionalization of the litigation system targeting the city planning decision as the object of administrative litigation by means of a review of a Supreme Court decision regarding a land readjustment project in Hamamatsu City. As the issues involved in institutional reform of the city planning litigation system, it points out (i) the necessity of judging the city planning decision of the project and zoning types as the administrative disposition, (ii) as for the zoning types, in particular, the necessity of the institutional design based on its inherent character, and (iii) the expansion of the kind and scope of legal protection of interests concerning the standing. Finally, this study argues for the necessity of expanding the object and content of the city planning decision and improving the legal role of the master plan as issues to be considered for reform of the city planning institution.
In order to enhance effectiveness on Kenchiku-Kyoyaku, its enforcement was supported by the administrative guidance. However, the amount of administrative supports has decreased Therefore residential associations must maintain its enforcement themselves. Its activities are 1)the persuasion to constructors into changing constructors' mismatched plan, 2)the monitoring of constructors before their construction and building confirmation, and 3)the enforcement of Kenchiku-Kyoyaku by administration. And the conditions of effective activities are following: 1)the awareness of destruction of residential environment among residents, 2)the information about private building inspection agencies frequently used by constructors, and 3) the estimation of lower cost to reach consensus among residents.
At 1997, it had been firstly recognized that building construction system in Korea had big problems. Those were many causes, such as supervisor's unsettled position, uncertainty of relationship between the designer and the constructor, undefined client work, and so on. Thus it was tried to apply CM(Construction Management) method as a solution for building construction system. However, CMr(Construction Manager) participates in a project generally instead of the client to manage the project, CMr has to be involved more early stages of project than supervisor in order to insure the project quality. In this research, we try to understand the quality ensuring system and current state clearly in the actual construction projects.
The authors had an opportunity to take part in the project of regenerating the traditional wooden barn to schoolchild clubhouse, and made the master plan and executive design. The earthquake-resistant capacity was lower than safety standard as the result of performance diagnosis. Reinforcement design of earthquake-resistant capacity was held based on the result and utilization plan by adopting the original wooden double panel for resistant wall, and the improvement construction expensed the cost about 8,900,000 yen.
Urayama and Mikkaichi were stages in Kanazawa-Han. Ota-ya and Oyado were lodgings used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han during Edo-Era. Through the examination of historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1) Before Ota-ya in Urayama and Ota-ya in Mikkaichi were designated to Ota-ya, these buildings had been used by lord of Kanazawa-Han. 2) In Urayama and Mikkaichi, 2 or 3 lodgings such as Ota-ya and Oyado were built and used by specific lord according to the characteristics of the lord. 3) Siteplan and the relation between site and road were common to Ota-ya and Oyado in Urayama and Mikkaichi
This research is to reexamine the business district development and the office buildings in consideration of the aspect on the developer side in modern period. This paper is focused on the relation between the office construction and its profitability. The Marunouchi business district where the Mitsubishi financial clique initiated development is caught up as a case. The object of this research is all office buildings that the Mitsubishi joint-stock company built and owned in the Marunouchi district where the Mitsubishi financial clique once partially owned from the disposal of land of 1890 to the liquidation of the Mitsubishi financial clique in 1946.
After the Taisho enthronement, the buildings used for the ceremony were granted to various places in Kyoto. Upon research of receivers, it is found the buildings which still exist are in shrines and temples. This paper shows the analysis of how these buildings in shrines and temples were converted. By seeing the conversions in shrines and temples, we can see the surroundings of social situations of shrines and temples at the beginnings of Taisho period. Then economic situation of citizen was very bad and ideology for respecting the emperor's throne was not stabilized yet. Therefore, in shrines and temples asked for granted buildings used at the enthronement ceremony because of economical reasons rather than memorying the solemn ceremony.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the architectural planning method of the elevation of the Nereid Monument at Xanthos. The analysis led to the conclusion that the dimensions of each part in both the upper structure, the order and above, and the lower structure, the podium and below, were derived from the dimension of the axial intercolumniation with the use of a“ yardstick” of 0.310m as a foot. Many of the design dimensions of the elevation of the Nereid Monument, similarly to its floor plan, show complete figures, demonstrating that the construction aspect was taken into account at the planning stage.
The aim of this study is to clarify the exterior spatial composition and its typology through parking space and promenade space management in large commercial facilities. First, we chronologically investigated the location, record of the lot through map. Secondly, the peripheral surroundings' conditions were examined and analyzed. Thirdly, the spatial composition of promenade space and promenade space were analyzed by arrangements of constituent. Fourthly, the “exterior space types” were made clear through similarities found between various characteristics and their arrangements. Following this we could demonstrate the genealogy of the “exterior space types” and the chronological change in relation to moving of their location. Finally, by comparing chronological change of types and moving of location, a framework for discussing the genealogy of exterior space in large commercial facilities can be presented.
In this paper, it is aimed to clarify the character of “inner void block” as a fragmental urban morphology by viewing from spatial compositions and genealogical records. In the first part, the distribution of the inner void block around the residential area in Tokyo is examined by observing the house detailed map. In the second part, the spatial composition of the inner void block is examined by field survey, and the genealogical record of inner void block is examined by observing the land use and its peripheral arrangement of houses in the block in the old maps. In the final part, the typology of the innner void block is led by the relationship between the spatial composition and the genealogical record of block. As a result, the structured characteristics of the inner void block is clarified through the comparison between types.
Mies makes no mention of Golden Section. But our previous studies on his drawings derived some possibility that he made use of Golden Section in his principal works. In this paper to confirm it the sense of proportion in Mies's discourses, contributions for magazines, manuscripts for lectures, records of interviews, were investigated. As the result it was found that Mies's sense of proportion was not only proportion derived by a feeling for the expression of proportion, but also one determined by normative, conservative, eternal laws, such as specific geometrical relationship, namely, Golden Section.
In this paper, we describe the overall picture of the pattern language by examining the literature in the 1960s based on the correspondence to the mathematical structuralism and the Hilbert's formalism. We examine the semantics of pattern language and show that Alexander's definition of the design problems gives the semantic framework of the language. After describing the pattern language can be regarded as a syntactical object like proofs in the formal systems, we discuss the limit of the pattern language and give one possible reason why he needed to explore “geometric features” of forms generated by the patterns.
Henri Prost was awarded first prize in the international competition to develop the city and its suburbs of Antwerp in 1910. Through a study on his plan for the competition, comparing with the plans awarded second prize and third prize etc, the followings were made clear; Henri Prost only respected the enceinte fortified of Antwerp and proposed the concrete ideas to conserve it as the park - un grand reservoir d'air - with the new buildings and the gardens between the old urban area and the new urban area, and to install the modern elements of the traffic system and of the composition for the suburbs, though the government of Belgium and the commission of the enceinte in the city of Antwerp had decided the destruction of it by law.
This study aims at showing how local smaller castle towns tried to transform their urban space into modernized one early in the Meiji era. In the castle town, the castle holds large part of town area, and the land use after Meiji restoration had profound effects on its urban structure. In this case, the reclamation activity of local former samurai class people (shizoku) determined the street plan and the lot size of some part of the castle, which grew as the central business district in modern time. They also played an important role in the construction of the stone bridge as an part of the prefectural road development.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the effect of units for population aggregation on calculation precision of the road distances from the residents to the nearest regional facilities. To this end, the distances from the central point of municipality subdivision areas were compared with the average distances from the central points of basic unit blocks in Japanese Census weighted by population in Kanagawa Prefecture. The results show that the error increases in the western part where the road network is sparse and that the relative error is high if the distance is less than one kilometer.