Sound insulation characteristics of membranes with additional weights (MAW), developed to improve insulation performance at low frequencies, are investigated by applying a numerical method, and subsequently, the mechanism of the insulation effect of MAW is discussed theoretically through an infinite model. As a result, it is confirmed that the insulation effect occurs independently of the incident angle of a sound wave and the boundedness of MAW, and the effects of properties of MAW on transmission loss (TL) are also clarified. The mechanism is interpreted as an interference phenomenon between two vibration components, and the approximate peak frequency of TL is formulated.
This study probes the mutual relationship between exterior colors and impressions using the neural network system. Experiments using the semantic differential rating method (30 scales) were conducted to determine the relationship between exterior colors and adjectives. The parameter was an exterior color of a building. Image profiles were drawn using the average of each scale and each stimulus from the results of the experiments. Three psychological factors were extracted from the results of factor analysis. Two types of neural network systems were constructed based on experimental results; namely, a system to select exterior colors of building by image profiles, and a system to evaluate the impression of exterior colors by image profiles. Effectiveness of the systems were judged from the results of recognition tests. Accordingly, it became possible to grasp the relationship between exterior colors of a building and its adjectival impression more easily.
This paper is describes of the method of sunshine estimation using computer graphics screen. As each pixel on the screen has a specific color, by scanning the screen and getting its pixel color we can estimate required information. This method is divided broadly into two steps. At the first step, the projected figures of the surroundings that are the sky and the other obstructions are drawn with each specific color. At the next step, by getting pixel color at the sun position on the screen, sunshine condition is estimated. This method can greatly simplify the algorithm because the calculation for the intersection between the sun beam and obstructing surface is not necessary.
This paper describes the results of a calculation of the exergy flows in term of the circulation of matter obtained from composting garbage in an urban area. The purpose of using the concept of exergy is to show explicitly the relation between the rate of the production of renewable resources such as vegetable and compost and the rate of the consumption of non-renewable resources for the transportation of garbage and the operation of a composting plant. It is found that the amount of exergy consumed for operating a composting plant is twelve times that of exergy contained by the vegetable produced using the compost. The amount of exergy consumed for the delivery of the garbage and the compost is one-fourth of the exergy contained by the vegetable.
The concept of air flow around building in urban area is familiar. As same as airflow around building, it is considered that grand surface static pressure distribution varies with building largely. But, there are very few reports about grand surface static pressure distribution around building in urban area. Therefore, a proof is necessary. The purpose of this study is the assessment of static pressure distribution on grand surface around building in urban area. Especially in this paper, we report the results of some measurements, which is obtained by wind tunnel experiment, the influence of height of building and wind direction on the static pressure distribution on grand surface around building, and discuss them.
Results of wind tunnel experiments on the influences of road width and thermal stratification on air flow in urban street canyons are presented. 1) A typical characteristic of the flow in street canyons is the formation of a strong cavity eddy when the road width L is equal to one to two times the height of the adjacent buildings. H. 2) The cavity eddy weakens as L/H is increased from 2 to 4 and decays with further increases in road width under neutral conditions. 3) Although the cavity eddy strengthens under unstably stratified conditions within the skimming flow regime, cavity eddy decay occurs earlier in wake interference flow regimes and the transition to isolated roughness flow regimes begins earlier than under neutral conditions. 4) Thermal stratification has a greater impact on turbulence than does road width.
Measurement of turbulent flow properties on natural convection in a model fire room was conducted using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and a fine thermocouple of 12 μ m diameter. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain data for validating the numerical simulation of a turbulent flow field where significant density variation caused by a large temperature variation is expected. This experiment quantitatively clarifies the turbulence characteristics of velocity and temperature which have hardly been measured by previous studies related to this problem. The results of this experiment provide valuable data for verifying 3-D numerical simulations with density variation. In this report, the experimental results on mean quantities are described.
To analyze factors of the significant air temperature rising, a series of numerical experiments were performed based on the Architecture-Urban-Soil simultaneous simulation model proposed in the former report. By a preliminary experiment based on so-called variation study method, 6 primary factors were picked up which have significant effects on urban temperature and thermal comfort in urban-human space respectively. For a main numerical experiment the design of experiment theory based on the orthogonal array was adopted to obtain quantitative and statistically significant results. Results indicate that the factors regarding energy consumption density in an urban area and mechanical performance of air conditioning system influence significantly on the air temperature rising in an urban area. In addition, MRT and SET* in an street canyon are affected by the earth's surface condition.
The purpose of this study is to clearify the possibility of diffusion of District Heating and Cooling (DHC) in Japan in the near future and its effects on global environment preservation. We selected potential supplied areas of DHC in all over Japan by analyzing heating, cooling and hot-water demand character. We investigated the sourrounding unused energy of the selected areas and analyzed its effect. As a result, total DHC demand is 259,933TJ/a (62,185Tcal/a), that is quivalent to 11.1% of total demand in Japan. By using unused energy as heat sources, 88,733TJ/a (21,228Tcal/a) of primary energy consumption and 1.78 mil.ton of CO_2 emission can be reduced per year in Japan. It means that the DHC promotion is very important and realistic policy in urban area for CO_2 emission which contributes to global environment preservation.
The present paper deals with a new approach for evaluating the Thermal Comfort and Index the energy efficiency for perimeter zone in an iso-thermal environment taking into account the thermal sensation distribution. Using a simulation-aided design software, SAPLO and PMVs(Predicted Mean Vote simulated by SAPLO) model, which is derived from Fanger's comfort equations. We evaluated the energy efficiency of the single-glazed and double-glazing windows. The results of analyses indicate that the present approach is effective in assessing the relationship between the thermal comfort and the energy consumption.
In this study the energy consumption of housing in all prefectures of Japan have been estimated and its regional characteristics have been made clear by using Annual report on the family income and expenditure survey. The energy consumption which would be considered as an average value have been classified according to energy resources and uses such as heating, cooling, hot-water supply and lighting and its regional distribution have been made clear. Furthermore as a result of investigating the factor of energy consumption by multiple regression analysis, temperature, hours of sunlight, dwelling area, and income have been confirmed as the factor.
In this paper, a model of Chinese population was developed. With this model, the population of China is predicted according to the total fertility rate. The main results from this study are as follows: (1) the average total fertility rate over the period of 1990-1995 is 1.87; (2) when the TFR is equal to 1.87, the population of China will grow to 1.27 billion, 1.49 billion and 1.46 billion in the years of 2000, 2035 and 2050 respectively; (3) the ratio of dependent population will grow to more than 80% in the year of 2050 if the TFR is equal to 1.0; (4) the TFR should be between 1.5 to 2.0 in China to sustain the society economically and environmentally; (5) equations were developed as the functions of time and TFR, with which the Chinese population can be forecasted easily.
The living conditions of the tenants of "Silver Peer," multiunit dwellings for elderly people built by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, were surveyed to explore the possibilities of future Silver Peer planning which takes declines in the tenanls' physical functions into consideration. This paper discusses the need for care in everyday activities, such as having meals and taking a bath, in view of the tenants' health conditions, and examines actual use of in-home welfare services, such as helper services and in-home meal services, considering age.
The object of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of process and meaning of recent change of houses in Hokkaido. The main features are as follows; 1.The house form is more and more complicated in recent years. Because the garage, storage and a kind of snow shelter joins to the house. 2.The house has an airtight structure and people can not go out through the window. Because now the windows are generally fixed type. 3 The new plan type with circulated passage in the house increases in Hokkaido. We can find that people are satisfied to live in that house.
Survivors' place making was investigated through critical environmental transition that accompanied Tsunami disaster caused by Hokkaido South East Off Earthquake in 1993. Each private spaces constructed following the disaster- temporary housing units, restoration housing units, self rebuilt houses- was traced by focusing on place makings of physical disposition. A comparative study was conducted about peoples cognition and evaluation of radical environmental transition. The findings are as follows. 1) Differences of restoration housings influence personalization by place making in private space. 2) People-environment model is shown that explains process of adaptation after environmental transition caused by natural disaster.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the trend of lodging style of the residents in Imai. We investigated the lodging style with their parent and their married children. The results of survey are as follows, 1)In Imai, the living style separate from their married children is increasing in number. Because the dwelling conditions is improved and the family cycle is expanded. 2)About half of the residents want to succeed to their next generation, but the possibility of it is about 40% of all. 3)Living the younger generation in a historical district, it is useful to supply and renew the traditional Japanese house for their married children, and to prepare the dwelling system for them.
There are many halls which differ in way and degree of utilization for entertainment. We analyze information of the halls and the categories of entertainment announced in the commercial magazine "PIA". Thus, the relation between the utilization of halls and the performing categories is explained, and the halls are classified according to the hall utilization. The results are summarized as follows: 1)The frequency of announcing in the magazine is related to the characteristics of halls, 2)The situation of entertainments played in the halls with high announcing frequency differ among performing categories, and 3)The halls with high announcing frequency tend to be used for one performing category, while the halls with the less frequency are used for many kinds of entertainments.
The study aims at contributing to upgrade an environment of hospital acute wards based on the activitiy analysis of an intensive care unit in an University Teaching Hospital in Tokyo. Surveys were carried out two times each for 3 days and activities, location and movement of staff were recorded. The observation reveals that activites were spread out almost all the areas of the unit. However, three distinct major areas are identified according to different characteristics of activities, i.e. a) Direct mecical and nursing area, b) Direct observation and preperation area, c) Indirect observation and supporting area. The analysis resulted in the proposal of a model diagram of area structure of intensive care units.
This is an architectural planning research on the industrial training facilities for the people with intellectual disabilities. Because of the lack of research results for design principle and the individuality of operating organization on this kind of facilities, planning theory depends on personal interpretation of each organizer or architectural engineer, and it leads to the many problems at activities in facilities. Consequently, we clarified that there are much difference between each other on the square of work-space and lunch-room and so on. Secondly we recognized the characteristics on the available style of each room and the way for extension on activities by the square condition. As a result, we showed some of the guide-line subjects for planning on the industrial training facilities for the people with intellectual disabilities.
By the field work for the uses of Media center at Keio University in Kanagawa, Japan, This research attempts to clarify a way of information activity and to discover the factors involved in generating a highly informationalized public space of being. Through the observation of the Media center and survey of the user's behavior, we found that the information activity is a part of an intellectual activity which requires intellectual recognition mode for environment. This thesis focuses on ecological behavior and physical settings which electronic information activity requires and analyzes the quality of environment of the Media center as public space which promotes intellectual production.
We examined the characteristics of the eye fixation in stopping at the signal and moving. The experiment was performed at the intersection by general people and wheelchair user. The results are as follows. (1)The average time of the eye fixation is not different between them in both situation. But, when they stop at the signal, it is longer than that of the other situation. (2)The object of the eye fixation is different between them when they are moving. (3)General people can get much preceding information than wheelchair user.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the usage of parks by the elderly and relevant issues, such as attributes, frequency and purposes of coming the park in Pusan(Yongdusan Park, Children's Park and Kinggan Park). The behavior of the elderly can be classified into 7 items, namely, taking a rest, communicating (social exchange), moving around, amusing, purchasing, playing and cleaning. By the multidimensional quantitative 3 with questionnaire for the elderly about purposes of coming to the parks, they can be classified into 3 types, which are multiple using type, amusing type and nature-enjoying type.
In this paper, we analyze and classify the spatial structures of 43 historic towns in Boso(Chiba) based on the theory of "Qing Wu Jing", and then shaw that about 90% of their spatial structures can be interpreted by Feng-Shui. In other words, it means that the five elements of geographical environment of the region is keyed to select a settlement site. The result is that Feng-Shui will have to be reestimated and its idea as a method in site planning is coniderably a reasonable theory even in the present time.
A hypothesis that writers of juvenile literature derive much of their creative ideas from the primary landscape in memory or the image of their own childhood play environment was tested through a questionnaire survey of 286 writers and 18 interviews. Nature, hideout, and anarchy spaces were particularly influential on their works. "Separators" and "guides" which include blind paths, individuals or entities to serve as a guide, and directional signs are the elements that stimulate children's travel from the real world to the imaginary one in fantasy works.
The purpose of this study is to consider the principles of space formation in the houses, villages and cities, focusing on the cosmology that decide physical arrangement. We selected Cakranegara city in Lombok island, Indonesia, as a case study. Cakranegara was built as a colonial city of Karanngasem Kingdom in Bali in 18th century. We guess Cakranegara was constructed based on the idea of Bali Hindu City. This paper clarifies the characteristics of habitat segregation among Muslim, Chinese, Balinese. About Balinese, the habitat segregation between caste is also clarified. The structure of segregation Cakranegara is very clear. The structure is as follows. 1) Balinese people lives in central area though Muslim lives in edge of area which have the grid pattern. The housing lot and the road pattern is completely different between living area of Balinese and that of Muslim. 2) Each Karang, community unit, have pura, Hindu temple, and Musjit. 3) Chines is scattered all area of Cakranegara. Chinese basically work for commerce. 4) Balinese makes segregation depending on caste. Brahumana lives in north and East. Ksatnya lives in west side and Gusti lives in east side. The caste which relate to kings family, Agung, Ratu, lives in the place previously located palace.
Due to an increase in developments that are concentrated in urban areas, excavation in building construction has deepened and widened. Consequently, it has become more critical to consider the influence on neighborhood and public nuisance during construction. Underground works occupy large part of construction costs and period, thus being regarded as most important. This study presents planning of excavation works in building construction at the early stage. The authors have suggested the following three design models for planning of retaining walls: 1) Design model with discriminant analysis; 2) Design model with neural network; and, 3) Design model with experience logics, and have identified the accuracy of design models through comparison.
The previously reported papers proposed new systematical methods based on "Construction Process Chart" to solve resource levelling and term shortening problems on a construction project, and then the proposed metods were adapted to the some practical structural works, which proved they would greatly contribute to the successful usage of construction planning phase. In connection with the detailed planning and scheduling for construction process, this paper cleared characteristics of interior finishing works, and pointed out essential algorithm of pllanining and scheduling procedure. Moreover, the autor adapted these methods to the practical interior finishing works, which examined effectiveness of them as much great usefulness as the practical structural works.
This study analyzes the types of defects and the relationships of the influencing factors contract system, construction cost, structural system, number of units on each floor, number of stories, unit size, and the shape of floor which cause various defects in Korean APT. houses The results can be summarized as follows; the most defects are found on the floor and the ceiling where water leakage and discoloration appear to be the major defect factors. In addition, repair cost is mainly influenced by structural system, followed by number of units on each floor, construction cost, contract system, etc. As a result, in order to obtain a high quality building, careful attentions must be paid to the factors mentioned earlier.
With the aim of making historical and cultural evaluations of Japanese architectural method, we analyze the changes and repercussions of Dogu-Hinagata (Japanese Traditional Furniture Reference Book) on architecture. Firstly, Dogu-Hinagata can be categorized into 2 types: One that emphasizes the concept of courtesy, and the other that elucidates the design aspect. We already analyzed the books of the former type bibliographically and typologically. In this paper, we have concentrated on the latter type and organized 40 works into 10 types based on their bibliographical backgrounds. The 10 groups consists of 6 types among the 33 works on Buke houses, and 4 types among the 7 works on Teahouses.
On this study, by picking up the villages in the east Japan, I investigated the formation processes of permanent stores and the town areas. The summary of this study can be given below: ・After the middre of 18th century, commercial production was spread into the rural district, as a result, the farm-houses were added the style of the permanent stores, and also the town areas were expanded. ・Moreover, by picking up the house plans in "Hara village" in Sinano area in the end of Edo period, I clarified the composition of house plans in the market towns in the rural districts.
The Board of Tourist Industry (B.T.I.) and the Committee of Tourist Industry (C.T.I), as the solo government administrative organs to attain foreign currency, had promoted to construct "Kokusai Kanko Hotel" during 1930s. The aim of this paper is to make clear states of "Kokusai Kanko Hotel" and resort in early Showa-era. Main conclusions are as follows; (1) B.T.I and C.T.I had understood importance of hotel enterprises and supported the establishments of 14 hotels. (2) Each of their designs had had equipment and appearances for them with resort themes. (3) Most of hotels had been located on tourist resorts between Yokohama to Nagasaki.
The pattern of single pagoda-image hall, typical site design of Buddhist temples of Buyo period (538-663 A.D), was not a fixed pattern, but was in a process of continuous change. This can be identified by the change of size and material of pagoda, relative dimension of cloistered corridor, and arrangement of belfry, sutra repository, and lecture hall. The examination of such changes enable us relocate the periodical positions of the sites with unknown dates, and understand the background of the changes.
A new method is presented for optimization of facility layout. The pedestrian flow is modeled by using Markov chains, where the distribution of existence probability in the stationary state is calculated by solving an eigenvalue problem. In the proposed method, the pedestrian distribution in the path between every pair of the facilities is first considered, and the large generator matrix is condensed to a small one before carrying out the eigenvalue analysis to find the stationary state. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used for optimization, and a hybrid GA is presented for simultaneously optimizing the assignment and the locations of the facilities. In the examples, characteristics of the distribution of the utilities of the facitilies are discussed.