Public Observatories in the Tokyo Area were mostly established in the 1990s for the first time in history. There are currently 9 such observatories, and they are the subjects of this paper. The value of public observatory and panoramic view has not been discussed deeply from academic perspectives, although it is conceivable. The purpose of this study is to clarify the use of spaces and views in public observatories included in highrise buildings. This study was conducted from following five perspectives. 1.Frequency of use and numbers of users. 2.Use policy of administrator. 3.Items of use and its conditions. 4.Relationship between administrator and relevant agencies. 5.Outcome and challenges of the use.
1. Continuation of use of public observatory from opening is important fact .
2. It was clarified that policy of administrator and direction about use is different each observatory from hearing. As number of public observatory visitors, direction of each observatory is different.
3. It was cleared that items of use is various, mainly use and relaxation, information and exhibition, education, sightseeing, city creation by scenery, valuation of scenery, etc.
4. It was cleared that Relation of each section about use of observatory is not cooperated and not clear except for one observatory, HOKU-TOPIA observatory.
5. From condition of use, it was cleared that 9 observatories have merits, demerits and influence effects. By space volume Merit and demerit are made. And it was cleared that discovery of new city scene and gathering by panoramic scene are made.
From these point of view about study of the use, it will be able to point out that concept of public observatories was not discussed enough from opening, and the use was done. It made groping condition about use of public observatories. Public observatories and panoramic scenes have been not recognized deeply as precious city property. And it will be able to point out that subject about the use of public observatories is like this. ① Clear direction or policy about use of public observatories is important as precious city property. ② Public opinion and will of people should be reflected positively about direction of use. ③ Importance of recognition about value of public observatories and panoramic scenes as precious city property.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the process of the transition of design aspiration for the architecture major student from which time and through what kind of events. We think that it will be useful for how to recommend the design instruction in the future such as design act and evaluation in the design task. And the following things became clear.
At the time of admission, more than 80% of the students wanted to design in all grades, and more than half of the second-fourth graders who were experienced in design tasks thought that design was fun. And most of the students when it was judged whether the design was fun was until first half of second graders. In addition, it was revealed that what I think that the design is fun is that I think that esquisse drawing and model making are fun and I like to design. Nevertheless, the ratio for choosing a graduation design decreases as the grade level rises, and in the third and fourth graders, more than 80% do not want it. It turned out that the majority did not want design as a field that they would like to eventually participate in. It became clear that the fun of design is not because they are not able to make a satisfactory work and have no talent, but they simply like to design. This can be seen from the strong negative correlation between "design is fun" and "evaluation good," "with talent" and "perth creation is fun". Similarly, there was a strong positive correlation between "hope for future design" and "satisfaction with work", "good teaching by teachers", "drawing esquisse is fun" and "making models is fun" across all the second-fourth graders. In other words, the students who wanted to be involved in the design in the future emphasize "drawing esquisse", "making models", "good teaching by teachers". On the other hand, there was a strong negative correlation between "design is fun" and "with talent" "perth creation is fun". And there was a strong negative correlation between "I like design" and "evaluation good" "with talent", too. We think that there is room for improvement depending on the teaching method for the majority of students who do not want to design in the end. We would like to make these issues for the future.
As described above, according to this research, most architecture major students wanted to design at the beginning of admission. But, by experiencing various design activities in design tasks, the students were judging by first half of second graders that they have no talent and it is difficult to design. And it became clear that the number of applicants for graduation design decreased as the school year advanced. However the design is fun, and it was revealed that a large number of students who wanted to be involved in the design in the future.
Spatial porosity is one of the essential concepts of passive design to respond to high temperature and humid climate in some regions of Southeast Asia where urbanization is rapidly expanding. Spatial openness, using airy space with large windows and voids, is a popular method for daylighting and natural ventilation in passive design.
On the other hand, it is a challenge to intake natural wind and light into the indoor space while avoiding intense sunshine and heat in a dense residential area, like Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. Moreover, these urban areas are sprawling with many medium height "tube houses" with narrow frontage and long depth standing close together. This characteristic for this location delimits the design direction, such as building size and window's arrangement. Thus, it is assumed that various brightness and wind distribution occur in the living space due to conflicts between the requirements of spaces and the environment. Hence, this paper aims to clarify spatial composition, wind environment and light environment of in-space in living space in contemporary houses in Ho Chi Minh City.
Firstly, spatial composition of in-space in living space is examined by investigating location characteristics, position of in ·space in relation to window and ground and properties of window. Then, the openness patterns of living space by window and the arrangement patterns of in-apace by distances to window and to ground are clarified.
Secondly, relationships between the composition of the living apace and the wind environment are examined. The wind velocity of each in-space is calculated by CFD simulation (STREAM ver. 13) and the combinational characteristics with the openness patterns are investigated. Furthermore, relationships between the composition of the living space and the light environment are examined. The illuminance of each in-apace is calculated by the daylighting simulation (VELUX Daylight Visualizer), and the combinational characteristics with the openness pattern of living space are investigated.
Thirdly, based on all these results, composite characteristics of spatial composition, wind and light environment are examined according to the combinations of the in·space pattern of arrangement and environment for each living spaces. Then, three different groups for the intentionality towards environmental design on wind and light are clarified.
1) Majorities of the openness patterns of living space are the high and the low openness for both light and wind. The arrangements of in-space tend to be close to the window and the ground. Furthermore, many in-spaces are allocated near the void and the skylight where much light and wind are easily reach inside.
2) Wind velocity in in-space tends to be weak in living spaces which are the wind-window type and the light-window type. Illuminance in in-space indicates tendencies for the openness patterns that are more bright in the porous type and less bright in the less porous type.
3) Composite characteristics of spatial composition, wind and light environment for each living spaces shows the light group is the majority and these living spaces tend to have various in-space's environments according to differences of their position. In the wind and light group, the arrangement patterns of in-space tend to be varied. These diversities could be considered as a specificity for living spaces and their indoor environments in the tropical climate which intends to be opened to the outdoor environment and to create an uneven quality of indoor environment.
This study aims to following two objectives regarding Matsumoto District of Nagata Ward in Kobe, where has reconstructed from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. The first is to comprehend a series of local contexts to solve “universal theme” as such “readjustment of open socio-spatial structure toward a community” in the middle of process for modifying the district before and after the disaster. The second is to propose a new aspect in order to evaluate restoration after the natural disaster. It is clarified the contexts of three phases such planning purpose, social organization, and formation for usage of spaces through surveying history of the district, conducting hearing survey to planners, and conducting hearing surveys regarding life activities of residents and residents’ association.
1. Prewar wooden housing blocks were reorganized as followed; one in Kamisawa district was made them improvements to spatial structure which consists with networking of each park in blocks by means of postwar reconstruction, and another in Matsumoto district was redeveloped that parks and stream of the district made a big impact to the district due to post-quake reconstruction.
2. Residents’ associations of the former block units had been already declined in pre-quake period of time. Then the associations were reorganized into them of the district units in order to adopt a part of activities of Machizukuri Council, which was established after the quake disaster.
3. Although prewar and narrow alleys were used to be places where residents had had their interactions, the interacting places has restructured open places such as Kawaike Park and stream on the street, which has encouraged residents’ interaction beyond the range of residential blocks. As a result, a new living environment has fostered a relationship beyond generations as well as new-and-old residents.
The conclusion of this paper is to clarify that the residents evaluated negatively on the “tourism-gentrification caused by guesthouses” as a case study of the Shutoku district in the central area of Kyoto city. The “tourism-gentrification caused by guesthouses” is defined as a phenomenon in which traditional local communities are destroyed as a result of reinvestment and destination due to the rapid increase in the number of guesthouses as part of tourism-gentrification. The residents’ evaluation suggests the possibility of symbiosis with residents and guesthouses. Especially, this paper clarified four points by multiscale analysis method and action research method.
First, Chapter 2 analyzed hotels, ryokans, and guesthouses in the central area of Kyoto city by GIS analysis. As a result, this chapter clarified the population decline which had occurred from 2015 to 2019. Especially, it was found that the number of guesthouses had increased more rapidly than hotels and ryokans from 2015 to 2019 in Simogyo, Nakagyo, Kamigyo, Higashiyama wards. Besides, it is clarified that the rapid increase in the number of guesthouses has caused a decrease in the number of households in each city block.
Secondly, Chapter 3 analyzed the residents’ evaluation by questionnaire survey as a case study of Shutoku district in the Shimogyo ward of Kyoto city. As a result, this chapter clarified that the residents evaluated negatively by the decreasing population. The result suggests that “tourism-gentrification caused by guesthouses” was occurred in the central area of Kyoto city. However, this chapter also clarified that residents do not want uniform regulations for guesthouse: there is a possibility that residents and guesthouses can coexist if methods such as “resident managers” are realized.
Thirdly, Chapter 4 analyzed proceedings of townscape consultation which are operated by the Shutoku townscape council. As a result, this chapter clarified the needs of residents for guesthouses. Especially, it was found that residents and the owner of the guesthouse discussed not only “resident managers” but also “smoking areas” and “conclusion of agreements” in most guesthouses. Besides, it is clarified that they discussed “installation of signboards”, “position of windows”, “noise of suitcases” and so on, according to the characteristics of the neighborhood association.
Finally, Chapter 5 analyzed the results of the workshop organized by the Shutoku Machizukuri committee. As a result, this chapter clarified the effectiveness of residents' evaluation of guesthouses in Chapter 3 and needs for the guesthouse in Chapter 4. Specifically, it was found that the residents gave a negative evaluation of the apartment-type guesthouses rather than the Machiya type guesthouses. Besides, the residents want the owner of the guesthouse to “resident managers” in the Shutoku district. The results suggest that the residents try to build a good relationship with the owner and manager.
The purpose is to propose measures to protect the living environment around flagpole-shaped sites. Therefore, the location conditions and rebuilding situation are grasped for flagpole-shaped sites in Setagaya. In addition, a spatial analysis will be conducted on the impact of the living environment on the large-scale rebuilt building and its surrounding buildings.
First, using the i-Map published by Setagaya and Zenrin's Digitown, etc., we extracted 563 condominiums on flagpole-shaped sites under the conditions of the flagpole site and housing complex in Setagaya. Regarding the status of flagpole-shaped sites in Setagaya, there was a tendency for a large flagpole-shaped sites in the western part of Setagaya and a small flagpole-shaped sites in the eastern part.
Chapter 3 examined the possible land conditions for flagpole-shaped sites in the future. As a result, it was found that the site scale is larger in areas where vacant houses are concentrated or where the agricultural land rate is higher. In addition, the relationship between the production green space and flagpole-shaped sites has revealed that the production green space has been converted into residential land and the flagpole site has not yet been born.
In Chapter 4, we examined only 167 locations with a large site size of 100 square meters or more, especially if the impact on the buildings around flagpole-shaped sites is large. It was confirmed that 42 locations were rebuilt in 10 years, and more than 60% were rebuilt from detached houses to apartment houses. In particular, as a condition for building a housing complex on the former site, (1) two detached houses lined up, land that was destroyed at the same time, (2) a detached housing area with a garden, and (3) land where the housing complex was built (4) large parking lots. In addition, it was confirmed that more than half of the buildings with a scale of 300 square meters or more were rebuilt to double the building volume.
In Chapter 5, we analyzed the impact on the dwellings around flagpole-shaped sites site where there were buildings that had been rebuilt to be larger than before. As a result, it was found that, under the following conditions, not only the sunlight in the building was reduced, but also the adjacent buildings were deprived of sunlight. When a large-scale land is divided and multiple buildings are built, or a building is built on the land surrounded by all sides. However, it can be said that the deterioration of sunshine in a three-floor building can be reduced by changing the shape of the building from the north side to the second-floor level or by providing a space between the building adjacent to the south side.
Based on the research, the following are measures for protecting the living environment around flagpole-shaped sites. The building on flagpole-shaped sites must have a certain amount of space and surrounding housing for sunshine. Buildings built on land that is not in contact with roads or buildings that are far from roads should be regulated regardless of site size.
City blocks composed of Shophouses in the central district of Phnom Penh, which is referred to as the “Shophouse blocks”, is facing a risk of losing the built environment due to rapid urbanization recent years. It is important to grasp spatial urban structure to properly identify characteristics of shophouse blocks and its functions to sustain characteristics of individual space and development of the entire city whereas the most of previous studies on the Shophouses focused on the spatial structure and usage of the Shophouse itself without identifying its role in the entire city.
This study aims to clarify the functions of “Shophouse blocks” in Phnom Penh by analyzing inhabitants’ transportation activity obtained from person trip survey and activity diary survey. The former is used to grasp the entire spatial urban structure and the latter focuses on the detailed inhabitants’ living activities in Shophouse blocks. The results are summarized below:
1) Influential areas of job core (major employment area) and consumption core (major area for private activities) are formulated separately in the central district and suburbs. Influential sphere of job cores are formulated along ring road by consolidating different types of job cores such as office and factory which results in the mosaic structure without centrality;
2) Function of Shophouse blocks is characterized by its vertical and horizontal position, [A] outer edge of blocks/ ground floor, [B] inside block/ ground floor and [C] upper floors. Living sphere of residents in the quadrant [A] is quite small compared to the ones in [B] and [C]. The quadrant [A] provides work-place near or in the residence whereas [B] and [C] provides labor force to neighboring area; and
3) Shophouse blocks integrate multiple urban functions – living space, workforce, consumption – transitively in each quadrant which composes high density dwelling in the urban center.
Refining spatial usage of the blocks and intensive land utilization will enhance living characteristics observed in quadrant [B] and [C] and will bring more transport demand which run out of the road capacity around Shophouse bocks.
It will be one of the measures to sustain characteristics of Shophouse blocks in parallel with the development of the entire city by balancing function distribution in each quadrant in line with the times. It is also important to induce development pressure to more appropriate places with larger block surrounded by wider road.
Bangladesh experiences perennial flooding as it is at the confluence and delta area of the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Meghna rivers. In recent years, perennial flooding in urban areas has led to serious situations, which has become a challenge beyond the capacity of local governments. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the physical vulnerability of the residential buildings and residents’ house modifications during floods in eastern Dhaka. The study area, Sabujbagh was chosen for this research is divided into 10 mahallas (neighborhoods), each consisting of 250-500 households. Two mahallas, Uttor Basabo (M1) and Purbo Basabo (M7) were selected for study based on their previous flood experience, urbanization history, topography, and physical conditions. Therefore, a community survey was undertaken in these two neighborhoods (M1: 55 and M7: 50 households) based on 7 major attributes.
The results showed that although it is usually assumed that the buildings with impervious surfaces are more likely to be damaged by flooding, in M1, 12 of the 32 surroundings (non-permeable) buildings were not damaged as the plinth level was high. On the other hand, 4 buildings having surroundings with permeable (green) surface were damaged, and 6 buildings having a setback with permeable (green) surface were severely damaged. This was found to be due to the low plinth level and insufficient capacity of the drainage system. A similar trend was evident at M7. In relation to the plinth level, in both M1 and M7, it was found that buildings over 20 years old have a relatively low plinth, and buildings built within 20 years have a relatively high plinth. It has been observed that 2 houses in M1 and 1 house in M7 with higher plinth level experienced flooding. The reason was drainage congestion and blocked sewer lines in M1, and overflow of the pond behind the building in M7.
In both M1 and M7, more than 60% of buildings were damaged by floods. All buildings built with simple materials (such as mud, thin steel plate, wood, etc.) were damaged in both M1 and M7. However, some buildings built with durable materials (brick, cement, concrete, etc.) were also damaged in both areas. A total of 18 cases were damaged, due to the low plinth level in M1, while in M7, due to overflow of nearby ponds and sewer blockages. The damage is this case was due to drainage infrastructure conditions. The survey also revealed physical improvements by residents to reduce flood damage were 62% and 58% in M1 and M7 respectively. According to the interviews, some residents did not improve their houses because they considered flood damage as an infrastructure problem that should be solved by the local government. Hence, buildings that were not improved were experienced damage. The survey also showed that there is no community-level management system to reduce flooding. The study suggests that measures to address flooding by ensuring water permeability of land surface is not sufficient and should be combined with increasing plinth height and improving drainage infrastructure. Also, land use management and integrated community flood management system are recommended.
In recent years, disappearance of villages in the area between the hilly and mountainous area is concerned, reorganization of the village is an urgent issue. Therefore, in this paper, we focused on the Village Activities to quantitatively show the decline of 'Village Functions'. We extracted 'the Village Activity' from the statistics of agriculture and forestry statistics, and we grasped the characteristics of the village. In addition, we conducted a hearing survey and a questionnaire survey in the Kuriyama Area to grasp the details of the Village Activities.
From the village statistical data, in the location characteristics, it was quantitatively understood that the village area and the land use situation greatly differed from village to village. In terms of population characteristics, we found that there were villages whose population did not decrease although the population decreased in many villages in the city. In 'the Village Activities' characteristics, we grasped the number of meetings and environmental conservation activities. In specific villages, there were few 'the Village Activities' that were judged from the number of meetings and activities for environmental conservation activities. Therefore, it can be said that in these settlements, 'Village Functions' tends to decline.
In cluster analysis based on the village statistical data, the characteristics of the village were observed by classifying it from the three items of "Land use", "Population" and "the Village Activity". In Nikko City, there were 14 types.
In Nikko City, there were 60 villages corresponding to "Rural Farmer Type", followed by "Rural Many Type" with 29 villages. In addition to these 2 types, the 6 types of "Mountain Farmer Type", "Aged Mountain Type", "Mountain Many Type", and "Aged Rural Type" had both types of "Active Type" and "Low Activity Type". On the other hand, the "City Farmer Type" and the "City Many Type" were only "Active Type".
From the questionnaire and hearing surveys, it was understood that 'the Village Activity' were regularly carried out several times a year, mainly for cleaning and maintenance. Among them, we found that there are organizations and activities that have become declining due to the aging of the population and the lack of personnel, and the activities have become difficult. On the other hand, there was also a movement to maintain the Village Activities with human support from outside.
By comparing the results of the questionnaires and hearing surveys with the village statistical data, it was understood that the current 'the Village Activity' can be evaluated with statistical data. However, even in the villages where the Village Activities is statistically expressed as "Active Type" by cluster analysis, it can be said that 'the Village Activity' by the fact-finding tends to decline compared to before.
Among the villages that were judged as "Active Type", there were some people who participated in village activities from outside the village even if they did not live on a daily. Specifically, people who originally lived in the village or relatives of residents in the village.
In this paper, we clarified the spatial distribution of villages judged as "Active Type" and "Low Activity Type", and grasped the cooperation of villages as a reality. It was confirmed that villages that were statistically declining could maintain 'the Village Activity' by cooperating.
In Japan, the owners can make decisions of design changes and pending issues for various reasons in phase of construction. Although those changes are mostly requested by owner, all additional cost or some can not always be allowed in negotiation between owners and general contractors. On the other hand, in U.S., the method is based on the contract so that the contractors can negotiate with owners about the additional cost for design changes.
This paper focuses on design changes and additional cost approval, to clarify the differences between Japan and U.S. on the construction contract agreement and their processes.
The paper shows conclusions as follows;
1. With this Japan-US comparison, the differences of the construction contract agreement are clarified in the articles for design changes, additional costs, claims, and allowances (Table 1).
2. Japan-US Comparison research of owner or contractor initiated design changes and additional costs processes in 4 projects (2 projects in Japan, and 2 project in the United States) revealed that; (Fig. 1-6 and Table 2)
a. In Japan, the responsibilities who take risk on design changes and additional costs are not clear and the decision making of the payment of additional costs are relied on the negotiation between owners and contractors for each project.
b. In the United States, the responsibilities are related to the owner when the design changes are requested by the owner or if it comes from design errors, omissions, and inconsistencies. Accordingly the payment belongs to the owner’s contingency.
c. In the United States, owners can settle allowances for pending issues in design phase. It can be adjusted by Change orders with depending on the actual construction cost.
d. In the United States, if owners do not pay the additional costs for design changes, contractors can negotiate with owners by claim clause in the construction contract agreement.
3. With this Japan-US comparative research of the system of design change and additional cost approval, it revealed some problems on Japanese process system as follows;
· The responsibility and risk for the additional cost is not clear between the owner and the contractor on design changes.
· Provisional specifications are not clarified on the contract documents.
Food security is a challenging urban issue, especially when we observe inequitable urban growth. In the United States, over 30 to 40% of food supply goes to waste, while many people do not have access to proper nutrition in urban neighborhoods, so-called food deserts. To bridge the gap between excess food supply and lack of accessibility to healthy food, non-profit organizations have been offering gleaning programs to urban communities. Gleaning has gained popularity, and the number of programs is rapidly growing. This article reviews the rise of the gleaning program (hereafter GP) in the United States and discusses the successes and challenges of case study programs mainly from the west coast cities through interviews with program coordinators. Also, the author conducted a participant survey and interviewed volunteer gleaners.
First, the list of GPs in the United States was assembled based on previous studies and additional inputs from the gleaning organization network. The list contains GPs’ locations, recovery food resources, number of partner organizations, and legal entities of GPs’ operations. This list shows that
1) GPs are the most densely located in the Pacific region, followed by the Northeast region.
2) Popular food resources vary by geographical location. In the Pacific region, where the climate is relatively mild, gleaner organizations harvest most from the private properties. The Mountain region results in a very similar distribution of the recovery food resources. On the other hand, the majority of the food recovered from the farm and agricultural land in the other regions.
3) Legal entities of the most GPs are categorized as non-profit organizations, 503(c)(3).
Through the interview with the GPs’ organizers, the paper reveals common challenges for GPs’ daily operation. The typical challenges include; 1) funding, 2) logistic, especially during the harvesting season, 3) volunteer/ harvest resources management, and 4) understanding of the local dietary need and culture.
The author conducted a participatory survey in San Jose, California, and interviewed volunteer gleaners to understand their motivations and GP’s roles in the community. Some placed value on reducing food waste and achieving food security in an urban environment. Many participants also appreciated that they could learn through gleaning activity and enjoy access to fresh produce, and work in nature. This result represents GP’s reciprocal stewardship. GP’s volunteers take care of the land and recovering food for low income families, and in return, they enjoy themselves through GP’s activities.
The article concludes with 1)recommended strategies and suggestions from case studies for sustainable gleaning programs operation in an urban setting, and 2) discussion of the three-tier role of GP (as an alternative food source, as community assets, and as a form of stewardship) in a community.
The Sarugaku, similar to the Noh performance, was popular among the ordinary people. As a result of personal love of the Third Shogun Yoshimitsu Ashikaga, gained the position of the entertainment to the nobility. From the age of six Shogun Yoshinori Ashikaga, the Noh stage was become to build temporarily in the Government Office and the Daimyo's mansions to entertain the important guests for the political uses. At last the Noh stage was permanently established as one of the architectural elements constituting the Edo Castle Honmaru Great Hall where the most important ritual of the Edo shogunate would be held. This paper is trying to elucidate the reason why the Noh stage was built in the ceremonial space of the government agency and the circumstances leading up to its formation. This paper sturdy about the 6th Shogun Yoshinori Ashikaga period.
Yoshinori Ashikaga was chosen as the 6th Muromachi Shogun when he was 36 years old who loved the Kanze's Sarugaku. Immediately Yoshinori moved to Sanjobomon-dono, built a Noh stage in the southern courtyard in front of the Shinden. He held Sarugaku performances intended to make opportunities to gather political dignities, and to confirm the feudal relationships with the guests. Yoshinori not only loved Sarugaku, used the event of Sarugaku politically. And he used the Noh for one of the public events of Shogunate with Kanze as the Sarugaku-Tayu. In 1431, Yoshinori moved to Muromachi-dono, and until 1441 he held the Sarugaku for various reasons as follows.
New Year's comfort for Mrs. as Annual events of the shogunate
Entertainment for a special guest of the Shogunate
An event to make opportunities to gather political dignities
Comfort to vassal
A victory celebration
Entertainment for Shogun in the Residences of Daimyo.
Entertainment for Shogun by the temples
Entertainment in the Ex-Emperor palace.
For these needs, Kanze had been employed to perform for such events. And the government had become to held the Sarugaku for official use.
The Noh stage had get place in the courtyard of Government agency, Imperial Palace, The Temples and the Residences of Daimyo. And the architectural style of Noh stage had been formed and the manners to enforce the events gradually. But the style of Noh stage was still temporary construction.
So far, Inagaki Ezo who was donated the sketch book left by J. Conder has knitted an essay, and Suzuki Hiroyuki discussed the contents in "Josiah Conder no kentiku-kan to Nihon". The author has already considered the individual sketches, such as for the Nobi earthquake that occurred in October 1891, the stone survey of the parliament building conducted by Conder from 1887 to 88, and the sketch of the castle. Suzuki points out that: In the illustration used in Notes on Japanese Architecture, the first paper for the Conder read at the Royal Architect's Association on March 4, 1878, a copy of the original picture published in the sketch book was found. Here, Suzuki introduced Conder's first paper, and Suzuki thought that Conder had been eagerly walking around Japanese architecture since the spring of 1877, sketched it, and compiled this paper. In addition, Suzuki has compiled a comparison table between the illustrations of the Conder First Paper and the original drawings, and Suzuki showed that in the first paper, Conder used seven sketches from the sketchbook. In other words, Suzuki does not have a yearbook for the illustrations published in Conder's first paper, but these were drawn between Conder's arrival in January 1877 and March 1878 when the paper was published. Indicated. By the way, Suzuki did not show the time, purpose and the motivation of the original painting used in Conder's first paper. On the other hand, Conder himself wrote as follows at the beginning of the first paper.
In venturing to connect some sketches made by me in Japan with a short Paper upon Japanese Architecture, I feel no small measure how imperfect is the knowledge that I have as yet been able to accumulate on the subject.
Conder associated the sketch with the paper, but did not draw the sketch for the sake of the paper. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the background of these sketches and when and what buildings were drawn. This article focuses on the sketches in the sketch books by J. Conder, focusing on the original article cited in Conder's first paper. The following points are clear.
In Conder's first paper, Notes on Japanese Architecture, eight illustrations were used, and seven can be confirmed as original drawings in Conder's sketch book. In addition, the description of May 1877 can be confirmed on one of them. Of the seven original drawings, the 6 buildings Kameido Tenjins Gate and Main Hall (part), Ueno Toshogu Karamon Gate, Asakusa Honganji Temple Hall, Hie Shrine Copper Sculpture, Zojoji Kyozo, and Bunsyo-in Reibyo Syoro. Conder imposes photocopying to the first-year students of Kobu University, which was held every Saturday at Nijubashi, Ueno Park, Shiba Park, Kameido, Hie Shrine, and others. Conder made the sketch for Kobu Daigakko's first graders, this was done every Saturday at Nijuba-shi, Ueno Park, Shiba Park, Kameido and Hie Shrine. He thought that building sketches were necessary to cultivate modeling skills. It can be considered that the original sketch used in his first paper was carried out at this time. In the Conder sketchbook, the sketch depicting the double bridge before the replacement is left.
The author has considered the spread of nails and the changes in prices during the Meiji era in the previous article. The price of the Western nails since at least 1885 became clear from the explanation of “Chugai-bukka-Shinppo”the business situation of Yokohama City, which was published in Chugai Price News. As a result, the price of the Western nails since at least 1885 became clear from the explanation of the Yokohama business, which was published in Chugai-Bukka-Shimpo. Comparing this with the price of Japanese nails in the written estimates of Kaichi-Gakko in 1875, the price of nails in 1885 were already 1/21 that of Japanese nails in 1875, furthermore, it shows that it was about 1/50 at the end of the Meiji era. Regarding the appearance of nails before 1885, it was revealed that imports of "tetsukugi-rui", "kugisao-rui" and "kugitetsu-rui" from 1877 to mid-Meiji 20 (1887) will be listed in Chugai Price Newspaper. And this indicates that Japanese nails and Western nails were used together because “Kugitetsu-rui” were imported and Japanese nails in were made in Japan.
However, no consideration has been given to the actual state of the import of nails before the Meiji 10 (1877) period, that is, the earliest period. The purpose of this paper is to show the timing of the start of the import of nails and to clarify the change in prices at the time when the import of nails began, and the following points became clear.
The most pioneering article on the import of nails is from the THE JAPAN HERALD., published on April 16, 1864, with "Nail-rod" recorded at $ 4.25 to $ 4.50 per picul = 60.48 kg. Since then, Nail-rod's price has been reported to be 415 on English paper until 1873. Considering the exchange rate and price fluctuations, the price of Nail-rod on April 16, 1864 was 1, which was about 0.3 in the early Meiji era. The price of nail-rod during this period was not linked to prices, and had a close relationship with Japanese iron, which was widely distributed in Japan. To be precise, it can be considered that the influx of cheap iron and nail-rod reduced the price of Japanese iron after the end of the Edo period.
The project of the Imperial Palace started with designing the draft plan by the Imperial Household Agency. Although the draft plan was approved by the cabinet, the realized version was significantly deferent. Therefore, it is assumed that the over all design concept was changed. The purpose of this paper is to show the design concept of the realized plan by analyzing the statements of Ryoichi Takao, who was leading this project after the cabinet's approval, and Junzo Yoshimura, who worked out the basic design. Moreover, this paper conducts an analysis of comparison of two designs to show the changes been made after the draft plan and design concept reflected the realized plan.
As in the Takao’s opinion the appearance of the draft plan was intimidating, he changed the process of project management in order to alter its design. Yoshimura had been selected for the position of chief designer and design period was extended. Takao also proposed in design condition the idea to widen the forecourt in order to hold the general palace visit, and requested the design of the palace appearance to expresses a close relationship with citizens.
At the expert hearing before the inauguration of the designer, Yoshimura claimed that the appearance of the new palace should be simple and light with no exaggeration, and express the Japanese tradition in the modern sense. On the other hand, after the inauguration, his statements mainly focused on the conservation of the surrounding historical landscape including Edo castle ruins and the relationship between the garden and building.
The analysis of the realized plan shows its design is based on Takao and Yoshimura's ideas, as following. In terms of organization of plan (Fig. 1), the arrangement of seiden―the most formal building was changed, placed on the west side with its facade turn to the East, which allowed the ceremonial section buildings move to the west side, and enlarge the forecourt on the east side enough for the general palace visit. In connection with this, the car route was placed on the east and north side of the site, which allowed to enlarge the south garden designed in the draft plan. On the south part of the palace, the ceremony route for the attendance was arranged through the passage with no large room placed on it, which enabled them to gain a view to the garden.
In terms of the appearance (Fig. 4, 5), Japanese style design of the palace emphasizing the horizontality was enabled through the development of the roof structure (Fig. 6). The copper roof with large eaves was meant to look light by gentle pitch of the roof and thin edge of the eaves. The facade of each building was composed by slender elements such as thin columns and vertical mullions of glass window, beams between upper wall and window. Besides, the parking lot was planned under the forecourt in order to make the facade and forecourt appearance (Fig. 8) neat and clean in consideration of the sequence of scenery when approaching from the outer garden of the Imperial Court (Fig9).
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of Charles Robert Ashbee’s inquiry into the machine by analysing his words and diagrams that deal with Art Education. The findings provided in each chapter are as follows.
In Chapter 2, Ashbee’s theory of art education is outlined, where he opines that arts and crafts are ruined by architecture which should integrate them as one with nature. It may be said that his advocacy of art education is aimed at the restoration of architecture as “the mother art, ” and the education of architects plays an important role. It should not only develop their knowledge on architecture and drawing skills, but also foster situation of sharing their line of work with other workmen.
In Chapter 3, through four sections, the following aspects of Ashbee’s thoughts on the problems of the machine are explained. On one hand, he inquires the relation of art and the machine, and characterizes the machine as a tool under control rather than used competitively. For the achievement of this desirable condition, the community of workshop is required. Through reconstruction of workshop culture, he aims for the growth of craftsmen from being technical to imaginative, and the application of a standard of excellence to the standardization. On the other hand, Ashbee cares about the connection between society and the machine, and insists on the necessity of the socialized mechanical power and its cooperative control. Moreover, he is attentive to polluting factors, such as dust and noise, caused by industrial machinery. He states his concerns about the relationship between society and the machine because he regards a city as a fundamental community from the 1910s. Ashbee envisions art institutes or craft museums as the new centres of city, with new villages that provide foodstuffs directly to the metropolis. He arrives at the realization that organizations are based on producers in the city’s centre as well as its outskirts.
This report also reveals three aspects of Ashbee’s method of thinking about problems of the machine. The first is the inquiry into origin, e.g., his attention to the hands and minds of workmen, his planning of a central building as a control centre of the mechanical power, and his view on the country’s soil. The second is the orientation toward integrality. For instance, his zest for imaginative production as an individual, his interest in community as a group, and his longing for architecture. The third is the search for a gradual solution, such as the growth of craftsmen and the application of a standard, as aforementioned. This attitude is symbolized by the words of “by degrees.”
This paper picks up Villa Muller (1930) designed by Adolf Loos. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the spatial athleticism of Villa Muller. I refer to the book of Leslie van Duzer and Kent Kleinman in Villa Muller, A Work of Adolf Loos, Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. When they analyze the Raumplan, they use the idea, “the stationary and mobile subjects”. They try to analyze interior space through physical and visual athleticism. They point out that Villa Muller has had both subjects of stationary and mobile. Interior space had stationary situation basically and mobile situation was in it. Such ambiguity situation is characteristic in Villa Muller, they said. I refer to their point of view and rebuild it called the spatial athleticism including a material point of view (the mobile subjects by finishing materials in particular). van Duzer and Kleinman don’t connect the mobile subjects by finishing materials with the characteristic of the Raumplan positively.
Picking up the spatial athleticism is to get the perceptual images of space. I think that the images of space have two kinds of images. One is the existence of space and the other is the appearance of space. The existence of space is a composition of space such as the shape of plan, the numbers of columns and so on. The appearance of space is phenomena and experience by human movements.
The spatial athleticism as the existence of the space is to examine a flow (mobile) and stagnation (stationary) in the interior space as a kind of fluid. We can confirm it by a drawing and evaluate a flow and stagnation by the shape of plan and connection of the room. On the other hand, the appearance of space is perceptual experience. For the visual perception, we can evaluate it as continuation (mobile) and division (stationary) when an image of the space shifts from the scene to the scene by human movements.
In the entrance, travertin is used on the floor of the approach and the wall of the entrance. When the travertin leads eyes from the floor to the wall, the mobile situation changes the stationary situation. In the entrance hall and anterroom, using the brick tiles on the floor, the mobile situation is generated. But the symmetrical architectral elements of anterroom create stationary situation when the colors of the green glass wall of the entrance hall and blue ceiling of the anterroom lead eyes from the wall to the ceiling. In the main hall, the marble wall creates the enclosure. But in the entrance of the main hall, the marble wall is protruded from the main hall and the mobile situation is generated. The marble wall continues to other rooms. In the dining room, the marble wall from a walkway enter in it. However the marble wall has the distance with architectural elements of dining room. That’s why the stationary situation by the dining room and mobile situation by the marble wall are lived together. The boudoir has mobile situation by the irregular plan. But the regular form of the ceiling is generated by lemon wood wall, and the stationary situation is also there.
In conclusion, it clarified that the harmony between the stationary and mobile situation are also generated by the finishing materials in Villa Muller.
1. The purpose of this paper: is to reconstruct the design process of Yonago Public Hall (1958) and to reveal architects’ formal manipulations which must imply their strategic design thinking.
2. The study material: was the total 230 of original design sketches and drawings possessed by Kyoto Institute of Technology.
3. The methodology: was focused on the morphological tool used to solve the design tasks. The idea of transformability (potential transformation possibility which the designer thought at design) was proposed and explained which may appear as simultaneous formal variation or sequential formal changes.
4. The chronological order of the design sketches and drawings: was established by date inscriptions and formal matchings as Table 1 and 2. The partial processes called "study" were subdivided according to sketching and depicted shape identities.
5. The morphological analysis on transformability: was discussed as follows:
[Study 1] on building distribution on the site: shows dynamic variation as see in Fig. 4. Civic quarter was used as a connector bridging main and smaller halls and various shapes for exterior space were tested.
[Study 2] on sectional composition and the structure of the main hall: shows the transformations related to sight and projection lines and induced various structural modulations appeared in Fig. 5.
[Study 3] on integration attempt of the main hall and civic quarter: shows the elimination of the smaller hall and thus floorage reduced. The building form became integrated into a simple rectangle as see in Fig. 7.
[Study 4] on disintegration attempt of the civic quarter from the main hall: shows disintegration process of the civic quarter from the main hall. The civic quarter go laterally along the hall first, then it was displaced to the backside as see in Fig. 8. As the result, the interior volume of the hall was exposed and became the principal manifestation of the design. The structure of the main hall opened like fan shape, and final composition realized.
[Study 5] concluding schematic design: shows geometric adaptation and detailing attempt to finalize the schematic design as see in Fig. 9. A model was prepared for the presentation held at the Yonago-city on Dec. 1956 as see in Fig. 10. Perspective drawing of Fig. 11 was published in new year issue of Yonago-city news letter.
[Study 6] concluding working design: shows very limited changes as see in Fig. 12, which are: shell structure application to roof and side walls, direction change of outside evacuation staircase, and elaboration of the foyer column section. The working drawings were prepared in the end of Feb. 1957, although additional drawings were going to be issued even after the construction started in Apr. 1957.
Total formal manipulation conducted by the architects: was charted as Table 3 and relevant notices were pointed as follows:
1）In the first 2 studies, the architect scanned wide range of transformability, yet it became more and more specific in late studies.
2）The dramatic formal change in the [Study 4] was predicted in preliminary sketches in the early [Study 1 and 2].
3）Design thinking in adopting to the requirements was observed such as: effective use of exterior space, continuity / separation of the main hall and civic quarter, ensuring appropriate sightline / evacuation route and constant reduction of floorage.
Japan has many small shrines located at street corners, near farms and fields, and in the mountains. This paper discusses how small shrines in Tokyo brought about changes in the early “Meiji period (1868-1912)” that drastically reformed the Shinto shrine system from the urban history perspective. An inspection of the actual situation of these shrines, especially “unranked shrines” is possible by analyzing the administrative documents of Tokyo Prefecture during this period.
Firstly, there is a clarification of several legal characteristics of “unranked shrines” in the early Meiji period. Shrines, which were called “unranked shrines, ” were not shrine ranked in the modern shrine ranking system but were officially recognized by the government as Shinto shrines. “Unranked shrine” was the customary shrine ranking in order to distinguish these official shrines from unofficial ones. There were some differences between ranked and unranked shrines regarding money and administration.
Chapter 3 reveals the situation relating to the administration of unranked shrines in Tokyo by interpreting historical documents sent by Shinto priests to the Tokyo Prefectural Government. All unranked shrines were assigned to ranked shines and a Shinto priest of the ranked shrine perform administrative and ritual duties of unranked shrines. Many unranked shrines hired shrine keepers to carry out daily work to avoid the difficulty of administration. Unranked shrines needed to bear the expense for hiring shrine keepers, holding festivals, and repairing the shrine temple.
The first half of chapter 4 see the restoration of the process of officially regulating unranked shrines in Tokyo. Unranked shrines were regulated in stages as the ranked shrines were graded on a massive scale (four times in Tokyo). There seems to be no regularity regarding the number of unranked shrines assigned to each ranked shrine. It could be inferred that this was not decided by the shrine’s ranking or its number of Shinto priests, especially since some shrines that were graded higher ranks were not assigned any unranked shrines.
The latter half of chapter 4 defines the relation between the administrative system of unranked shrines and the Ujiko system through analyzing the logic of the formation of the administrative relationships between ranked and unranked shrines by relating them to Ujiko-iki areas. The administrative relationships between ranked and unranked shrines did not vary in stages like the associations of shrines organized according to the shrine ranking system. Furthermore, promotion and demotion of unranked shrines were managed in each Ujiko-iki area. This shows that the administrative relationships between ranked and unranked shrines were formed based on each Ujiko-iki area. The government attempted to unify the administration of all shrines based on the Ujiko system. Believers of unranked shrines were also the Ujiko of the ranked shrines that the shrine was assigned to.
Therefore, in Tokyo during the Meiji period, the administration of “unranked shrines” was constructed based on the dual logic of the modern Ujiko system and the actual belief of unranked shrines.
Geoffrey Bawa’s Circle can be defined as the collaborators and friends of Geoffrey Bawa, such as architect, artist and designer. Bawa had a close relationship and influence between Bawa’s Circle efforts indirectly because Bawa himself looked into old and traditional architecture supported and requested by his first client asking for a house, the Deraniyagala family in the same period of design survey by Bawa’s Circle. Among Geoffrey Bawa’s Circle, especially Ulrik Plesner and Barbara Sansoni had started to research old buildings in Sri Lanka for re-evaluating and exploring vernacular and traditional architecture. Ulrik Plesner was the closest partner, or architect, to Geoffey Bawa from 1959 to 1967, and Barbara Sansoni was the designer and supplied handlooms for hotels designed by Bawa. They wrote 54 articles and drawings on Ceylon Daily Mirror, which is popular newspaper from 1961 to 1963 as the outcomes of design survey by Bawa’s Circle. Ulrik Plesner was in charge of texts, Barbara Sansoni of drawings collaboratively. She developed their design survey to be published as “VIHARES + VERANDAHS CEYLON” in 1978 by herself.
We have collected 54 articles of Ceylon Daily Mirror at the Department of National Archives in Colombo, Sri Lanka. And we classified into three types through the analysis of 47 old buildings they had researched from articles and Barbara’s book; houses, religious buildings, and public architecture and so on.
There were 18 cases of houses and they had focused on vernacular houses on the road, walawwas or manor houses as well as the colonial bungalow. And there were 18 cases of religious buildings, Buddhist temples, Hindu shrines, churches or chapels and the mosque. It is especially characteristic that the Buddhist temple in Sri Lanka had the Devale which is the Hindu shrine inside the site historically. Finally, there were 11 cases of public architecture and so on. They had not only buildings, but also old paintings and map. In common of three building types, we found Bawa’s Circle had much interest, and reevaluated not only various style of architecture in the long history of Sri Lanka, but also the relationship between regional climate and spacial structure, materials, architectural details and technique of craftsmanship. They found the value of various and big roof made of tiles. On the other hand, they had focused on the relationship between the inner court (midula) and the lifestyle in houses, especially walawwas or manor houses. Moreover, they had introduced the materials and detail design of fittings, windows and doors in terms of micro scale precisely. In case of religious buildings, it was very important for them to explore the relationship between the environmental surroundings and religious buildings from the viewpoint of landscape and townscape macro scale.
Finally we noted that design survey by Bawa’s Circle could not contribute to the preservation of old and traditional architecture in Sri Lanka enough, but completed the splendid archives of them and reevaluated old religious architecture and houses like Embekka temple.
Levuka was ohosen as the first oapital of Fiji when it beoame British oolony. It was evaluated that Levuka retains evidenoes of its history from early European settlement to the present, and it was insoribed on the World Heritage list in 2013. Buildings of British oolonial period remine in this area, and Levuka is valued as an important site to understand the development of the South Paoifio. However, Levuka was pointed out about laok of the basis for aotive oonservation and monitoring, and plans for the oonservation plans by ICOMOS at the registration. And Levuka has same problems still now. In order to solve these problems, we should understand the value of historioal buildings in Levuka. This paper is to eluoidate the value and oharaoteristios of historioal buildings in Levuka.
We used five survey methods: aotual measurement, traoe researoh, bibliographio survey, interview and photograph oomparison. We drew building plans and seotions, further identified original plans from detailed fabrio investigations inoluding analysis of traoes on eaoh fabrio to understand the development prooesses of the buildings. The way of using eaoh room was analyzed based on interviews. The researoh subjeot is mainly dwelling, paying attention to the relationship between the ohange in the layout and the lifestyle. Historioal buildings of Levuka are olassified into 3 patterns; Residenoes, Shop houses and Publio Buildings. This researoh foouses about residenoes.
Historioal buildings in Levuka are bungalow style buildings. Eaoh of them is oomposed of main roofs and eaves. The most of the residenoes have the same form and the bungalow style is also used for some publio buildings. Levuka’s historioal buildings do not have oomplex main roofs like a “oatalogue house”. It is a simple shape to attaoh a verandah around a reotangular house.
Levuka's residenoes have following oharaoteristios.
・Veranda has been ohanged to indoors and the number of rooms has inoreased.
・As the result of olosing verandahs, bedrooms moved from oentral oores to the front verandahs.
・Passages were oreated for to keep independenoe for bedrooms.
・Living rooms were expanded by oonneoting verandahs and oentral rooms.
Currently, many of verandahs are olosed and divided. Looal people use verandahs as bedrooms, living rooms and bathrooms. And most houses have made large openings between oentral rooms and verandahs. These rooms are used as living rooms. Before the verandahs were olosed, verandahs did not have walls and the rooms were only in oentral oore. It is an old style that there are bedrooms in oentral oore. The same type houses exist in Levuka. In the buildings in olosed verandahs are very dark and ventilation is very poor. The bedrooms and living rooms were moved to the verandahs seeking for improvement of living performanoe.
Additionally it is presumed that people tried to improve oomfortability by oonneoting oentral oores with verandahs so as to oreate large rooms and gain daylight and ventilation. I speoulate that passage was no longer important beoause the living room was expanded.
We thought that house plans in Levuka ohanged as follows. The first form is a oentral oore with verandah, and the seoond form is olosed baok verandah. And then some houses made passage in oentral oores and olosed front verandahs. At the end, bedrooms were moved from oentral oores to verandahs and living rooms were expanded. The funotion of the passage was no longer oonsidered important beoause Fijian lifestyle is oentralized in a living room.
In Building Information Modeling (BIM), all structures are represented as 3D models. The model includes huge data which is proceeded in its whole life cycle. To improve the productivity of the design and construction process, an environment in which many stakeholders can share the 3D model data and work cooperatively and concurrently is needed. Such an environment would be "BIM Data Sharing System" on the Internet, where all users can upload, share, and modify the product model data.
However, there are many kinds of versions of IFC schema, which are IFC2x3, IFC4, IFC4x1, etc. It is very difficult to support all of these schemas for a developer of the system, and it would need much cost to support them. Therefore, we thought that a method to transparently process different versions of BIM data stored in the DBMS is necessary.
We propose to use a graph DBMS to develop the "BIM Data Sharing System" for BIM and develop a novel data model to store BIM data in the graph DBMS. The graph DBMS is one that is based on graph theory. It is possible to manage graphs configured by edges that have directionality for linking nodes together. In order to use this as a general-use data store, it is possible to retain labels and properties (values identified by a key) for each node and edge. It is possible to retain one label and multiple properties for each node and edge. This model is called a property graph model.
Convert IFC instances into property graph models which are graph DBMS data models. It is possible to convert an IFC instance into a property graph model while maintaining the structure substantially as it is by associating one instance of an IFC instance to one node, and associating relationships between instances to edges. Also, attribute values of each instance are retained as properties of the node. We show that any complete BIM data can be stored in a graph DBMS by using this method.
First, it was shown that the devised data model can reduce the amount of difference by calculating the similarity between BIM data of IFC2x3 and IFC4. Next, From the BIM data of the parking garage which is described by IFC2x3 and IFC4 schema, the number of windows was calculated using the same query for the graph DBMS product named Neo4j. Finally, the same results could be obtained with the same query despite targeting different versions of BIM data.
By successfully using the IFC schema inheritance information, we were able to calculate the same quantity from different versions of BIM data in a transparent way. However, in an actual BIM information sharing system, usecases other than quantity calculation are also necessary. Therefore, we intend to develop a BIM data processing method that also supports other usecases.