As a basic research for the evacuation safety of Korean elderly residencial facilities, a survey on the actual status of residents’ evacuation ability and disaster coping system. The study reveals notable the similarity of evacuation ability of the residents to that of surgery department in hospital wards. Also, in case of fire at night, every employee in some facilities should evacuate 20 persons or more. In order to alleviate the burden on the staff, early fire detection and notification are regarded as important, and it is urgent to take disaster prevention measures and adopt disaster prevention facilities in buildings.
Kosts are popular urban room rental facilities in Indonesia in which tenants from various backgrounds live together and share the common space. As the majority do not comply with the regulations, many are unregistered, overcrowded, and have low living condition. This study analyzes kosts' social environment and issues based on tenants' experience through questionnaire and interviews. Tenants tend to be tolerant, adaptable, and positive toward kosts' living environment, but lack of sense of belonging to their neighborhood. Tenant-neighborhood interactions and mutual views tend not to exist. Public education, strict regulations, effective neighborhood information system, and domain for regular interactions are necessary for improvement.
This study aims to clarify spatial composition of residential environment which was spontaneously created in squatter area along drainage channel in Steung Mean Cheay in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Occupation by dwellers was started in 1985 forming residential area above drainage channel and lands along with the channel. As of 2011, there are 75 households and 301 inhabitants living in the area. The area so–called as slum or squatter is regarded as a place to be cleaned out from the standpoints of its vulnerability to natural disasters, criminality and hygienic environment. On the other hand, it can be evaluated as the habitation with a variety of living activities, cultivating fertile community and spontaneous/continuous self–build3). This study focuses on Steung Mean Cheay, as a case of spontaneous formulation of living environment in squatter area which provides wealthy living environment by individual renewal of housings, to clarify composition of external space in the settlement which is formulated by individual self–build activities without changing building sites and landform. Characteristics of spatial composition in spontaneous living environment along drainage channel are concluded below.
Housing plan is classified into four types with two basic spatial patterns as “living access” and “separated kitchen”. Intermediate areas are classified into five types which are planned to ensure connection between spaces outside home. External space is utilized for four types of activities: 1) personal activity, 2) household activity, 3) commercial activity and 4) leisure activity. Commercial and leisure activities are dominant among those activities. Females take important role to generate those activities. Intermediate space functions to formulate vibrant space with a variety of those activities. Cross sections of external space have a variety of patterns formulated by different ways of connection between lower, upper parts of the sections and intermediate spaces which keep changing frequently. These various types of sections as well as living activities at intermediate space stimulate vibrant views to pedestrians. Sequence of alleyways is varied due to following spatial factors; panoramic intermediate space, perspective and skew of alleyways and existence of external living activities. Those stimulant factors range at short, medium and long distance and induce pedestrians’ gaze–up action, which turns into a variety of perspectives.
1. Background and purpose of the research Recently many companies and universities build and hold their own childcare facilities. The purpose of this research is to investigate the process of establishment and the method of management of childcare facilities at universities. 2. Methodology of the survey This research consists of three contents. 1) The literature survey about the background and history of childcare centers in Japan 2) The literature and Internet survey about the establishment situation of childcare facilities at universities 3) The interview survey about the methods of childcare and management at each university 3. Summary of the research 1) There were two types of childcare centers － nursery and daycare center. However, since 1960s, several types of childcare facilities have been established by various demands of childcare services. 2) The literature and Internet research show that not only employer-provided childcare service but also seven more types of childcare services currently exist at universities. 3) The interview survey shows that childcare services at universities can be further classified into five types depending on the management methods as explained below and in Table 4: Authorized Type 1: The university only provides the site but social welfare corporation builds the facility at the site of the university and manages the childcare policy. Since this type of childcare facility is run by an organization of the community, the centers accept both children of the community and the university staff and teachers. Authorized Type 2: The government and the university build the facility. The purpose of this facility is to provide not only childcare but also a new educational program. Therefore, the university manages the facility and government supports operating expenses. Unauthorized Type 1: The university holds all rights of management and administration of the childcare facilities. Therefore, the university can plan the facilities based on the childcare policy of its own even by adopting the childcare workers' suggestion. However, childcare workers have to be engaged in the management in addition to daily childcare services. Unauthorized Type 2: The university holds the right of management but outsources the childcare service to an outside specialty organization. The survey shows this type is the most pervasive and reasonable planning method for universities. However, childcare workers are obliged to adapt to the facility even if the design of the facility is sometimes not suitable for the childcare policy; for instance, problems lie in the line of flow of the childcare workers and the design of the rooms. Unauthorized Type 3: The university builds the facility and PTA manages the facility. The problem of this type is that the member of PTA changes to the graduation of the child. 4. Conclusion The survey shows that even one organization － a university － has various types of childcare facilities. This result suggests that universities and other organizations have various alternatives to establish childcare facilities in the future.
This paper aims to explain the time and regional feature of junior high school consolidation process, after regulating the relation of transition of the number of schools and consolidation based on the database about the number of students of junior high school and established and closed schools in 1949‐2010 in Chugoku region. Although the definite number reduction of students was observed in city areas, there were comparatively little consolidation of schools until 2010. However, in the mountainous area, the rapid reduction of the number of students continued after rapid economic growth, consolidation of junior high schools were not avoided. However, correspondence of regional governments was not equal, there were many governments which streamlined at early stage, and there are some governments which streamlined the small-scale school availing of the merger of Heisei period. Even after the merger of Heisei period, the old administrative boundaries after the merger of Showa period correspond with school zones in 2010, and one junior high school has been maintained fundamentally. But if the trend in recent years which the number reduction of students continues is taken into consideration, the further reorganization over the old government will be predicted enough from now on. Therefore, in the regional governments of large area which include the mountainous areas after the merger of Heisei period, by positioning the school reorganization as the part of public-benefit facility reorganization plan, reexamination of the school arrangement plan including the role of public junior high school in the area, student's attending-school method, etc. is required for the local community maintenance of the old government area.
This study aims to evaluate impacts on living environment caused by the on-site slum improvement program implemented in Borei Keila district in Phnom Penh, Cambodia through interview survey to the residents who were relocated to collective housings built by the program.
At first, changes of general living conditions were confirmed quantitatively. Water leakage by rainfall, suffering around 70 percent of the residents in their previous housings, was completely improved by the program. Anxieties about eviction from their previous housings, in spite of the fact that around 90 percent of residents purchased those housings by themselves, were also eliminated by the program. Household income was decreased among 40 percent of residents because the residents were relocated to upper floors which resulted in worse condition in terms of the business opportunities. Association with neighbors in the district became less frequent while it became more frequent to invite their friends living outside the district to the new housings. Opportunities to communicate with neighbors and depth of relationship became less frequent and poor. Frequency of outing became lower than before as well.
We found twenty three criteria to evaluate the impacts of relocation by the program. Eight criteria were set to evaluate relocation housings, that is, “room layout”, “floor area”, “extension/reconstruction”, “verticalization of the building”, “parking”, “utilities” and “structural safety”. There are three evaluation criteria for living environment; “sanitation”, “security” and “noise”, five criteria for economic environment; “income”, “business opportunity”, “dwelling expense”, “public service” and “additional expenditure”, seven criteria for social relation; “personal relation”, “community”, “manner”, “site location”, “accessibility”, “ownership” and “relocation”. These criteria can be applied as the items to be taken into account for project implementation.
As for the housing units, the residents tend not to prefer one–room type apartment; moreover, they intend to extend and/or reconstruct their rooms. Meanwhile, some residents are also dissatisfied with additional expenses for reconstruction of their rooms. The residents are dissatisfied with the floor area which is the same for all residents regardless of their needs and with accessibility to the ground. They also concerns about structural safety of the buildings and its maintenance. The primary objectives of the program; resolving issues on sanitation, security and water leakage, are mostly solved. However, security issue was partially improved in conjunction with the new issues due to mutual distrust.
Although there are few cases of changing occupation owing to on–site relocation, the residents who used to operate their business in (or in front of) their previous houses were largely affected by the program. Some residents are still anxious about the right of occupation despite of the program implementation. Relationship between communities in the previous housings became weak due to selection of relocation address by a lottery, which can be interpreted as an issue on inheritance of previous living environment to the relocation site.
It is necessary to take into consideration the importance of inheriting previous living environment for the program in accord with the aforementioned issues to eliminate negative impacts of the program.
In long-term recovery after massive earthquakes, reconstruction governance (RG) protocol must be established considering diverse actors to adapt flexibly to changing circumstances. This study discloses the characteristics of four RG protocols employed in the aftermath of different earthquake disasters in Italy. In addition, these RG protocols are modelled into four models with two axes and their historical development processes are identified. The results reveal that four RG models have distinct characteristics that helped manage each catastrophic quake disaster. Hence, these models must be modified according to the actual situation in the aftermath of a future disaster.
In recent years, as the size of displays have become larger, the number of installed outdoor street vision around station intersections have increased year by year. However, there are not sufficient rules to regulate outdoor street vision. Besides, there are no previous studies that have quantitatively examined the causal relationship between physical environmental factors and psychological evaluation of the landscape with outdoor street vision. It is necessary to quantitatively consider the relationship between the physical environmental factors of outdoor street vision and human reactions. In addition, it is necessary to demonstrate concrete guidelines in order to maintain an attractive landscape. Therefore, landscape simulation experiments were conducted using a 1:100 model, in which physical environmental factors such as the number of installed street vision and its size were changed. Subsequently, based on the obtained data, the factors that prescribe landscape evaluation are quantitatively examined.
As a result of clarifying the factors that regulate landscape evaluation around the intersection of a station with outdoor street vision, the following three points were observed.
1) Landscape evaluation around station intersections was strongly influenced by outdoor advertisements. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the influence of outdoor street vision is stronger than those of wall advertisements and rooftop advertisement towers.
2) As a result of evaluating the landscape around the intersection in front of a station, it was confirmed that the feeling of bustle and sense of brightness increase in proportion to the size of the advertisements. Consequently, it was confirmed that the sense of cohesion and comfort decreased in inverse proportion to size of the advertisements. In addition, the bustle and brightness feelings increase when the installation ratio of the outdoor street vision is high, while the sense of cohesiveness and comfort are increased when the installation ratio of the outdoor street vision is low.
3) In the vicinity of the intersection in front of the station, the comfortable feeling is maximum with the installation ratio of the street vision of 2%. It would be better if there was no street vision than there was not. The installation ratio 5% to 5.5% is an equilibrium point that satisfies 4 scales. When this level is exceeded, the downside is conspicuous in terms of cohesiveness and comfort. It is the limit of the allowable range with the installation ratio of 8%. Based on the above findings, a landscape formation index around the station crossing is described. The upper limit of the percentage of street vision to be installed should be 5% to 5.5%, which is the equilibrium point. It is reasonable to set the allowable range to 8% or less.
Roundabout intersections began to be built in Western countries in recent years as a way to cross roads without the need for traffic lights. In Japan too, traffic regulations were amended, with the introduction of roundabout intersections. Subsequently, traffic regulations were enforced at roundabout intersections on September 1, 2014. The difference between roundabout intersections and crossroad intersections is based on how a vehicle enters and leaves an intersection. Specifically, the movement of a vehicle consists of two stages—entry into the intersection and exit from the intersection at a crossroad. On the other hand, at a roundabout intersection there are three stages, inflow into the roundabout, going around the central junction, and outflow from the roundabout. It is necessary to develop design guidelines that fully take into account the features of roundabout intersections and crossroad intersections. At present, when a roundabout is built, the lighting is designed based on guidelines meant for a crossroad intersection. However, that is dangerous for users because the specific requirements of a roundabout intersection are not taken into consideration. In previous papers, there have been many studies on traffic flow and vehicle behavior at a crossroad intersection. However, there are no studies that examine the relationship between the physical environment, i.e., the lighting at a roundabout intersection and the visibility of a driver at night. In this study, experiments were conducted in varying viewing conditions at night at the Hitachi Taga roundabout intersection in Hitachi City, Ibaraki Prefecture. Apart from this, visibility evaluation experiments were also conducted in varying lighting conditions. The following three findings were thus obtained on the role of lighting in illuminating a pedestrian to a driver entering and exiting a roundabout intersection at night. In this study, we conducted a visibility evaluation experiment in which the illumination conditions were changed in the case of changing the condition of the viewing subject at the Hitachi Taga circular intersection in Hitachi City, Ibaraki prefecture, at night, and in the nighttime experimental street, and the influx of the roundabout intersection At the time of departure, the following findings were obtained on the influence of nighttime lighting on the visibility of crosswalkers viewed from the driver.
1. Drivers' visibility of crossing pedestrians under crosswalk lighting was observed at the time of traffic inflow into and out of the roundabout intersection. In addition, the effect of a crossing pedestrian wearing a reflector at an illuminated roundabout intersection was noted. Visibility was also checked when there was no light to illuminate the crossing pedestrian wearing a reflector. However, the effect of lighting on the ability of a driver to see a pedestrian could not be established.The visibility of the right crosswalker waiter is lower at the time of inflow when turning to the left at the annual intersection at night as compared with the left side crosswalk waiting person as seen from the driver. 2. When a driver enters a roundabout intersection at night and immediately turns left, walkers on the right side are less visible than those on the left. 3. When the driver circumvents the roundabout after turning left, walkers on the left are less visible than those on the right.
These findings should be taken into consideration to frame new lighting design guidelines for roundabout intersections.
Many of the affected cities of the Great East Japan Earthquake are aiming to form compact cities. The purpose of this research is to clarify the formation situation of compact city by reconstruction project of Yamamoto Town, Miyagi prefecture. Three investigations were made for this purpose. These are the relocation of residents and the transfer from outside the town after the disaster, the trend of new construction of houses around the newly developed areas, and the questionnaire to the residents of newly developed areas and their surroundings. Number of the people relocating in the town after the earthquake per area of habitable land is many in three newly developed areas and their surroundings. Among the three newly developed areas, especially relocation to the area around the New Yamashita station is remarkable. This tendency is similar about those who transferred from outside the town after the earthquake. Newly built houses around the newly developed area are increasing rapidly only after the earthquake in the vicinity of the area around New Yamashita station. This suggests that housing demand is concentrated here. As a result of questionnaires to residents around New Yamashita station and surrounding areas of New Sakamoto station and those surrounding areas, the following points were revealed. The most common reason for transferring to the newly developed areas or their surrounding areas is the convenience. Evaluation that it became "convenient" as the change of living is the highest. Therefore, it became clear that convenience is the most important reason for choosing residence. In addition, various support systems related to subsidies etc. are widely used. About 40% cite this as a reason for transfer. Therefore economic support is also a major incentive. On the other hand, as a change in living, only about 70% of people in the Yamashita and Sakamoto districts have decreased "close association". Convenience was very low in the sprawled urban area before the disaster. However, the convenience was dramatically improved by newly developing three urban areas, especially two places around JR station. This results not only in the newly developed areas but also in existing urban areas around these areas. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the formation of the compact city that Yamamoto Town aims for has given a certain effect in terms of concentration of residents and improvement of convenience. On the other hand, there are many people who think that "close association has decreased", and it became clear that the formation of the community is still insufficient. The challenge is how to create future communities of those who relocated and transferred to new urban areas away from the community before the disaster.
After legalizing Short-Term Rentals (STR) in Japan “Minpaku”, a new type of accommodation is allocated in the residential buildings. Main objectives: 1) Examine the general trends of STR in Tokyo and potential impacts on the rental market. 2) Assess the Sense of community inside buildings, and STR's effect on the social context. Results showed a possible impact on the long-term rental market. A Survey based on the introduced constructs: “The Sense of Community in closed micro-communities” and “Intangible Commons” showed that sense of community could be affected by STR's presence, building scale, apartments' arrangement, and the type of tenure.
Proper management of facility failures and troubles (F/T) by maintenance personel is essential to maintain suitable indoor environments. Time to repair (TTR) is one of the most important elements when evaluating the maintenance quality of existing buildings. A previous study has investigated several factors which contribute to maintenance quality improvement (Takakusagi and Sudo et al.). In this study, F/T maintenance records of an office building and hospital were analyzed, and the effect of busyness levels of maintenance personel on the TTR of F/T was found to be one of the key performance indicators (KPIs). However, this research, regarding time to repair, had focused on understanding the conditions present at the facility. It is therefore necessary that future studies develop ways of reducing time to repair.
Despite its importance, few studies have been able to investigate the TTR due to the fact that maintenance records are preserved detailing completion of repair time or date. Even so, in a previous study the relationship between busyness and TTR in a large scale office building was able to be analyzed by the maintenance records (Komatsu and Takakusagi et al.). On the other hand, in our study, 622 maintenance records were obtained which contained not only the requisite TTR details, but also the work progress and other information exchanges at the scene, beginning with the occurrence of the F/T through to the final repair.
The objective of this paper was to explore methods which shorten TTR through analysis of the structure of maintenance work processes based on the PDCA cycle. First, we classified maintenance work by PDC (Plan, Do, Check) in detail, and made a flowchart of maintenance work along with a classification table. In the flowchart, routes of long-term work process and a pattern of coping with F/T promptly are shown. Interestingly, when the cause of the F/T is unknown, the number of maintenance steps increased about 3 steps compared with known causes. Likewise, when maintenance work of low appearance frequency was required, the steps required to repair the F/T was increased by 3 steps, on average.
The analysis of these data reveals that the TTR of F/T can be significantly shortened by clearly identifying F/T causes. In addition, this paper shows some examples of ACT for KAIZEN. On the other hand, this research itself is regarded as ACT by obtaining maintenance record data in the R&D building. Our approach for management technique, to analyze maintenance work processes and find its relationship with time to repair, will be influential with future research direction.
This research illustrates the process of the plan, design, and construction of National Gymnasium for Tokyo Olympics in 1964. Especially, the process can be classified as follows; the progress before determining designers, the process that designers are fixed for Kenzo Tange, Yoshikatsu Tsuboi, and Uichi Inoue, and the design change process of basic design, implementation design and field by Kenzo Tange. At that time, the following points are illustrated by using documents of National Archives which are not be noticed by researches of the past. (1) In 1961, a plan of establishing a basketball court together with a newly-built Olympic pool was emerged so that the name was changed from Olympic pool to National Gymnasium. (2) In the early study stage before deciding designers, it was expected to be the biggest pool in world which can hold 40,000 people. However, as the budgets reduced, the scale of the pool shrinked into 20,000 people, and movable roof was changed into fixed roof. (3) The premise of National Gymnasium is a vacant lot of Washington Heights. The negotiations of the return of Washington Heights with U.S Armed Forces dragged on. Therefore, there was only a small amount of time left for designing National Gymnasium, and Tange and the others are nominated as designers not by competition but by negotiated contracts. (4) When the return of Washington Heights has been decided, the U.S Armed Forces required Japanese government to construct dwellings in Cyofu instead of Washington Heights. Ministry of construction was charged in the design of dwellings, and nongovernmental design organization was charged in the design of National Gymnasium. (5) In the basic design phase, the decision of axis which would be the fundamental of National Gymnasium's design has been decided, and the consideration has begun from two types of roofs which were leaf form and pole form. (6) In the implementation design phase, there were two main cables for main gymnasium, and road spaces have been suggested to solve the difference in height in Yoyogi. In the result, big and small gymnasium were organically connected. (7) A number of design modifications were added at construction site. This showed that in addition to the adoption of design which was difficult to achieve by Tange and others, there were many requests for changing design from various parties.
This article examined conversion from Japanese nail to Western nail in the Meiji Era from the viewpoint of price. The following points were clarified. From the building documents of the Kaiti-Gakko, the price of Japanese nails in 1875 became clear, and in the case of nami-4-sun Japanese nail, it was 0.30 yen in 100 pieces. The actual length of this nami-4-sun size can be judged to be 1.2-sun from the description of "Kugi". By "Umemoto-Syoho" in January 1910, the price of western nail at that time becomes clear. According to this article, it was 1.5 -inch western nail that corresponds to the real length 1.2-sun Japanese nail. And the price of this western nail 1.5-inch was about 1/50 of the Japanese nail of 1875 when it corrected the influence of price based on the Wholesale price coefficient. By comparing with the market price of "Umemoto-Syoho" in January 1910, it can be judged that the price of western nails in “Meijiki-Osaka-Orosiuri-Buttka-Siryo” (4) was indicated by 1-kin of Japan. Moreover, from this result, it was possible to overview the change in Western nail price from 1892 to 1911. During this time, western nails fluctuated at the price of about 1/29 to 1/50 against Japanese nails in 1875. The Nail Market of the "Tyugai-Bukka-Sinpo" dated September 20, 1889 is valuable as a source of “Meijiki-Osaka-Orosiuri-Buttka-Siryo”(4). According to this article, at that time the price of western nails was about 1/28 of the price of Japanese nails in 1875. By "Koukoku" of Sumiya. S, Seki-Honmati, Mino, February 15, 1894, we can know the price of western nail. This price was in compliance with “Meijiki-Osaka-Orosiuri-Buttka-Siryo”(4), but it was increased by 10%. In other words, the price of Sumiya was considered to include expenses as a dealer.
This paper states concerning the characteristics of the Nihon-Shumi(Japan-Taste) architecture in Yokoamicho Park. These buildings are additional facilities of the Memorial Hall for Great Kanto Earthquake that discussed in ahead of this research. The paper clarified the construction process of Great Kanto Earthquake Memorial Museum which built in 1931. In this study, the project report of the Great Kanto Earthquake Association and materials in the storage of Memorial Hall for Great Kanto Earthquake are used as the main requirements to analyze the construction of the Memorial Museum. Also, the news articles are used as the requirements, 22pieces of articles were collected by the newspaper; Asahi, Yomiuri, Tokyo Nichi-Nichi, Miyako, Hochi which published in Tokyo and throughout Japan, From 1923 to 1931. As the result, the design of Memorial Museum has been changed 3 times. At first, the Museum was constructed from 9th November 1929 to 24th March 1930. The elevation was composed of symmetry influenced by classicism style. The Japanese shrines and temple style was well expressed in a roof and a piece of wood supporting deeply recessed eaves, esp. in Japanese shrines and temple construction, curve shape in decoration, garden lantern. However, the newspaper reported that the Museum's design changed on 3rd September in 1930 that was after the construction of Memorial Hall. The change was embodied the Japanese shrines and temple style such as the roof style, final of the pagoda. Finally, the design was changed again before the Memorial Museum's construction on 26th September 1930. The blueprint drawings that drew up on September 1930 shows that the floor plan based on the first plan, and the elevation plan based on the second plan. It can be inferred that the designer was Koichi Hagiwara, the construction engineer of the Great Kanto Earthquake Association. Also, the floor and elevation plan transformed to rectangle-shape, and the style was changed uniquely such as circle decoration in the door and the monster sculpture in elevation. In the 3rd design, the Japanese shrines and temple style changed to the modern and simple elements in the details of roof and door, etc. Furthermore, it had influenced by Art Deco Style and it could be presumed the possibility that the simple and modern style of 3rd design was related to the main designer, Hagiwara. He asserted that style through his other architectural activities. So, it makes clear that the design of Memorial Museum was originally planned to Nihon-Shumi(Japan-Taste) architecture. Also, it was mainly based on Japanese shrines and temple style as an extension of the Memorial Hall's design that was based on traditional Japanese style. But, Memorial Museum had adapted to the trend and suggested the new expression of Japanese shrines and temple style with details influenced by Art Deco style. Also, it can be assumed that Memorial Museum's design was reflected the times that was changing the concept to express Nihon-Shumi(Japan-Taste). The reason why the Museum planned Nihon-Shumi(Japan-Taste) architecture can guess the relations with the Memorial Hall which is the main building in Yokoamicho Park.
The purpose of this paper is to explore archaeological evidence in order to clarify the conceptual difference between center posts and gable posts in Chinese architectural history. The pair of center posts and gable posts conceptually corresponds to munamochi-bashira ridge-supporting posts in Japanese architectural history. In Japanese architectural history, however, no pair of clearly different concepts emerged relevant to munamochi-bashira ridge-supporting posts. To achieve the above-mentioned purpose, this paper places focus on the Yellow River basin area in northern China in the Neolithic era to understand the primordial conditions that led to the emergence of wooden structures with center posts and gable posts. The oldest Neolithic culture in the Yellow River basin was the Peiligang culture along the middle reaches of the Yellow River, followed by the Cishan culture along its middle and lower reaches, and the Laoguantai and Yangshao cultures along its upper and middle reaches. The Laoguantai, Cishan, and Peiligang cultures were early Neolithic cultures. The mainstream form of dwellings during the period was semi-cave dwellings. The Laoguantai, Cishan, and Peiligang cultures are considered precursory to the Yangshao culture. During the middle of the Yangshao culture, a gradual transition occurred from semi-cave dwellings to ground-level dwellings. The earliest ground-level dwellings emerged as wooden structure buildings with wooden posts arranged in neat order on their flat floor and earthfast posts (center posts or gable posts) erected from the ground for use as munamochi-bashira posts directly supporting ridge beams. This paper pays attention to cave dwellings, which emerged at the start of evolution of the earliest ground-level dwellings, and particular attention to the form of cave dwellings added with wooden posts to view this form as cave dwellings and wooden posts. To clarify how the wooden posts included in the initial form of cave dwellings were replaced with center posts/gable posts installed in the earliest ground-level dwellings, we investigated, in particular, the early Neolithic phases of the Laoguantai, Cishan, and Peiligang cultures, which are considered precursory to the Yangshao culture. Our investigation revealed that during the prehistoric era, two different methods were used for the exterior and interior of buildings in northern China, especially in the Yellow River basin. In other words, exterior perimeter walls originally emerged as mud walls containing no wooden members and then were gradually replaced with ones containing wooden members. As for interiors, single vertical wooden posts first came into use; then, paired or multiple wooden posts came to be used as separate vertical posts and were gradually replaced with ones used in combination with horizontal members such as beams and girders or with roof-supporting horizontal members, such as purlins and ridge beams. The place of both center posts and gable posts seen in Chinese architectural history corresponds to that of munamochi-bashira ridge-supporting posts found in Japanese architectural history. While center posts emerged as the result of the above-described replacement of wooden posts stood upright inside with those cleverly combined with horizontal members, gable posts came into being as the result of the above-described gradual introduction of wooden members into exterior perimeter mud walls that originally contained no wooden members. Thus, in the Yellow River basin in northern China, the difference between center posts and gable posts reflects that in origination, an ancient difference existing since the birth of architecture. We can reasonably infer that this ancient difference has survived to this day. We conclude that this is what characterizes the architectural styles in this region.
This research examines the first sketches and construction of aeroplane hangars of Orvieto and Orbetello by Pier Luigi Nervi, who designed and built these in 1938 and 1942. Consideration will be given to the reasons he selected the structure type and frame of the roof by comparing it with the historical background. Nervi changed his construction company's partner to G. Bartori, an engineer. The company built a salt warehouse which has parallel arches and a cistern built by a concrete spray. Nervi took part in a survey of a dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence in 1934. How did these experiences effect Nervi's design of the hangars?
In Chapter Two to Four, his work, including plans for unexecuted hangars are analysed. The process of changing designs in hangar sketches is clarified by referring to the original drawings and those posted in the research of C. Greco. The structural form examined by Nervi is extracted through an analysis of the planning sketches, the roof, and the sectional configuration. Then, according to the comparison with each plan, this research seeks to interpret how the load flowed from the roof to the ground. Nervi's design process of the hangar for Orvieto and Orbetello had three phases. First, a circular roof with cantilevers of reinforced concrete was formed on a circular plan. Second, a rectangular roof was composed of tress beams and arches arranged in parallel rows. Finally, a complex roof composed of a multiplexing network structure of RC beams on a rectangular plan was used.
In Chapter Five, based on the analysis from the previous chapter, the reason for changing the structural form of the aeroplane hangars is discussed. Nervi's design philosophy, which can be read from the transition of the structural form and the join form, is also examined. There are three hypotheses as to the double network structure of Orvieto. One is a diagonally stretched brick, a sketch of diagonal ribs, and a reference to a structure as a surface that is not a shell. Additionally, Nervi was aware that the structure of Orvieto was designed in such a way that it could not be calculated. Therefore, Nervi discussed the structure with the theorist Arturo Danusso and confirmed the safety of the structure by model experiment tests. As a result, both the plan and the joints between the roof and the pillars of the hangar changed. The study of pin joints began from the Type-C hangar for Ciampino airport. The top of the arch and the joint between the roof and the pillar were pin joints. Even in a Type-D hangar that became a network vault, pin joints remained between the roof and the pillars. However, in the implementation plan of Orvieto and Orbetello, the joints at the top and between were all rigid.
In conclusion, Nervi arrived at a hyperstatic structure of the diagonal rib vault which consisted of crossing each arch in the design process of the hangar in three phases. Furthermore, the joint between the roof composed of them and the pillar is ultimately rigidly joined instead of pin junctions after sketching the relevant plans. Nervi's design philosophy is to connect each member with a rigid joint, a solid monolithic structure, that is, to constitute a hyperstatic structure, which was seen in the design process of the aeroplane hangar.
Modernization in former colonial countries has been promoted by external factors such as acceptance of culture propagation, in accordance with the colonial rule by Western powers. Likewise, in an architectural field, a number of studies on colonial modern architecture have been carried out, and most of them have viewpoints of the architecture and city planning designed by architects of suzerain countries. New style of architecture compromising between western style and traditional style had made in colonies, and most of them had been studied on the viewpoints of “style” applying architecture of various building-types. R. Banham pointed out that architectural theory of J. Guadet was Modern in propagation of the styles. J. Guadet divided architectural style including new building-types with design standards made in 19c into elements, and let them be able to reconstruct. Public buildings of France thereafter the end of 19c designed by the architects of Beaux-Arts in accordance with both styles and standards regulated by state, and it was the same situation at the French colonies ruled by its assimilation policy in the same period. It is also important to educate locals under the French colonial policy. This study focused on the elementary school buildings of France standardized in the end of 19c for constructing by establishing public education, Tonkin as a model of focusing on educating locals to train the bureaucracy among French colonies. The purpose of this study was to present the new viewpoints to comprehend the colonial modern architecture that are some aspects of singularity of it by showing degree of deviation against design standards of France directed at the elementary school building for locals in Tonkin. The method to find some aspects of singularity is grasping standard model of French elementary school against design standards of France and the architectural theory of J. Guadet, and investigating at the national archive in Vietnam to collect necessary documents. Ultimately, collating to standard model of France and finding degree of deviation. The following six results were obtained. (1) Elementary school buildings for locals in Tonkin were composed by bare elements that were school buildings, toilets and the houses for teachers. (2) There were 3 types of the space of toilets which were constructed larger than the standards of France. (3) An area of classroom per student was generally smaller than the standards of France. (4) The classroom in Tonkin had several different parts from unilateral lighting classroom of France that were replaced the half-outdoor corridor, established portal of classroom on bilateral wall. (5) There were 11 types of the heights and widths of classrooms including aspects of unilateral lighting. The heights generally kept the standards of France, but the widths of type were made smaller and larger than the standards of proportion between heights and widths of France, the widths of type were made smaller, the widths of type and type were made larger. (6) There were 9 types of the dimensions showing vertical set positions of windows. In any case, the windows were set up in lower position than the standards of France, the dimensions of lintels were larger than the standards of France and the classrooms had a space between the upper end of window and ceiling. In conclusion, the degree of deviation against the design standards of France were able to find in elementary school buildings of Tonkin as the case study sites. It allows us that we described the colonial modern architecture from the new viewpoints that is collating colonial modern architecture to the standards of suzerain state per building-type instead of the viewpoints of “architectural style” that was often used in the previous studies by others.
The Indonesian Pavilion in the 1964 New York World's Fair was built as a grand house for Indonesia's first participation in an international exposition after its independence. It was created from 1957-60s, which was enlivened by a series of monumental projects known as nation-building projects. The pavilion was the only luxurious structure built outside the country. While the nation-building project has been studied by scholars, an explanation of the Indonesian Pavilion has not yet been found. Therefore, this paper, by comparing nation-building projects and the Indonesian Pavilion, aims to describe the architectural characteristics of the Indonesian Pavilion and clarify its position as a nation-building project.
Having many rivers along its topography, Tokyo in the Edo period had a dense and intensively used water network. Today most of them have been buried and turned into covered watercourses of different sizes. Among them, narrow covered watercourses, often seen among residential areas and impossible for cars to enter, have been regarded in urban planning as spaces difficult for further development. However, in some areas it is possible to see those alleys used by the residents as part of their living environment. This paper focuses on the covered watercourses in the Shibuya River basin as a study case of a high-density urban area where residual spaces could be re-evaluated. Discussions about transitional spaces between the public and private and its importance in urban design has been going on since the 1960s. Gehl. (1987) points out the importance of opening up and combining the public and private visually, connecting the private spaces with public spaces in terms of accessibility and expanding the use of public spaces to create lively urban spaces. This study focuses on the public - private boundary of each building along the alleys on covered watercourses and conducts analysis to grasp the urban structure where public and private spaces coexist and is full of human activities. First, 616 buildings along 10 alleys on covered watercourses were researched by field work. Spatial typologies of public - private boundaries were obtained by focusing on visual continuity and access from the alleys. Specifically, the type of ground shape, the placement of buildings, and boundary elements such as walls and fences that compose the public - private boundary were examined. In addition, the tendencies of use within each type was clarified by quantitatively analyzing the presence and position of traces of residents' activities, such as potted plants and furniture, and the effect they have on the public - private boundary. Then, the public - private boundaries types were sorted into patterns based on the similarity of the activity elements. By sorting the boundary characteristics of urban spaces that are formed by this cluster based on the typology of use of alleys on covered water courses, this research succeeded in showing the potential of alleys on covered watercourses to transform into a more active urban space. From this result, it can be said that a unique urban landscape was formed on the alleys on covered watercourses by the diversity of the boundary area between the public and private space created by the different attitudes of each resident towards their own living environment. This paper sheds light on an often-neglected urban space, and suggests that new value can be created by opening the public - private boundary spaces that are used as the extension of daily life area towards the alley, so that these alleys can serve as a safe pedestrian network, and a place for communication.
Gunsan is located in the west coast of South Korea, there had been the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan from 1899 to 1913. This paper aims to clarify plan of the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan. This study focuses on planning the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan and the other is the analysis of changes and features in Planning. Preceding study focused on big port cities (Busan and Incheon) and Japanese colonial period. However, this study is impotant to show foreign settlement in Korea before the Japanese colonial period. This study concludes followings; 1) The survey and plan for the establishment of ‘the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’ were initiated by the Japanese government and its contents were forwarded to the Korean government. Then, it was planned by the Inspector General of Customs of the Korean government, after which the Foreign Ministry of the Korean government conducted a survey on ‘the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’. Conclusionally, final planning was according to the Japanese government's plan and the Inspector General of Customs's plan, and the Foreign Ministry of the Korean government's opinion was not adopted. In addition, ‘The Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’ was finally reflected by the Japanese government's opinion that the tidal flats were included in the settlement area. 2) The settlement boundary along the coast of Geumgang River was adopted by the Japanese government's plan, which included tidal flats in the northern area. It was a plan based on the assumption of creating a town area after the tidal flats were reclaimed. However, the port facility did not appear in the plan. That's because a harbor improvement was a project that the Korean government had to implement under ‘The Regulation for the Foreign Settlements at Kunsan, Masan and Songchin’. On the other hand, the town area was prescribed to be constructed by the Municipal Council. Meanwhile, the southern boundary of the ‘the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’ has been reduced by the Inspector General of Customs of the Korean government more than the Japanese government's plan. This was to not include existing Korean towns as far as possible. 3) The town plan was designed around the street coast of Geumgang River and the street directly connected to it. Also, the final planing of the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan was planned for grid-shaped street pattern and blocks. This is different from Masan and Seongjin, which opened at the same time.
This study aims to clarify the correlation between the José Villagrán's theory and its adaptation to the design process by analyzing the National School of Architecture project. The authors have explored on José Villagrán's architectural theory, sketches and historical documents according to his design methodology applied in the National School of Architecture to establish the correlation between them. Based on this exploration, it appears that, Villagrán applied the analysis of the program in his theory and design process after Mexican architects within constant awareness of the importance of avoiding foreign styles and rescuing tradition.
The efficient and emergent rescue operations are critical in a large disaster. However, the locations of demanders (those who need special care or help) and responders (those who care or help demanders) are often separated in space and apart in time. In this paper, we propose a method by which we can efficiently dispatch each responder to demanders, and show the best travel route. The above problem can be considered as a multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mTSP). Firstly, with reference to the past studies on mTSP, we proposed a method to support an efficient travel for rescue activities. A fuzzy c-means clustering and a genetic algorithm (GA) were employed to dispatch responders to demanders and to determine the best travel routes. Furthermore, assuming specific needs at the event of disaster, we constructed several advanced calculation methods as follows: (1) A method to take into consideration of the difference of workload of demanders, in which a large workload was temporarily divided into multiple small unit workloads before dispatching the responders. (2) A method to consider the adaptability of responders, and the emergency for demanders, in which we constructed a sort of distance measure, which is composed by three indices (D, R, and E from the viewpoint of distance, adaptability, and emergency, respectively). Although it is necessary to quantify the weight of each index, it will be possible to adjust various demanders and responders. Next, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method was evaluated by simulation experiments using the actual street network data. We examined the case that 10 responders cared 50 demanders by considering the difference of the workload of demanders (300 seconds/person for 10 demanders and 10 seconds/person for 40 demanders). The results showed the proposed method was efficient on shortening the time until all responders completed travel. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it was better to immediately recalculate the dispatch of responders to demanders to reduce the total travel time, in case that new responders or demanders appeared after dispatch. In addition, field experiments were conducted to confirm the usefulness of the proposed method in actual urban spaces. Integrating the proposed method into a Web application developed in the previous studies, responders were adequately dispatched to demanders and efficiently navigated by the monitor screen of mobile phone. The comparative experiments were also conducted using an existing SNS (LINE). The results demonstrated that the effective and efficient travel for rescue activities avoiding oversight and duplication of demanders were achieved by using the Web application incorporated the proposed method.