For the increase of international students, dormitories and students' apartments need to be accommodating diverse cultures and lifestyles. To know their demand precisely, we conducted a questionnaire survey with 200 international students residing in Japan. We asked for their profile, housing experience, current lifestyle, and housing preference. With a combination of cross-tabulation and factor analyses, some correlations between the respondents' background and their housing preference were detected, but we observed more flexibility in adapting new lifestyles Cultural difference was becoming smaller and smaller for the last 30 years. Especially Chinese students' lifestyle in the last 20 years has changed drastically.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the transitions of infill remodeling and living style in "free plan rental dwellings" 25 years after moving in. This survey examined the followings: the development of life-stages, changes of use of the rooms, current lifestyle, trends of infill remodeling and thinking about dwelling of people who continue to live in “free plan rental dwellings”. Needs of infill remodeling is influenced by the life stage and the initial infill. There are also cases embodying the changes planned infill.
This study describes the effect of all single-room wards on hospital-bed management and how it differs from mixed multi-bed-room wards from a case of redesigned hospital building. Surveys were conducted for 32 days by nurses in these two types of wards with a recordkeeping of each patient's bed location, patient's nursing need degrees, and the reasons of each patient-bed transfer. It showed that both types of wards have a tendency to place patients who need high level of nursing care, around the staff station. The study concludes that the all single-room wards reduce the number of patient-bed transfers especially based on patient's request for favorable therapeutic environment.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the factor in change of furniture arrangement and the space structure in Day room of Day-Service Center. The findings are follows: 1. The factor in change of furniture arrangement is the number of consumer, usability, human relations and concern for safety. 2. It is better that Day room has the space structure making furniture arrangement flexible and have an unobstructed view considering concern for safety. 3. Furniture arrangement is planned using some furniture except table and chair in order that consumer can contact each other everywhere in Day room.
We studied the environmental clues that blind persons use while walking independently. We provided an analysis of thier effects from an ecological and psychological perspective. By interviewing six blind persons, we found that environmental sounds are one of the most effective clues to navigate their environment. The experiment was designed to investigate whether sound sign influence to a blind person's walk. Subjects performed better when sound sign came from ahead of them. Moreover, with the combinations of sound sign and wall, subjects could walk in a straight line. The findings indicate that sound sign creates safer environments for blind persons.
The concept of transparency has been interpreted in many ways while the architects create various architectural spaces based on their idea and logic. Furthermore, architects construct the relationship between architecture and surroundings or times, thus, explanation of the concept of transparency becomes various. Therefore, by making the polysemy of transparency clear, we would find a new axis when interpreting and criticizing the architectural spaces which are based on the architects' thought. In this research, we analyzed text description of buildings by architects and finally revealed 24 types of polysemy of transparency and their relationship.
The purpose of this study is to propose a method of evaluation and visualization of accessibility to regional facilities for elderly peoples, and to verify the validity of proposed method through comparative study of 3 residential areas. In this study, the following subjects were studied. 1) In each area, the different type of facility is the cause of poor accessibility for many blocks. 2) If facility location lacks continuously, there are poor total accessibility blocks. 3) In the near future, the accessibility to Regional facility will become a problem for many blocks around Tokiwadaira-danchi and around Kitanarashino station.
This paper constitutes the second part of a cross-cultural study on public space in Alicante, Spain. As in other touristic cities, many places in Alicante are polarised between those catering for visitors and those catering for locals. This polarisation often provokes a loss of place identity and a decline in urban quality for locals. This study identifies specific public spaces and the reasons why some are preferred by locals, by Japanese visitors, or by both through cross-cultural group discussions using affinity diagrams as a participatory method. It was found that in many cases when both locals and Japanese preferred the same place, it was for different reasons. This suggests that a way of sharing places by locals and visitors in touristic cities may consist of nurturing enough diversity so as to enable different qualities that can respond to the preferences of different people, including preferences as different as those of the Japanese and Spaniards.
Kabul a fast growing city has been changed enormously, due to physical and social fabric affect. As a result, the living areas become denser and compact. The areas conserved for recreation is being filled with unplanned settlements, assisted in degradation of the living environments; and negatively influenced on social relationships and the quality of the residential environments. This paper analyzes and evaluates the relationship between the hierarchy of the open spaces and their usage in the four residential areas (Historical, Sprawled, Planned and a New Township) in Kabul city. The analysis indicates that the lack of private outdoor space in the New Township has influenced the residents' cultural beliefs in the area. As a result, in contrast to the other three studied areas, the spaces in the New Township are used by people of all ages and genders. The analysis also indicates that, the degree the spaces are used is directly related to the accessibility to the spaces, their quality and the facilities they offer and the people who use them.
Today the location and layout of public facilities and road network in the Bazaar, developed by the Ottoman urban strategy, have been losing their authentic purpose due to the modern development that ignored the Ottoman concept. The aim of this paper is to identify the original significance of places and recognize their meaning in the present urban structure of the Bazaar by analyzing the Ottoman concept in the layout and function of main public facilities and primary roads. The location significance was evaluated from three aspects: I) Main Center that represent the origin of the Ottoman city, II) Bazaar components or facilities that form the Bazaar's urban structure and III) periphery point of urbanization that give meaning to the Bazaar's location in the city's structure. The evaluation of location significance can serve as a base for rescuing the authentic Ottoman concept and managing future favorable development in the conservation of Skopje's Bazaar.
This paper discusses the neighbourhood asset management for community's sustainability in the cities of Surakarta and Yogyakarta, in Central Java, Indonesia. The combination of urban heritage and traditional industry is a potential issue in sustaining urban heritage. First, we identified three selected sites in the areas of Laweyan, Kauman and Tamansari as the Batik cluster industries in urban heritage areas. Second, the historical development process of the Batik industry was clarified and stressed during the revitalization phase (1998.Present) using timeline analysis. Third, in order to clarify how the Batik industrial cluster function in the community, studies of current conditions by comparison of each cluster's neighborhood asset management have been conducted. Three factors have been analyzed human capital, development market, and social capital. Subsequently, trough the development phases of Batik Industry, there were several factors that caused changes to the Batik handmade production such as technologies, policy and changing life style. The functioning neighborhood asset management in all three sites is as traditional home base-production. Furthermore, the issues facing all three of the sites in this study are the performance of the forum as a knowledge-sharing agent, and as a platform for organizing the Batik industry and managing tourism within urban heritage sites. Based on these findings, the conservation of the cultural identity of the production process and local identity of settlements are vital elements of Batik marketing within urban heritage.
This paper studies a central district around Sojiji-tenple in Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, where was stricken by the Noto Peninsula Earthquake, through comparative analysis of external design change of houses located within the district between before and after the Earthquake and also analyzes inhabitants' consciousness on the townscape after the reconstruction. As a result, the actual conditions of townscape by reconstruction activities and effectiveness of townscape control rules are clarified. The study also finds the following points: 1) the post-quake townscape of the overall district was enhanced compared with the pre-quake one, due to the improved external designs of the houses, 2) reconstruction supporting system emphasizing conservation of townscape and pre-quake efforts on the townscape design effectively functioned toward enhancing the townscape and 3) consciousness among the district residents has been heightened toward preserving the post-quake townscape.
This study aims to clarify the effects of the morphology of the urban fabric upon the sequential scenery from the Metropolitan Expressway. The morphology of the urban fabric specified within this research is topography, land use during Edo Period and the land use prior to the construction of the Metropolitan Expressway. Through two experiments, cognitive and visual, the following has been identified. 1) The topography and land use prior to the construction of the Metropolitan Expressway, effects the form of the expressway impacting the cognitive change in sequential scenery. 2) The green space left from the Edo Period land use effects the cognitive change in sequential scenery.
The purpose of this paper is to show the concept of restrictions in height-control-districts aimed to preserve historic townscape. The results are as follows; 1) Severe height restrictions designating narrow area make it possible to preserve historic streetscape and lessen non-conformed building. 2) Height restriction grading precisely around historic streetscape is effective for townscape preservation and space utilization. 3) Height restrictions should be determined by difference of elevation between landscape object and its surrounding area where preservation of landscape view is required.
This research aims to present the design of urban riverside open space improvement should take by understanding the image of landscape residents consciousness. We carried out surveys with residents at the Hirose riverside promenade in Maebashi city. To understand the image of sensibility pattern related to the characteristics of river open space, the study analyzed the satisfaction image and factor. The major findings include the followings. 1. The evaluation images which are the efficiency function, the atmosphere-landscape function, the night-view function, the facilities-function, the quantity analysis are applied to calculate weight of the each evaluation images.2. The structural model of feeling for riverside open space which are efficiency on the facilities and the history, the conditions of their water and poetic-image. There, when the urban riverside open space is designed, it is necessary to design it according residents' demands that the connection around the river and the characteristics of water and nature, and coexist with the river of history.
Studies on urban networks often focus only on street systems, such as streets as links and junctions as nodes. Attentions to the buildings are hardly paid, though they are the starting/ending nodes of human flows, and the most influential elements in the urban networks. This paper proposes the “Building-Street Network”, which integrates buildings as urban nodes, and can be evaluable with the weights of the building attributes like the total floor area. By using the indices of Betweenness Centrality that shows the characteristic structure of urban network, the evaluation of weighted Builiding-Street Network of districts in Tokyo is made, to show the correlation to the building attributes.
Distribution of human suffering due to earthquake depends largely on the spatial distribution of population at the moment the earthquake occurs. For this, a computational model for predicting day-long spatio-temporal distribution of commuters was developed by using a number of nation-wide statistical data such as “Population Census of Japan”, “Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities”, and “Establishment and Enterprise Census”. The model predicts behavior of individual commuters by considering their attributes including gender, occupation, place of work and residence, and whether he/she works at home or not. As a case study, the proposed model was applied to the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area for estimating distribution of commuters, and those who unable to return home in case of the wide-area traffic interruption due to earthquake.
In the recent Japan, some statistics and results of investigations which cover plenty of construction companies became available in the form of digital data. This research uses them, and analyzes and understands the overall picture of Japan's construction industry. Especially in this analysis, the Business-Evaluation results (BERs) created and released under the Construction Business Act is used. The number of micro data obtained as of March, 2012 was 147,152. A principal occupation ratio (POR) treats 80% or more as valid data of the construction industry. Furthermore, data with audit of the financial information of BERs is selected. The former data is set to 117,456 and the latter is set to 3,273. Especially in this paper, we carried out focusing on analysis of the construction company's profitability indices. They are analyzed to main construction work types and scale of enterprises on these two conditions. And they are compared with the value of construction industry indices in Financial Statements Statistics of Corporations (FSSC). By the latter data with audit of accounting, those indices have little scattering. And, profitability indices of large enterprises are stable compared with them of SMEs.
In earthquake prone countries, especially in developing countries, many ”non-engineered construction“ have been damaged severely every time large earthquake occurs. So the improvement of their seismic performance is one of the world-wide issues and to solve this problem, diverse approaches are needed such as establishment of appropriate construction codes, enhancement of government organization, development of seismic technology and dissemination of awareness of disaster to community. And to carry out these approaches efficiently, it is indispensable to understand the situation of the construction practice of ”non-engineered construction.“ In this research, through the field survey in seven developing countries - Egypt, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru and Turkey-, we assess the situation of construction practice of non- engineered construction, and by analyzing the result, we extract the future issues for development of non-engineered construction in the world.
1. This thesis mentions about 142 stained glass works which are thought to be made by Shintaro Kiuchi, based on files and data which the Kiuchi family has kept. 2. The designs of those works are classified into two --- abstract and concrete. Then they are categorized more into details. 3. While the design of stained glasses in Japan didn't change much from the Meiji era to the end of Taisho era, ship designs were comparatively found a lot. This is because of the prosperity of shipping business, which reflected the new era's arrival. Also, it was because Shintaro Kiuchi was fond of ships.
In this paper, we base the primary concepts appear in Alexander's four volume “The Nature of Order”, such as wholeness, center, structure-preserving transformations, mirror of the self tests, and God on A. N. Whitehead's cosmology called “philosophy of organism”. Firstly, we examine the motivation of writing these four books by analyzing the criticisms towards “Pattern Language.” After showing Alexander's the tacit and new assumption in the books, we show how Whitehead's problem of the bifurcation of nature, that causes some of the deep problems in pattern language, is solved in the Nature of Order in terms of the Whitehead's philosophy.
There are the four cases of petition in connection with the substitute lot in a historical document called “the petition documents of merchant” during the Kyoho period - Tenpo term. This paper consists of three analysis by considering four cases of merchant petition : 1. The petition of the merchant who has moved to a substitute lot and the process, 2. The process to which Kaechi(a substitute lot) is given by petition, 3. The subject who makes decision about Kaechi. In analysis of this paper, when moving to substitute lot, the process and the subject which had jurisdiction and moved became clear. The analysis shows the actual condition of the merchant who has moved to a substitute lot in edotown.
Ogaki, a castle town, is one of the most successful cities in attracting modern industries. This study is to investigate why the modern canal was planned as an alternative to the pre-modern canal, and how it was converted to a part of the drainage system of the city without its completion. Findings are as follows. 1) The old canal had lost sufficient width and depth to make navigation possible. 2) The new canal also lacked capacity for modern transportation. 3) The major objective of the new canal was seemingly to drain waste water from chemical factories.
In this paper, we developed the lighting control system by location information and applied to operating workplace in our office for empirical study. The lighting control system is composed by the location information detection system, the LED lighting control system, and the favorite illuminance level data base. As a result of the application, the following conclusions were obtained. The location information can be gotten at narrow area by using semi-active tag and designing the low-frequency antenna in the office. The lighting control that uses adjusted lighting ratio database by illuminance level simulation is effective. The illuminance level of office worker's favor can be analised by the log which individual freely adjusted the illuminance level on the desk. Finally, we confirmed operation verification of the lighting control system by location information.
We analyze the relationship between bag snatching and spatial relationships in Kyoto City. In particular, we model natural surveillance with various facade components. We then analyze the data as a classification problem that divides space into areas in which crimes occur and areas in which crimes do not occur. Since there exists fuzziness in the categorization of space, we propose a new approach that combines clustering and classification based on semi-supervised learning, which determines the categorization so as to improve classification accuracy. In addition, we use an emerging pattern based classifier and obtain spatial features related to crime.