The authors examined adequate solid angle partitioning methods and simple methods to predict the time from the reflection of sound in rooms until diffusion is attained in order to apply reverberation addition methods taking the reflection time structure previously proposed by authors into consideration to numerical simulation. We furthermore pointed out the effectiveness of reverberation addition methods by means of comparative hearing tests using sound fields synthesized from impulse response of reverberation added to early reflections from numerical simulation and actually measured impulse response.
For the performance of the floor in the residential building, various dwelling conditions, such as safety, health and comfort should be required. Above all, the walking feeling which is influenced by the elasticity of a floor is the important factor to the comfortable daily life. In this research, we developed "the walking impact simulator" which is possible to reproduce the human walking condition. The simulator has the two way control system and produce the three dimensional impacts corresponding to the real human walking. The results of measurement show the impact force characteristics and the time variation of impact area to the floor by walking simulator correspond well with the real walking. The vibration displacement response of various floors also show the correspondence well for the impacts by the simulator and the real walking. These results explain the developed walking simulator is substituted for the real walking effectively and it is useful for the study on living condition of floor finishing structure.
The results of subjective experiments identifying the difference in glare sensation caused by a large light source between elder and young people are described. It was found that the elder subjects were less sensitive to glare, but showed higher dissatisfaction against glare than the young subjects. The higher the color temperature of the glare source, the greater the sensitivity was identified comparing our results with those of the past studies. The glare sensation of the elder subjects in our experiment was lower than that in the past studies.
This study examined to know how the function of house exterior lighting, especially gate lighting, porch lighting and ornament lighting, for the evaluation of lighting environment on the nighttime residential streets. An experiment using a real residential street, where people actually live, was carried out. The results suggested that the evaluation of lighting environment can be improved not only by the amount of light but by the light fittings attached on the gate or at the porch or on the hedge. Moreover, house exterior lighting can indicate the personality of the owner.
We found many houses have condensation in the crawl space in summer. These houses have enough openings on the foundation to ventilate and vapor retarder at the ground surface for the recommend in the building code. The temperature and humidity in the crawl space have great influences to durability of the house. We made clear the annual variations of hygro-thermal environment of the crawl space by the field measurements and numerical analysis. We monitored the temperature and humidity variations of 36 houses in Japan for 2 years. The numerical calculations based on the vertical one dimension heat transfer model represented the monitored results. The results show the houses in Japan normally have condensation in crawl space in summer. The condensation term is from one week to one month. The daily average of crawl space's vapor pressure is nearly equal to that of the outdoors. The difference of 2 years results is so great that we think the main factor is outdoor condition. The thermal resistance of the floor and moisture of the ground do not have great effect on the crawl space humidity.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of the clothing fits on the effective radiation area and the configuration factor. Clothes with different clothing fits were made based on the body surface area of three female subjects. The clothes were a blouse with long sleeves and a skirt of length under the knee. The effective radiation area and the configuration factors for 3 young female subjects at standing posture were measured by the photographic method. As a result, the effective radiation area factor was found to be 0.75 for the unclothed, 0.86 for the clothing No.O with not ease, 0.93 for the clothing No.3 with usual ease and 0.98 for the t clothing No.6 with double ease. An increase in the effective radiation area gets 1.14 times for the clothing No.O, 1.24 times for the clothing No.3 and 1.31 times for the clothing No.6. Diagrams of configuration factors between the human body at standing posture and rectangular planes were shown by clothing fits. An increase in the configuration factors for front/rear walls when putting on the clothes was found to be about 6%.
For the economical operations of the floor heating system that constructed of latent/sensible heat storage materials with using off-peak electricity, we analyzed the prediction control system of the required thermal energy using fuzzy inference considering SET" change of time series. Next, we carried out study of Neural network by using result that was obtained by simulation that the performance of the system is evaluated. And we obtained the following results. (1)The next day's highest SET was approximately estimated by fuzzy set of required thermal energy of storage material. (2)We constructed the Fuzzy neural network model corresponding to heating load for the floor heating system constructed of heat storage materials.
The authors constructed prediction models of supplied water by using neural network in limited areas of Tokyo. The variables which influences much to supplied water were chosen as neurons of input layer from 13 variables by checking their time series and principal component analysis for all variables data. The neuron numbers on hidden layer were decided by AIC to construct models which were more applicable. The influences of each predictor variable for supplied water were able to be evaluated by checking weights on neural network models constructed fittingly in each areas, and the variables which influences much to supplied water were difference in each areas. As a result, it is necessary that prediction models of supplied water are constructed in each areas.
The purpose of this study is to establish the new calculating method of fixture requirements for railway stations by applying a simulation method based on the characteristic factors of stations. In this paper, as part two of the study, we analyzed the weekday data of toilet users and their behaviors in five East JR stations, Tokyo area. The main contents are as follows; At first we showed the conditions of fixture uses and simultaneous uses in each toilet and clarified that the number of water closet installed in male toilet is the tendency of shortage. Moreover, we analyzed the relationships between the number of toilet users and that of fixture users in male and female. Then we showed the numbers of male toilet users are estimated by those of users in urinal and those of female toilet users are estimated by users in washbowl. On the basis of the estimated numbers, we analyzed the relationships between the number of toilet users and that of washbowl users in sex. Lastly, we showed the duration of occupancy time in the fixtures.
Kruithof demonstrated the preferred combination of illuminance levels and color temperatures. However, as Kuller pointed out, a seasonal change and gender difference in such preference may be expected. In order mainly to observe a seasonal change in preference of color temperatures for a given illumination level, four male and female subjects were exposed to four different conditions of color temperatures of 3,000K and 7,500K combined with room temperatures of 22℃ and 30℃ at l, 5001x in summer and winter. In addition, preference of color temperature was tested under the thermally neutral condition in spring and autumn. Physiological variables such as skin temperatures, heart rate, finger blood flow, blood pressure and oral temperature were measured. Themal sensation vote, themal comfort vote, and sensation votes on illuminance and relaxation were reported at 5-min. intervals. As a result, evaluation from psychological and physiological responses indicated that 7,500K was more preferred than 3,000K at 1500lx in spring and summer.
In this study the energy consumption and the CO_2 emissions of housing in prefectural capitals all over Japan have been estimated and characteristics of the transition of them in recent 30 years have been made clear. The energy consumption was increasing remarkably in every cities, and this increase was influenced by climate, expenditure, and residential area. To reduce the v emissions 6% below 1990 levels, 20% of 1995 levels must be reduced in average. In many cities, the major factor of the increase of CO_2 emissions was the increase of using lighting and electrical outlet.
The passive-designed "Breathing Wall" using charcoalized rice straw was proposed as one of the environmental-conscious constructional materials. The experiments were carried out using two types of structure of charcoalized rice straw in order to confirm the capability of the structures as a Breathing Wall in relation to the characteristics of air flow and of the thermal performance. The results of this study showed a good indication that these structures using charcoalized rice straw can be utilized as a Breathing Wall.
The objective of this paper is to review the development of building services in Japanese hotels from Meiji era to the end of WWII. The beginning of Meiji, individual heating facilities were installed in hotels. Central heating systems were introduced during Taisho era. Steam heating was utilized in the most of hotels. Air conditioning systems was firstly installed in Kyoto Hotel in 1928 and all of rooms in Shin-Osaka Hotel in 1935 were air-conditioned. There were few hotels which had guest rooms with bath up to Showa. Water toilets were introduced to guest rooms in the same period. A history of the office building services in hotels were also described. Historical development was compared.
This paper aims to distinctly put housing system for the skeleton type multi-unit housing in perspective. First, we consider the value of multi-unit housing from a viewpoint of the generating process of substantial space in the skeleton type multi-unit housing. Secondly, we define the typology of housing system based on the decision making of space design. Thirdly, we consider the relation between housing tenure and decision making, and put user oriented housing system in perspective. Finally, we consider previous housing system for the skeleton type multi-unit housing according to the study on real housing system. The results are as follows : We need the improvement of social system to stabilize housing system reflecting user's decision. We need the selectable and changeable housing tenure for many kinds of users.
The Library Systems have been developed so that the users can borrow or return books to any preferable libraries. For effective planning of libraries, we have to examine the effectiveness of Library Systems. In this paper, we construct a model for describing the library choice behavior of users, and propose a method for evaluating the effects of Library Systems. Furthermore, the proposed model is applied to the actual data of Yokohama City Libraries. The results of numerical analysis show that the travel cost from home to libraries can be reduced by the Library Systems, and its effect is equivalent to about 8 percent increment of users in average.
In Japan, an alternative form to the traditional institutional from in care philosophy for people with dementia has been applied since the beginning of the 90's. In 1997, the government introduced subsidies for running group-homes for people with dementia. This is a case study in spatial meaning conducted at a newly designed group-living home (the latest model case in Japan) for people with dementia. Previous research has already pointed out that the utilization of common space greatly affects the life-style and made clear the changes over time of the spatial use patterns of people with dementia. Here the focus is on the role of the care philosophy in the daily life of group-living. And the purpose of is to make clear the role of the care philosophy in the daily life of group-living. Some results show as follows : 1) It is considered that during the first stage of adaptation, connection and contact with the staff affected positively the residents' interpersonal communication. However, after a half-year's occupation, when daily-life autonomy of the residents is established, too much connection with the staff may interrupt communication among residents and sometimes has a detrimental effect on rhythms of daily life. 2) It is important to provide a suitable care for residents so as not to disturb their rhythms of daily life and the care philosophy must consider the level and the state of adaption.
These series of papers study the effect installing the new type of free-address system in a R&D office workspace, which we installed folding moving desks for each person. In the previous paper, we find some problems in its user's satisfaction, especially face-to-face communication. In this, we survey communication by interval photo-shot before and after, and we improve the free-address layout, and then conduct same survey after. We find that more communi- cation occurs at more various places in the free-address office, but in case of short of communication places, people would complain about communication.
In this paper we typologically clarify the characteristics of the relation between internal spatial arrangement and external composition of contemporary Japanese architectural works. First we analyzed their internal spaces with 'space cluster, ' variation of rooms' scale and combination, and secondly their external composition with volume arrangement. Thirdly we analyzed the relationship between internal space and external volume composition, and found several typological models characterized as 'volume correspond space type,' 'volume unite space type,' and 'volume articulate space type.' In the conclusion, we pointed out the articulation of external volumes tends to correspond with different spatial arrangement types, that suggests the possibility to reconsider the conventional composition based on the correspondence between internal spatial arrangement and external composition.
This study is intended to clarify the relation between house and site by analyzing the composition of outdoor spaces of modern California houses. The characteristics of outdoor spaces are defined by relation to indoor spaces. The way of composing site and house is analyzed in relations to streets, comparing the characteristics of outdoor spaces. As the result of classification, 6 types of circulation schemes and 9 types of compositional schemes of outdoor spaces are identified in the houses of Schindler and Neutra. Typical circulation schemes are the type in which personal and common spaces are separated in indoor space as well as in outdoor space. And typical compositional schemes share a back-outdoor-living space protecting personal indoor and outdoor spaces.
Some differences in changes of building parts and building systems are observed in manufacturers, technicians and contractors. As for sanitary equipment, various changes are recognized in the developments at Housing and Urban Development Corporation and private sanitary equipment enterprises. On our published papers, we grasped the change of development of the two cases. Also, we found the way of systematization for developmental processes to make easy comparison them. As a result of comparison, the developments of two cases were approximately similar in the first stage, but different in next stages.
There are many organizations of companies from same hometowns at Naha-city, Okinawa prefecture. But these days, their action has been declined because of the reason of being aged and decrease of immigrants. Firstly, I researched the role and the specialty of the company. From the result of this research, I proved the declination of the company's action is not the same as declination of the company itself, and the importance of school-mate-connections. Secondary, I understood the specialties of the company and picked up some characteristic lifestyles, and clarified that their thinking tendency depends on the term from their leaving to today.
This paper analyzes the process of changes of the store location in plain rural area by case study in Sanwa-town, Ibaragi pref. The results are as follows : 1. Increase in population grow stores, and hierarchal differentiation advance in ooaza zone. 2. The process of changes of the store location is various in ooaza zones. 3. Increase in population conspicuously grow eating houses and service industries. 4. Several stores on branch road are located closely to arterial road in the zones accumulated stores. 5. Store location in ooaza zones depend on combination with population and traffic and store accumulation.
This study aims at examining effects of green management of common spaces for formulating community and landscape development in detached housing areas. The study clarifies the following points through the results of questionnaire survey to the residents and observation survey. In detached housing areas, through maintenance of the green in common spaces, residents mutually look at neighbors' face, exchange greetings to neighborhood and support to maintain the green in common spaces. The community has closed friendship through cooperative maintenance of the green. A cooperative maintenance of green in common spaces strengthens residents' community, resulting in contributing to formulate a better landscape in the areas.
This study aims at getting an idea which explains the usage and function of Gi-lou spaces through close examination of identification of the temporary elements and the changes in kind and number of elements involved in these spaces with the change of time. As a result, it was found out that the kind and number of these elements increase remarkably in the afternoon to evening of Saturday and Sunday compared to a weekday in keeping with the increase of the traffic. It seems that the spaces are deeply incorporated into the lifestyle of city people in Taiwan.
Tourist guide book is a text that shows us the popular images of townscape. This study tryes to find a rule of the composition of sightseeing photographs analyzing 462 photos selecting from 4 tourist guide books. Results are as follows : The view and distance between elements scribed in sightseeing photos are decided from the shape of main subjects, which are classified a dot type, a liner type and a surface type. Furthermore, the structure of them is affected by the composition of main subject and sub elements, which can be classified 5 groups through Hayasi' s qualification theory type III.
A comparative analysis of office development in Japan and the U.S.A. during 1980*5 and 90's indicates the following : 1. A single-node development pattern characterizes the market in Japan, whereas a multi-nodal pattern is peculiar to the U.S.A. 2.The key factor in identifying new development locations in Japan is existing office concentrations, whereas in the U.S.A., indices used in this analysis are irrelevant to identifying the new development locations. 3. The office market in Japan is classified into three categories indicating market conditions : newly forming, slow-growth and matured. The U.S. market has five categories : newly-forming, progressively-forming, growing, growth-controlled and matured.
The phenomenon of dispersion of a modem family creates new residential system in order to fulfill an original function of family and dwelling. Here we have an idea of the Network Residence to illuminate actual conditions of local small city and rural area which have been the aged and depopulated problem. Results are summarized as follows. 1) The dispersion of family spread widely in local small city and rural area, and the idea of the "family" is limited one's own closest family members living under one roof. 2) The character of a household isolation in the aged and depopulated area varies according to method of residential network or dispersed distance. 3) Therefore, it would be needed the functions of substitution saying that "intermediate base" or public facilities.
This paper traces some links between back sides of town-houses and backyard in a block of Kyoto at the initial stage of the early modern period. Historical materials written by Christian missionaries are used in order to analyze forms of town-houses and their backyard which were depicted in the screens of 'Rakuchu-Rakugai-zu' of the first part of the seventeenth century. The paper concludes that rooms facing on to backyard changed to be formal and have wide windows while backyard changed to be subdivided into gardens of town-houses by hedge, fence and wall. Wealthy house-holders started to enclose backyard behind their houses.
In this paper, the author made the identification of typological system plans of square plan gu-hpayas with central kankusan system (81 numbers can be found and on which the analysis is made) of Pagan. Its aim is to help trace the design evolution of the entire building based on the result of this study. As the result, this study reveals that square plan with central kankusan of Pagan are classified into seven prototypes and they comprised twenty-three typical plan types. The typological systems are identified according to their different arrangements of vestibules, wall projections, mok-htwets, sub mok-htwets, entrances and sub-entrances.
In this paper, we analyzed the description form and the KIWARI of LOU FANG-ZUAN JIAO-TING TANG-CUAN TANG which belong to the "MIAN KUO-JIN SHEN TYPE" in the " GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE" . As a result, in the "MIAN KUO-JIN SHEN TYPE" plane measurements are not used with the KIWARI, which deffers from plane measurements which are decided by the module "SAN" in the "DOU-KOU TYPE" and "DUO" in the "YING ZAO FA SHI". "MIAN KVO" and "JIN SHEN" are the modules, the KIWARI is found throughout from the frame to every part. Every volume is independent and complete, and both its description form and the KIWARI are extremely systematic.
In this paper the households of building craftsmen and the types of employment of journeymen in the late medieval Freiburg are investigated through the tax registers of the "Gemeiner Pfennig" 1497. In these registers there are two types of journeymen, namely journeymen as inservants and journeymen living in their own households. Masters are also classified into two categories, namely masters employing journeymen as inservants and masters without inservants. Masters with inservants must have continuously enough work. The powerful! masters, for example the workmaster of cathedral or city; have pretty large work groups in their households. The "Kunstdiener" system, in which journeymen are employed as inservants in long term, could be maintained especially under such powerful! masters.
In this study the seven preliminary projects for "Werkbund-Theater" for the exhibition of Deutscher Werkbund in Cologne 1914 are analyzed, and the process from application of the graphic design of art nouveau to the architectural plan, to the birth of the design-method of cubic formation with geometric volumes was made clear. Formal analysis with three items, namely the curvilinear composition with segments, the composition with straight lines and the profile, was useful to clarify the transition process of plan. Then the Theater, which was designed on the basis of van de Velde's individualistic thought of artist, can be evaluated as showing the character of early modernism including irnmaturely both the expressionism and functionalism.
Kikuyu constructed their round huts by themselves with various building rites which present their traditional world. They had to construct the huts, with the aid of their neighbours and relatives, only in one day, thereafter they celebrated the finish of construction together. Such Kikuyu's building of their huts and homesteads, as the rebirth of their world, reflected both their real time, "Sasa" and mythical time, "Zamani", in Swahili. Though these two times represent their ancestor's spirit "Ngoma" and the Supreme "Ngai" each other, the "Building" itself integrates both of them in relation to the "Dwelling" and illuminates our architecturo-logical problems.
This paper aims to clarify, by the survey and its analysis of Shinto shrine festival of local villages community, following two findings, hirst, relation between its festival environment and human action of participants generates schematically generative space composition. To analyze structure of the relation, we introduced a methodological general idea of dialectic between environment, and action which meant tactics between them. Second, analyzing its materials of local history, the Shinto shrine festival generates, by the relation between human action and festival space, symbolicexpression of history of founded time of their villages community, which reapears and expresses the landscape of their native land.
In most cases, there is motion in floating ocean structures. Until now, motion has generally been treated as a negative factor with respect to habitability. On the other hand, the long period motion may provide a feeling of comfort similar to that afforded by a cradle or rocking chair. Accordingly, it is thought that the motion of floating ocean structures contributes to comfort by range and degree. By means of an experimental method, the authors tried to consider whether or not motion could become an added value to the habitability of a floating ocean structure or not. The following results were obtained under the motion conditions established in this research. Comfort was at a range of 0.25-0.44 deg/sec angular velocity amplitude regardless of the period. There was an extremely high correlation between feelings of comfort and drowsiness. Moreover, a sign of drowsiness was proved objectively by pulse-rate variation.
In this paper, a multi-agent system is employed to model urban systems. The supposed urban system is composed of three urban agents (residence, business, and service areas). Agents interact each other economically and pay land rents and moving costs. Agents who can not adapt to the urban system die. Agents who survive in the system move or create new agents according to the information of environment, internal states, and their own rules coded on genomes. When a new agent is created, his parent's genome is followed to the new one. Using this model, urban land-use pattern formation is simulated with three different distance restrictions. In the case of slight restriction, patterns are concentric and moving areas are wide. In the case of strong restriction, pattern become concentric and moving areas become shorter. Patterns are compared with the land-use of Osaka area using fractal dimension and its similarity is confirmed.
This paper presents the formal representation of problem solving architecture in risk management. Based on the analysis of processes in problem solving and risk management, the problem solving activities in risk management is conceptualized to obtain basic sets and concepts. From the conceptualization, we obtain the problem solving architecture in risk management. We illustrate an actual model satisfying the problem solving architecture. Finally, significant features involved in utilizing the formal representation are explained.