This paper measured the effectiveness of the community oriented apartment house (COA), which adapted living access in comparison with residents' space setting and the consciousness of privacy between COA and an ordinary apartment house. The amount of community activities in the COA is bigger than the other. The residents of the COA manage their own privacy with controlling the boundary situation of their houses. The way of managements would be classified five categories. We found that the residents would not react simply to others' eyes from the window, but they control the boundaries as an interactive element within complicated conditions of social and spatial interaction.
In Japan, it is difficult to support all of the elderly living at their own homes only by the formal care services, because of rapid increasing of the elderly. Therefore, informal supports by neighbors is in the spotlight. This paper clarifies actual conditions of places of coexistence where informal supports by inhabitants are provided in a town, and discusses on its characteristics and backgrounds. Hearing survey about situations of the informal supports and places where people were gathering in the area, and on-side observations were held as for behaviors and supports for 4 persons coming a day care center, at days they came to the center and other days. Conclusions are as follows; 1. Keeping eyes upon the elderly and easy helps to them were seen as informal supports by neighborhoods, and they are thought to have reciprocal complementary relationships with the formal care services. 2. Therefore informal supports are thought to be important for the elderly to keep living at their own homes. 3. Places of the informal supports are thought to be having changed from inhabitants' gathering spaces, places of coexistence, again of members. 4. Two factors are thought as backgrounds of the informal supports: local relationships and continuity of places of coexistence. 5. For continuity of the places of coexistence, followings are thought to be physically environmental factors: accessibility to the places and physical settings people can stay comfortable with others. 6. It is thought to be important to support neighbors who provide the informal supports, especially in areas where local relationships are still existing.
The object of main enumeration is TOMONOURA, a port town represents the scene of SETONAIKAI. Furthermore, the aging rate has reached to 38% and solitude elderly people form 5.3% of population (3% of national average). The purpose of this investigation is to solve the structure of the community in TOMONOURA, how the community and the people living in TOMONOURA supporting the elderly people with dementia and the elderly people need requiring care. The results are described below. 1. The area as a community had been continued, it can be said that the soil in which the informal care network is made to form had already cultivated. 2. The impossible range on a life extension which does not try not to be and whose defence is possible is sphere which can correspond. 3. The role with a small-scale care The results are described below. 1. The area as a community had been continued, it can be said that the soil in which the informal care network is made to form had already cultivated. 2. The impossible range on a life extension which does not try not to be and whose defence is possible is sphere which can correspond. 3. The role which a small-scale care home as a catalyst of network formation is played. Although it was difficult to support a home life of elderly people, The home was concerned with the area through "small-scale" formal care offer, and the role which digs up the "cooperation nature" which exists in the area potentially also came only by service which "it is small-scale" provides sure enough. 4.The care network in TOMONOURA has been built by formation interpenetration related. Because small-scale care home can play a role effectively, and by regionality's being easy to be continued on the other hand inheriting regionality.
Architecture generally has been considered as a resulted formation with various functions. For further understanding, the architecture has been suggested to be realized as media to support the operation of human body, human mind and human society in this paper. Basic consideration of media developed in the autopoietic social system theory by Niklas Luhmann has been introduced and compared with five viewpoints of architectural value judgments. It is concluded that a following kind of fields, material space, functional spaces, imaginal spaces, specialized areas, meaningful places can produce the value of architecture by media-effects.
This paper aims to clarify the formation and transformation of Tai-Loei house in Loei province, Thailand, based on field surveys. Tai-Loei people are classified into a subgroup of Tai ethnic tribes. There are 3 well-known Tai-Loei villages in Loei province, among which the one in Lum Nam Loei Basin still has a number of Tai-Loei houses. This paper investigates Tai-Loei houses, discusses the typology of houses, and reveals the transformation process through the analysis of intern relationship between types of houses. Based on the analysis of the transformation process, this paper aims to reveal the basic principles of spatial formation of Tai-Loei house.
In this research, we performed an experiment on the use of LED road studs as a safety aid for people with low vision when crossing roads at night. Results indicate that the blinking lights of road studs were easily detectable by subjects with their residual vision, were effective in marking the way and could help improve nighttime safety for vision-impaired pedestrians.
The reorganization of school districts and streamlining of public schools have progressed rapidly owing to trends such as a decrease in the number of children, merger of municipalities, and reduction of public services. This has resulted in a decrease in the number of public schools. On the other hand, there has been a resurgence of small-scale schools. In particular, the system of small chartered schools is being adopted in small-scale schools whose existence is being threatened by the decrease in the number of children. As part of this trend, small-scale schools are gathering children from larger school districts in cooperation with community activities organized in rural areas. In this paper, the characteristics of the school district comprising 275 schools utilizing the system of small-chartered schools all over Japan were investigated. Further, the significance of and problems faced by the management of small-scale schools cooperating with local communities were examined by using a questionnaire survey and on-site investigation.
This paper aims to elucidate the subjects used on the principles of town planning by KURODA KANBE. The subjects are as follows. (1) How to find a way to decide on the position for the castle towers. (2) How to find a way to decide on the planning of the street network and the canal. For these two subjects, we substantiated on setting forth three hypotheses.1) Techniques of a visual axis and 60 Ken modules of the &alph; right-angled triangle may have been used for positioning of the castle towers. 2) Adding to 1), sacred mountains, old shrines and old historic temples which people of those days believed in from ancient times may have been connected with the sun haunting direction of the summer solstice and winter solstice.3) For the design of castles and castle towns, 60 Ken modules of the &alph; right-angled triangle may have been used as basic technique. As a result of consideration, we found that the techniques of KANBE resembles techniques of TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI and aides of him very much. Therefore it is guessed that KANBE had come under the great influence of HIDEYOSHI.
“Kyodo-Toshi no Hanashi ni narumade” is Hideaki Ishikawa's first treatise and this study clarifies his early city planning thought from it as follows: . 1. Because for Ishikawa most important thing about city planning was “leisure”, he studied amusement districts “Sakariba”. 2. On the other hand, he regarded community planning as very important, so he studied geography of small cities and villages. 3. He recognized city structure as “contents” (land uses, etc.) and “form” (distribution and integration). His order of city making was 1)contents analyses, 2) contents distribution, 3) contents integration. His theory was practiced in 3 cities of Aichi Prefecture, Toyohashi, Okazaki, Ichinomiya. Especially Toyohashi city plan was close to his ideal city making model.
In snowy and cold cities, especially in Hokkaido, the urban design should be considered to its original climate situation cold wind and much snow. Author targeted Wakkanai station renewal project and developed new urban design process that designed with planning process and environmental assessment together. This new design process was successful that the feedback of eight environmental assessments influenced to the urban and building design. On the design process, the weak points of making snowdrifts and blowing strong wind were cleared. The final station design will be prevented from snow and wind impacts on the new urban design process.
In any analysis of a land area it is very important to know how that land is utilized. Analyzing how certain business activities are planned from one point to another, including in the periphery and how each area relates to the others is an optimal place to start a search. This method is useful for the analysis of a comparatively small area, but an understanding of the long term, historical use, of the land is essential for the analysis of larger areas. This manuscript concentrates on land applications in Matsumoto city, Nagano prefecture in 1900,1950 and 2000 and analyses the periphery of cities, towns and villages from the viewpoint of the Self-Organized critical state and using Fractal structure. Not only residential areas where the people live but also the long term environmental changes in the periphery because this determines on what basis useless land is prevented from being developed in each given area.
This study reveals the theoretical framework regarding view protection plan based on landscape ordinance, landscape plan and so on established by local governments in Japan for over the past 30 years. As the result of analysis on designation of a viewing place and identification of planning area, 81 plans are classified into 5 types. To conclude, the processes toward the most effective type, which has the specific viewpoint and the management area, are indicated on the basis of the relationship with each type.
The aim of this study is to respond to the question whether Japanese local cities are heading for compact cities and whether urban planning measures for compact cities are effective. To this end, the population distribution of Hamamatsu and Kanazawa cities was analyzed. First, the supply of apartment houses and the distribution of social increase and decrease in population as well as convenience in living was studied. Second, the urban planning measures for the districts with distinguishing population increase or convenience in living were compared with the trend. The results showed that the population is still diffusing and the effect of the urban planning measures is still limited.
This study focuses attention on the "isolated death" occurrences in Disaster Restoration Public Housing and attempts to grasp the relationship between the actual conditions of the "isolated death" and residential environments. The main data are reports issued by the medical examiner's office and the police. The result of analysis is as follows: 1) "Isolated death" occurrences in the public housing are not limited to the elderly, and the number has continued to increase. 2) There are connections detected between the characteristic features of residential environments and "isolated death" occurrences. They strongly affect residents who are in a disadvantageous situation in economic and physical terms. 3) When residents with such disadvantages live in large residential buildings or in upper floors, they are more likely to lose opportunities for social contact and end up in "isolated death" occurrences.
The objective of this study is to investigate the consciousness of demanders (of K-Apartments) in order to determine the institutional measures required to provide demanders with relevant information about housing choices and spread awareness of the Housing Performance Indication System (HPI) among the society. The conclusion is as follows : (1)The actual condition has showed that while demanders have purchased houses to add to their private property, and they were required to assume significant financial burden in doing so. Moreover, at present, demanders have been fully dependent on suppliers to obtain relevant information about expenses and housing choices. Further, more than 40% of the surveyed demanders have mentioned that they were unaware of the HPI system. (2)We found a number of relevant problems that demanders face when seeking reasonable housing choices, which involve factors such as the “demander's consciousness of the real value of a house,” “social circulation of information about quality,” and “to provide demander with information about quality by suppliers”. (3)To diffuse the HPI system, the following three institutional measures are required, each of which covers a different aspect: a) management to spread the HPI system among the society; b) maintenance to improve and inspect the HPI system; c) consolidation to spread awareness of the HPI system and circulate the performance information among the society.
As a result of my consideration of ideal street in Hagi, from the control on the facts of street spaces in the samurai residences' area in the second half the 17th century, the following points were obtained: 1. In the samurai residences' area, the ideal street spaces of the Hagi Clan was "the orderly street spaces". 2. The Hagi Clan notified owners of residences that can't built houses, to place fences and walls around residences. 3. The reason of 2, the Hagi Clan planed to make street spaces and city spaces.
On the ceremony space about Rinzikyaku(臨時客) held in Tai(対) of the aristocratic residences in the Heian period, the following points were clarified. 1. The ceremony space of Rinzikyaku(臨時客) held in Tai(対) in Fujiwara-no-Yoritada(藤原頼忠)'s residence is affected by Yoritada(頼忠) having lived in Sinden(寝殿). 2. The ceremony space of Rinzikyaku(臨時客) held in Tai(対) in Fujiwara-no-Kaneie(藤原兼家)'s residence is affected by Kaneie(兼家) having lived in Tai(対). 3. The difference of the ceremony space of both residences depend on the difference of the influence of how to use residences when their daughter who become Empress of the Emperor went home.
The aim of this paper is to provide a short but comprehensive overview of the historical evolution of the concepts of the “artificial urban island” and “marine city” devised and developed in the context of Japanese architecture and urban planning during the second-half of the twentieth century. These concepts were a consequence of the severe shortage of buildable land for new industrial and freight complexes, as well as for housing and public facilities. From the futuristic urban morphologies of Metabolism and Kenzo Tange's plans, which developed as polemic rejection of late modernist architectural principles, to the engineering approach of official government planning schemes, based on the provision of massive-scale public infrastructures, this study is a chronological survey of the main marine city projects conceived in Japan during the last 4 decades. This paper further analyzes and highlights the connection between the urban forms and planning paradigms of the artificial islands and briefly investigates the needs and ambitions behind these urban marine prototypes.
This paper attempts to investigate and analyze the morphological typology and origins of the Hindu-Buddhist candis which were built from 8th to 17th centuries in the island of Bali. Mainly, the discussion will be focused on its characteristics analysis and morphology in order to determine the candi typology in its successive historical period, and the origin will be decided by tracing and comparative study to the other candis that are located across over the island and country as well. As a result, 2 groups which consist of 6 types of `Classical Period` and 1 type as a transition type to `Later Balinese Period`. Then, the Balinese candis can also be categorized into the `Main Type Group` which consists of 3 types, such as Stupa, Prasada, Meru and the `Complementary Type Group` can be divided into 4 types, like Petirthan, Gua, Açrama and Gapura. Each type might be divided into 1, 2 or 3 sub-types within its architectural variations. Finally, it is not only the similarities of their candi characteristics and typology can be found but also there were some influences on the development of candis in the Bali Island that originally came from Central and East Java.
At the height of the Angkor Dynasty, between the 12th and 13th centuries, Jayavarman VII constructed an extensive network of “Royal Roads” through his vast territory centered on today's Cambodia. Of the number of roads stretching outward in a radial pattern, it was commonly believed that the royal road running in the southeast direction extended as far as, or ran through, Isanapura, or the Sambor Prei Kuk Monuments. However, based on aerial photographs and onsite explorations between these two ancient cities, we confirmed the existence of the royal road constructed by Jayavarman VII and another ancient road that is believed to have been constructed during the pre-Angkor period. The former connects Angkor Thom and Prasat Andet. The latter connects the royal city of Isanapura and a spot to the south of the Roluos Monuments or a spot to the south of the West Baray, although the ancient causeway turns into a water channel west of the Roluos Monuments. The existence of the sole arterial road, which is estimated as being constructed during the same period as the capital city of Isanapura, and the fact that it leads to the Angkor region, supports the assumption that the Angkor region around the West Baray had already been a major regional base and even perhaps a sub-capital to Isanapura, during the pre-Angkor period.
This paper shows a result of investigation based on several field surveys. The aim of this study is to understand more clearly on the development process of structural techniques of upper-part of the entrance in Khmer brick architecture and the characteristics of construction technologies, the weak point of causing collapse for example, in order to contribute to the conservation and restoration work. Based on the result of the investigations, this study makes it possible to contribute partly for the chronology of Khmer historical architecture. The development process of upper-part of entrance techniques can be divided into three periods. The first period, from the early of the 7th century to the second half of the 9th century, can be considered as the testing and challenging period. The second period, at the late of the 9th century, can be considered as a turning point of the development technique. And the third period, from the late of the 9th century, when the construction technology had developed very fast especially at the middle of the 10th century, can be considered as rational technique period of entrance structure of Khmer brick architecture.
Each main wooden components of the longitude section with slanting beam ‘Keo’ is designed from the dimensions of the rectangular timbers. Particularly in Hue, it is characterized by their design from the square section of each component. The roofline is standard line on the designing and drawing for the slanting beam ‘Keo’ without any horizontal and vertical line. Although the designing tool ‘Thuoc Nach’ is quite suitable for the making the joint of the column with slanting beam, the reason why the tool must be equilateral triangle shape cannot be found from the design method for the wooden components.
The streets in Pompeii were orderly structures, with lava for paving of its roadway, sidewalks, step stones, and ruts; and a conspicuous feature of the whole site is the elaborate and carefully planned system of drainage. The drainage from rainwater could cause slight undulation of the surface as water seeks its own level. Here, the water flows on the streets were manipulated by Pompeian builders, but their manipulation depended on human technology to slightly rise or lower the surface and thus to control the flow. When public bathes and aqueduct providing huge mount of water, were built, sometimes the mound was constructed by piling an artificial slope against the original configuration of the ground, and the swelling or settlement of the surface on the intersections of the drainage routes, such as Horconius crossing, must have been carefully planned to avoid overflow and standing water. The Pompeian streets appear to be a good example of the application of appropriate technology, this paper stresses the planning of the drainage system in connection with the design of its urban fabric.
Case study was carried out in a water limited village to evaluate its traditional village cultural landscape from a water environmental point of view. Study result indicated that; 1) Traditional water management structures were carefully developed to make the best use of its given geographical/hydrological feature. 2) These facilities were considered as common assets, thus usage/maintenance rules were strictly followed by the village people. 3) Location of buildings and rice fields in Meiji period had strong relationship with the location of water management structures. As a conclusion, water management structures which utilized its given natural environment have created sustainable water management system together with its usage rules shared among the village people. This traditional water management system regulated land use such as location of buildings and rice fields which are major elements of a village landscape, thus can be concluded as an important factor to create its unique village cultural landscape.
In ancient quarries, there remain untouched the large and difficult questions of how long ancient quarries could operated and why those quarries were closed. The former question is readily answerable by the supposition that the extraction method of Roman workers cannot have been different from those in the later period and that the manpower requirements are similar to those. The discussions provide some unexpected results such as no more than 100 years of operation and in the final phase the most quarrymen at work at a qurrry in the eastern part of Naslat susayn' Ali, and, even though the inevitable absence of good comparative examples may sometimes mean that the argument cannot get very far, the work as a whole provides an interesting commentary on the nature of late antique quarry operation.
The mausoleum of Taitokuin the second Tokugaga General was built in 1632 at the south of Zojo-ji Temple precinct. The most of grand buildings were burnt down by the Word War II. But only Taitokuin-sohmon the mausoleum main gate is remained at the old place. It is the consideration about the production and maintenance of the mausoleum sanctuary according to ceremonies of restorations from old records of Zojo-ji. Moreover, it was claryfyed the roof material change of Taitokuin-sohmon with the restoration in 1829.
This paper aims at clarifying the significance of the water works in the local industrial cities in Japan. In the Meiji period, the water works were constructed to solve hygiene problems and to prevent fire in big cities. These two early purposes changed in time. This study chooses Maebashi city and Kiryuu city as case study, because these cities were well-known in it textile industry. These cities grew up from the Taisho period to the early Showa period, and needed industrial infrastructure. This research emphasizes two important roles: the first is that the construction purpose in textile industrial cities was not to take measures the hygiene problems and the fire prevention but also to provide the industrial water for the production. It was different from water works in big cities of the Meiji period. The second is that the administrative officials and the engineers considered the water works as an essential mean of the modern industrial cities.
Under the Hague Convention, the states parties in peacetime must foster a spirit of respect for the culture and cultural property of all peoples for their armed forces and include the study of the Convention in their military programs. In light of the philosophy of the Convention, these measures are part of the most important matters. This paper aims to clarify whether or how these provisions have be en implemented. As a result, the state and measures of implementation turned out to be not enough, but partly, measures consider ed practically effective are found out.
This paper aims at analyzing the conceptual interactions and the integrated application of the following three UNESCO's International Conventions in culture through examples in Cambodia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Afghanistan, and Iraq: 1. Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its 1st Protocol (1954) and 2nd Protocol (1999), 2. Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970), 3. Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972).