The aim of this paper is to find decisive factors for resettlement after disasters. The research was conducted in Motomachi District in Izu-Oshima, damaged by a landslide in 2013. From case studies of sixteen households, this paper found the followings:
1) Housing resettlement processes were categorized into three types: a Self-help type, a Hybrid type, and a Safety net type. The Self-help type is a resettlement using resources owned by a household or its relatives. The Hybrid type is a process using both private resources and public resources. Households that took the Safety net type process only utilized public resources.
2) The age of people in the household did not determine which resettlement type they select. Job, adjacent descendant, and local real estate property were the resource factors which made a certain impact on the type of the resettlement process of affected households.
3) Households with more resources tended to invest more for resettlement. Even if they were old, those who had a job or a descendant to inherit land obtained a new plot and built a new house for resettlement. On the other hands, households without a job nor a descendant in the island tended to sell their plot and move into a public house.
4) In terms of relationship between an original plot and a resettled plot, we could categorize households into three groups: a) Resettled at or near the original plot; b) Resettled at the central Motomachi; and c) Resettled at the outskirt of Motomachi. Households of the first group were mainly aged households with a lot of resources. Households of the second group were also aged households, but didn’t have a child in the island. Therefore, they tended not to invest for resettlement and moved into an existing house they or their relatives owned. Households of the last group can be divided into two group: households that resettled at a public house; and households that constructed a new house. The households that resettled at a public house include both old households and young households, but each age group of these households had different purposes. Aged households that resettled at a public house intended to keep a minimum real estate with them. Younger households that resettled at a public house tried to lower the cost of living and prepare for the future. Households that constructed a new house are mainly younger households. Due to shortage of affordable plots at the central Motomachi, these young households moved to the outskirt of Motomachi. These young households were also attentive to the safety against a disaster and preferred to take a distance from the damaged area, while older households tried to resettle close to their original plot.
The target of this research is relief facilities, which provide a place to live for various socially vulnerable people. There are 182 relief facilities across the country, and buildings and residents are aging. On the other hand, the impact of COVID-19 has become a big issue in social welfare facilities. It is necessary to review the facility environment from the perspective of infection prevention as well as a future reconstruction plans.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the overall picture of relief facilities and to identify perspectives leading to the future living environment and the infection prevention in relief facilities based on (1) the architectural characteristics of relief facilities and (2) the changes in the facility environment during the impact period of COVID 19. The survey consisted of a web-based questionnaire survey and field surveys. The results are as follows:
1) Bedrooms generally consist of two or four beds, with floor area per person of 5.1 to 7.1 m2. Case study analysis of 32 facilities showed that the average private room rate was as low as 15%, and many facilities had only one dining room. Therefore, from an architectural point of view, the relief facilities are considered to be old-fashioned facilities based on the concepts of living and providing care in large groups. 2) The number of facilities with single rooms for infection control was 39 facilities and the number of rooms that could be used as isolation rooms for infection control was about two per facility, less than 30% of the facilities had flow areas for infection control. In terms of facilities, infection control cannot be sufficiently implemented. Measures within the facility were taken more in common spaces than in bedrooms, and included changes in the hours of use, seating arrangements, and frequency and duration of bathing. 3) The main measures in daily life were to reduce the amount of interaction with other people, such as increasing the amount of time residents spend in their bedrooms and limiting the flow lines, which changed the way of residents’ daily life. Restricting program time and going out increased free time, and passive activities such as watching TV became noticeable. It is necessary to consider a new facility program that does not restrict the residents’ lives while preventing infection. 4) In the case study analysis, there were 18/30 of the facilities where the retreat rooms and bedrooms were separated, and about 90% of the facilities separated the retreat rooms in plane rather than separating these by floor. In facilities that lack infection areas, retreat rooms or rooms located away from residents’ bedrooms can be substituted as isolation rooms. Retreat rooms near the entrance, even if they are located on the second floor or higher, can provide a route for transport to the outside without passing through the facility.
In this study, a questionnaire survey of support facilities for persons with disabilities throughout Japan and a floor plan analysis on some of those facilities were conducted. From these surveys, we analyzed the relationship between the characteristics of the disabilities of residents and the care and building conditions, as well as the implementation status of private rooms, unit care, and day/night separation. The results are as follows.
1) Facilities mainly for people with intellectual disabilities tend to be regarded as "residences for people who need a structured environment, mainly for people with severe behavioral disorders," and they tend to adopt a policy of having everyone participate in daytime activity programs, with 74.1% implementing day/night separation. In addition, in residential settings, there is a tendency to have smaller support units and a higher percentage of implementation of the division of living units. In terms of the staff’s intentions regarding future improvements in facilities and care, the following were pointed out: expansion of the activity room area, reduction of the size of the support unit, and barrier-free access.
2) Facilities mainly for people with physical disabilities tend to be regarded as "residences for people with the most severe disabilities who require extensive support with physical assistance" or "residences for people who require medical care." In addition, many of these facilities tend to have a policy of allowing free participation in daytime activity programs or not having any programs, and do not implement day/night separation. In residential settings, there is a tendency to have larger support units and room capacities, and a higher percentage not to implementing the division of living units. In terms of the staff's intentions regarding future improvements in facilities and care, there were requests for support such as the introduction of nursing care equipment.
3) In terms of the specific building configuration of day/night separation, the most common types are the "centralized type” in which rooms and activity rooms are contained in one building and separated by area or floor, and the "decentralized type" in which the building is divided into several buildings with different functions such as residence and activity.
4) Compared to the “multi-bedroom type” facilities, the proportion of area occupied by management and services is smaller than in “private room type” facilities, and the area of bedrooms, common areas, and total floor space per person tend to be larger. Among the “private room type” facilities, there is no difference in the area composition between the “unit-type” and “conventional-type” facilities. “unit-type” facilities tend to have more staff than the other facilities.
These results suggest that facilities mainly for the people with intellectual disabilities tend to be conscious of creating a clear rhythm of life through the activity programs and architectural configuration of the facilities, and that architectural configurations that facilitate the creation of structured environment and individual support are required. On the other hand, in the case of facilities mainly for the people with physical disabilities, the creation of a clear rhythm of life is not so important, and it is suggested that the ease of providing both direct support, such as physical assistance, and indirect support, such as watching over, is required. In addition, when implementing unit care, it is necessary to consider the support system rather than the architectural configuration.
Small-scale daycare services (SDSs) for 0-2 year olds, which were established in 2015, are expected to eliminate especially young children on the waiting list. However, how to secure the acceptance of 3-year-old children, the so-called “wall of 3-year-old children” has become a big issue, and it is necessary to establish affiliated facilities for SDSs. The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual circumstances of affiliated facilities with SDSs, and the effects of age composition in the capacity of authorized day-nurseries (ADs).
This study was conducted in three parts. In the first part, document analysis of the affiliated facilities from the perspective of small-scale daycare services in six municipalities was carried out. In the second part, document analysis on the affiliated facilities from the perspective of authorized day-nurseries in seven municipalities was carried out. Finally, in the third part, a survey using visits and interviews, was conducted with 17 authorized day-nurseries.
1) Approximately 60% of SDSs have ADs as affiliated facilities, but the number of children accepted per facility is much smaller than that of kindergartens. The proportion of SDSs with four or more children accepted by ADs is less than 25%, but since almost all of them are operated by the same corporation, it is presumed that the cooperation between the two facilities was intended from the beginning.
2) Most of ADs have been operated by the private sector since 2002. In terms of capacity, the number of large ones with over 100 children have gradually decreased and the slightly smaller ones with 50 to 74 children have increased in recent years. Due to the difficulty of securing a larger space in urban areas, the capacity of ADs tends to be smaller.
3) Using the ratio and difference in the capacity of 2-year-old and 3-year-old children, age composition in capacity of ADs are classified into four types and analyzed. The proportion of the T-shape type was found to gradually decrease, and the proportion of the Semi T-shape and Rectangle-shape types was found to increase significantly. It is thought that ADs opened in recent years tend to create a small ratio and difference between the capacity of 2-year-old and 3-year-old children.
4) Most of the ADs that accept four or more children had the T-shape or Semi T-shape type of age composition in capacity. Therefore, the number of graduates accepted at ADs is considered to be greatly affected by age composition in capacity.
5) Results of the visit surveys indicated that, at the ADs that accept four or more children, age composition in capacity was set systematically so that graduates from SDSs of the same corporation could enter. However, the newly-opened ADs with the T-shape type have some disadvantages, such as very few older children have been admitted for 2 years after the opening.
6) While the majority of the ADs that accept four or more children only cooperate within the same corporation, there were two cases in which many graduates from other corporations were accepted. In both cases, the capacity to admit older children was significantly increased by expanding or setting up an annex to an existing AD. It is considered to be a worthwhile method for securing cooperation between ADs and SDSs even in different corporations.
In modern world, one of major causes of stress is reported at office. There have been many studies on the green effects in natural environment that improve human psychological and physiological states under stress situation. On the other hand, there is not enough space in the office for providing enough visual experiences of natural environment. Furthermore, there have been many discussions on the restorative effects of plants in the office environment based on subjective assessments but few research dealt with the physiological effect and they have not necessarily been successful in detecting clear effects of small interior plants. In this study, the authors ameliorate color and pattern of wall, floor, etc., which occupy major part of vision, of the conventional office with the plant's visual texture and conducted an experiment in which we aim at clarifying physiological restorative effects of our “green office scape” in virtual environment.
The experiment consists of two Phases and 26 students participated in each phase in the same order. Each phase has two sessions of n-back tests and 30 seconds break between the sessions. Phase 1 started with the conventional office scape and it was changed to the “green office scape” at the beginning of break time, while in Phase 2, there was no change from the conventional office scape. During those phases, SCL values were measured and analyzed with the test scores as performance level. The whole experiment was conducted in virtual environment.
As a result, at the break between the sessions, the average of standardized SCL values significantly increased (p < 0.05, n=22). However, the gap of these values is significantly higher when the scape changed from office to green than in no change condition (p < 0.05, n=22).
In further analysis, the participants were classified into two groups who were aware of the change of the scape in Phase 1, i.e. “aware group (n=10)” and who were not, i.e. “unaware group (n=12)”.
The results of the “aware group” showed that the average of standardized SCL values significantly increased when the design has changed into Green Design Office (p < 0.05) and the performance score kept a certain level, while in no change condition, the increase of SCL values was not significant and the performance score decreased significantly (p<0.01).
From those results, the authors conclude that the Green Design Office may recover the worker's arousal level, and may bring the concentration. It indicates that continuous work in the same office design for a long time without the green elements may cause the difficulty in getting the restorative effect. In addition, the restorative effect by scape change into green ones may be effective when the worker is aware of the change. These results suggest that it is important to make the office workers aware of the green visual elements when changing office scape. Finally, those results imply that there is possibility of using virtual environment for the restoration of the worker's concentration.
Since 2005, the authors have been conducting research on the occupancy history and repair and renovation of housing complexes built by the Japan Housing Corporation. The housing complexes were surveyed by the Japan Housing Corporation (at that time) and Prof. Hatsumi in 1982-1983, the year after occupancy, and by Hatsumi in 1995, 12-13 years after the start of occupancy. The author conducted surveys in 2005-2006, in 2013-2014, and in 2017-2018, 35 years after the start of occupancy. The authors reported the results of the survey conducted in 2005-2006 by publishing "Study on the Adaptability and Layout Changes Made to KEP Housing", Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ), Vol. 72, No. 621, pp. 29-36, 2007. 11 (in Japanese). In this paper, the authors report the results of a survey conducted about 10 years after and about 15 years after the time of 2005.
The low-rise building is a two-story terrace house (approx. 99-106 m2) with six different types (N~S), each with three options for the second floor: all free, semi-free, or all set.
All Free: Residents can choose the layout of the first floor from a fixed plan of living room, dining room, and kitchen, or living room, dining room, kitchen, and Japanese-style room; on the second floor, residents themselves decide the layout of the free space except for the stairs and toilet.
Semi-Free: On the first floor, residents can choose from the same plan as the All-Free plan; on the second floor, a Japanese-style room is planned in advance on the north side, and residents are free to design their own space except for the Japanese-style room, stairs, and toilet.
All set: Residents choose from the plans planned by the supplier for both the first and second floors; on the second floor, all units except for Type O have movable partitions, providing the same adaptability as in the mid-rise housing.
The authors confirmed that the planning method has been effective for households with growing children but is not used after the children move out. Another attempt, the movable partition wall on the second floor of the all-set units, was confirmed to be effectively used by many households as their children grow up. It can be said that the concept of future adaptability envisioned in the planning of the low-rise building of Estate Tsurumaki 3 has been effective, as many of the resident households had children of school age or younger.
In Kunisaki Peninsula, Oita Prefecture, there are huts with walls earth-stone masonry walls have been identified. In this study, the purpose and composition of the huts were investigated in order to clarify the architectural characteristics of the huts with earth-stone masonry walls.
We conducted interviews and measured surveys. As a result, the following was found.
(1) Many of the huts in the target area were built as places to raise livestock for farming, and even today, traces of waterers for livestock and mortise holes for fences can be seen in some of the huts. Since the middle of the Showa period (1926-1989), livestock have no longer been kept in the sheds, and their use has changed to storage. The spaces where the livestock spent their time needed to be well ventilated and comfortable, indicating the importance they placed on the livestock for farming.
(2) All of the huts were built by owners before the previous generation, and in some cases the year of construction was more than 70 years ago or more than 100 years ago.
(3) In some cases, the construction of the huts was done in collaboration with local residents, in addition to professional craftsmen.
(4) The structure of the huts was classified into three categories: (a) wooden structure, (b) masonry structure, and (c) mixed structure, based on the percentage of earth-stone masonry walls out of the total wall volume and whether or not the walls support the load of the roof. As a result, wooden structures were the most common, and masonry and mixed structures were the least common. In relation to the region, wooden structures were most common in Kitsuki City and Kunisaki City, while masonry and mixed structures were most common in Bungotakada City.
(5) The piles of earth and stones ranged from those with more stones and less earth to those with fewer stones and more earth. In the case of stone-heavy piles, the earth played a strong role as a joint material, and in the case of earth-heavy piles, it is possible that the earth was also used as a wall material.
The final objective of this study is to examine the relationship between the local heritage system and other policies in community development through tourism. As the first part of study, this paper focuses on Amami heritage and its prerequisites, backgrounds and activities that have been developed and deepened in Amami City, and tries to reveal (1) the characteristics of Amami heritage as a local heritage system, (2) efforts made prior to structuring the Amami heritage system to value and utilize local resources, and the link to the Amami heritage system, (3) the steps taken to deepen the Amami heritage after the system was structured. Through them, this paper aims to summarize the perspectives of the following paper that will examines how the Amami heritage was utilized and developed in community development through tourism, how it corresponded with other policies such as the activity for registration as a World Natural Heritage site, and its significance.
The field of this study is Amami Gunto Archipelago, especially focuses on Amami city. We conducted document research such as local government’s policy report, pamphlet, local newspaper, and so on, and interview survey on the local government office. The results are as follows.
(1) The Amami heritage was structured as part of the Basic Scheme for Historic and Cultural Properties (BSHCP) and was divided into two stages: "municipal heritage" and "Amami heritage". In the former case, both "subjective value" and "objective value" were used as criteria. The characteristics of Amami heritages as regional heritage are that they are to be collected in a wide and diverse range of frontage and to select as Amami heritages those that represent the archipelago and have academic value. This could made it possible to focus on declining local resources without being bound by preconceived notions and makes it easier to recognize them as targets for conservation and utilization. On the other hand, it can be also considered that the project has been able to appeal to people outside of the region and prioritize the order of conservation.
(2) Since 1980s, the concept of an eco-museum was introduced into the region, and policies and plans such as the Amami Gunto Natural Symbiosis Plan and the Amami Eco-museum Project had been implemented. In the process, researching the local resources was called "island treasure hunting" and the natural resources were evaluated from the both sides of "academic value" and "social value", which is common to the Amami heritage. However, it seems not to be possible to complete selecting regional resources as the "100 Amami treasures", suggesting that this may have been a task of the era of Amami heritage.
(3) Following the policy of conservation and utilization of Amami heritage showed in the BSHCP, the Amami heritage system has been deepened through studies, lectures and producing media. Efforts have also been made to expand the system to the whole Amami archipelago and to disseminate and promote Amami heritage in other fields of regional activities. In particular, the research and valorization of local resources that were not completed in the model project have been carried out as part of social education, school education, and tourism policy by local residents, and experts have supported these efforts to date. Through these efforts, some cases of urban development for tourism have begun to emerge.
The importance of innovations is growing with the expansion of knowledge economy. It is considered broadly that innovations are concentrated in the small number of major innovation centers. However, real conditions of innovations in many medium or small sized cities are not necessarily adequately understood. In this paper, in order to supply the fundamental information we describe the real situation of innovation of rural areas in Japan. We focus on the two viewpoints to understand the innovations of rural areas properly. The first viewpoint is the differences between infrequent and frequent innovations. It is expected that with analyzing including frequent innovations conditions of rural areas would be expressed more appropriately. The second viewpoint is amount of innovating firms depending on location choice within urban areas. Although the sizes of agglomeration in city centers of rural areas is small, still they are relatively adequate pools for communication to get new knowledge. Also, it is expected that the results would contribute to urban policies or industrial policies. For this purpose we devised methods for indexing of innovations and location choices. Innovations are classified into three categories reflecting their novelty: new innovations business category innovations and relationship innovations. They are described with patents, introduction of new industrial categories and ratio of new dealing relationships respectively. Location choice within cities are indicated quantitatively utilizing the distances from the city offices of municipalities which is centers of Urban Employment Areas. Based on these indexing and using database of Teikoku Databank (the largest credit rating agency in Japan, much information about small and medium enterprises is included.) and IIP patent database (addresses of patent applicants are included.), we show whether firms are conducting innovations and the locations of firms. The results are as below. First, when focusing on frequent innovations small cities show comparable innovations as large cities while generally speaking innovations in rural areas are considered not to be active. Second, although static locations of innovating firms don’t indicate the tendency to choose the places nearer to city centers, dynamic relocations of innovating firms are inclined to aim at the city centers compared with not innovating firms. This implies that the effectiveness of city center promotion from the viewpoint of innovations even in small cities. However, this study is devoted to description of present situation, so the reasons why these liabilities arise is a matter for future study.
Visualization of skills is one of the possible methods for efficient acquisition of skills. The goal of this study is to propose teaching methods for the efficient acquisition of these tasks for basic carpentry skills. For each task, a survey of existing literature is conducted to understand the known tips and tricks. In addition, a questionnaire survey of skilled technicians will be conducted to ascertain the tips and tricks recognized by skilled technicians themselves. Next, movement analysis is conducted on skilled and unskilled workers to ascertain the presence or absence of tricks that have not been described in the literature (tacit knowledge) and that are not recognized by the skilled workers themselves, based on the differences in their movements. Furthermore, we confirm whether the operation tips obtained from the literature survey and the skill questionnaire survey are consistent with the actual motions. Based on the results of the literature survey, skills questionnaire survey, and motion analysis, we create evaluation criteria for the work and visualize the skills. By using these evaluation criteria, we evaluate the movements of unskilled workers and provide them with guidance on how to improve their work in accordance with the actual conditions of each individual worker to improve the efficiency of skill acquisition.
As a first step, this paper reports on the results of a literature review and skills questionnaire survey with the aim of identifying the known tricks of chisel blade sharpening operations and the tricks recognized by skilled workers.
The results from the literature survey and skills questionnaire survey within the scope of this study are summarized below.
(1) There was no difference between the literature survey and the questionnaire survey in terms of working posture, wrist condition, vertical angle of the chisel to the grinding wheel, working motion, and application of force.
(2) Although the technical manual described tips for reducing the chisel travel distance, the results of the questionnaire survey showed that skilled workers worked with a larger chisel movement distance.
(3) The results of the questionnaire survey and the technical manual differed in the tips for applying force. The technical manual stated that blade sharpening was done by applying a large amount of force. On the other hand, in the questionnaire survey, the respondents answered that they sharpened the blade without applying a large amount of force.
1: The purpose of this study was to clarify the conditions that formed the type of building arrangement in the Okura-syo (water transportation facilities) of various domains. In western Japan, Okura-syo with basic type are few in each domain, and many domains have a unique building arrangement. Examples include the Daisyoji Domain, Fukui Domain, Tottori Domain, Yanagawa Domain, and Kumamoto Domain. These Okura-syo had a spatial structures that is rarely seen in other regions, such as gates exclusively for carrying thing in or carrying thing out, divided yard, and two types of storehouses.
2: Research procedures are shown. In western Japan, domains without an inspection station were prominent, and influence on type by an inspection station were predicted.
3: First, inspection station, gates, yards surrounded by storehouses and facilities (Okura, etc.) were shown for each domain. Next, a typical Okura-syo in the domain which had a unique building arrangement were shown through the spatial formation method.
4: The unique building arrangement were grouped into Enclosure Group and Parallel Group. In the Enclosure Group, there were two cases. First, a case that a storehouse connect to the next storehouses; “Connected type”. Second, a case that a storehouse separate from the next storehouses; “Non-connected type”. In the “Connected type”, there were two cases. First, a case that all storehouses are same kind. Second, a case that storehouses are two kind; storehouses of two kind are arranged in the site as separating to each. In the “Non-connected type”, there were two cases. First, a case that a storehouse exists in the yard. Second, a case that many storehouses exist in the yard. On the other hand, in the Parallel Group, there was a case that a storehouse is not opposite the other storehouse.
They were classified into four categories according to whether they are basic type or non-basic type and whether they have an inspection station, and commonalities for each category were clarified. There were tendencies regarding the number of gates and the appearance of yards in each category. From this, it was predicted that an inspection station and the number of gates influenced its types.
5: The following points were mentioned as conditions for basic types. The Okura-syo owned by Tottori domain become the parallel type when the ridge of an inspection station (have a distance from the front gate) is parallel to the line connecting the front and back gates, and when the ridge is parallel to the direction that the gates open. When this was not the case, it was an enclosure type. Each domain's Okura-syo that did not have an inspection station were easy to type when one gates had, and when had restrictions of the site. When it was a relatively few buildings, and when the gates were opened to the same direction as the ridges of storehouses that form the types, they became the parallel types. When there were many buildings, they became the enclosure types.
6: Summary. Looking at the Okura-syo in western Japan in the late Edo period, the building arrangement was acquire mainly by the domain's unique spatial formation methods, but it was concluded that they became the basic type according to conditions such as the number of gates, the spatial structures between gates and buildings, and the surrounding environment.
Chapter 1: This study draws attention to facilities concerning the gogura that were located along the Abukuma River in the Shintatsu region for the shipping of jomai to Edo. It aims to clarify the fact of their spatial structures based on valuable illustrations, mura-meisai-tyo (details of a village), and other historical sources. In the Mid-Edo period, there existed facilities called yose-gura and tome-ya along the Abukuma River in that region. The yose-gura were formed by gathering village gogura in one place. The rice stored in the yose-gura was taken to the riverside and loaded onto boats as jomai. The tome-ya were facilities for storing jomai by the riverside and were jointly set up by villages that were unable to set up a yose-gura near the riverside. Both facilities were common sights in the Mid-Edo period. In the Late Edo period, each village would set up their own facilities by the riverside.
Chapter 2: This chapter discusses previous research and the process of this study. It is concerned with the facilities of 10 towns and villages along the Abukuma River, where the existence of buildings is attested in historical sources.
Chapter 3: This showed each facility’s structure and building overviews for each town or village. The discussion on riverside facilities included the actual circumstances of the tome-ya on the right bank of the Abukuma River (Tenjin bank and Watari bank of Watari Village, Shinobu County as well as Nakaze Village, Date County) in the Mid-Edo period and of the “kawagishi-okura” on the Tenjin bank in the Late Edo period. Meanwhile, the discussion on gogura included the actual circumstances of the yose-gura in the Mid-Edo period (Watari bank and Kori Village, Date County on the left bank of the Abukuma River) and of the Higashi-oeda Village’s gogura-syo during the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Chapter 4: The commonalities and spatial structural techniques of the various riverside facilities and the gogura were considered. The former tome-ya were likely a building which villages share according to the amount of rice regardless of area. That is, they were row houses. Some of these were simply wooden structures called amaya. The latter yose-gura of the Mid-Edo period had two case concerning the building method depending on size. First is to gather each village's gogura, it is called “bunto”. Second is row house. The gogura-syo on the left bank of the Abukuma River in Date County were bunto that inherited the tradition of the yose-gura of the Mid-Edo period. The arrangement of buildings at the Higashi-oeda Village’s gogura-syo during the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate likely reflected the geographical conditions of each village to avoid congestion when delivering the rice.
Chapter 5: The conclusion. Yose-gura and tome-ya in the Shintatsu region during the Mid-Edo period were at the heart of a system where villages worked together to transport jomai, a practice that continued in the gogura-syo during the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
This paper reports on the visits Koji Fujii made to Europe and the United States from November 1919 to August 1920. Although it was already known that Fujii visited Europe and the United States during this period, the details were previously unknown. However, in 2016, Akira Matsukuma discovered numerous materials relating to Fujii and his residence, Chōchikukyo. It contains diaries, albums, passports, receipts, pamphlets, postcards to family and the like, during his time in Europe and the United States; these made it possible to see the whole picture of his visit. This paper— Part 1—examines his travel objectives and introduces an outline of his itinerary. All historical documents referred to in this paper are currently held by Takenaka Corporation in their Corporate Planning Office’s Historical Archives Group collection.
The primary purpose of Fujii’s visit to Europe and the United States was to investigate western housing. At the time, various problems were being discovered with traditional Japanese housing; holding an awareness of these issues, Fujii visited Europe and the United States to overcome them, contemplating the improvement of Japanese housing through his research.
The other purpose of Fujii’s visit to Europe and the United States was to investigate building services. Fujii took a post at Kyoto University’s Architecture Department in September 1920 for overseeing coursework in building services, and his position was unofficially confirmed by April 1919 at the very latest. At the time, there was almost no accumulated research on building services in Japan. Therefore, Fujii sought exposure to the latest building services in Europe and the United States, preparing to utilise these in his lectures. The above two points—that is, to research housing and building services—were Fujii’s objectives for visiting Europe and the United States.
Fujii departed Yokohama on November 8, 1919. He arrived in San Francisco via Hawaii on November 24 and arrived in New York by train on December 1. It is worth noting that he spent about two months staying at the Amendola House in Montclair, New Jersey, until January 30, 1920. The experience of living in an ordinary American household is likely to have had a strong influence on Fujii’s subsequent residential designs. In February he continued visiting cities such as New Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago and Detroit. From late February to March, he returned to New York, visiting as many as 40 trade manufacturers and collecting architectural catalogues. It appears that Fujii’s objectives were primarily fulfilled by the time the above research was completed in the United States.
Fujii then departed New York on March 6, 1920, and arrived in England on the 16th. From here, he travelled to France, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium. In Europe, Fujii primarily travelled studying traditional styles of architecture. Returning to England, he departed Liverpool for New York on July 3. He crossed the American continent and departed Seattle on July 30, arriving in Yokohama on August 14.
This study attempts to figure-out the characteristics of suggestive artificially intelligent architecture by case-studying the cybernetic projects and relevant theoretical discourse presented by Japanese architects Kenzo Tange and Arata Isozaki during the decade of the 1960s.
First, the reason behind selecting Tange for this study is the fact that being inspired by the technological optimism of the 1960s, he presented an elaborate theoretical discourse on information and communications society and also attempted to portray this element as a significant design characteristic in the form of a central civic axis for the processing of information and communications in his projects A Plan for Tokyo (1960-61), Tsukiji Project in Tokyo (1963), Yamanashi Communications Center (1964-67), Plan for Skopje (1965) and Japan World Exposition Osaka (1967-70). This information and communications discourse led him to explore the characteristics of cybernetic environments such as tactual, auditory and visual approaches by following Norbert Wiener’s line of thought. Afterwards, he approached suggestive artificially intelligent architecture and attempted to define it through human, emotional, sensual, and technologically intelligent elements and social-communicational structure of the space.
Secondly, the reason behind the selection of Isozaki is the fact that he – following in the footsteps of Tange but adopting an approach featuring arts, technology and architecture – experimented with cybernetic environments while following Norbert Wiener as his ideal in the projects of Electric Labyrinth: 14th Triennale Di Milano, Milan, Italy (1968), Arai House (1968-69), Computer Aided City, Makuhari, Chiba (1970-72) and Osaka Expo ’70 (1967-70). Computer Aided City is of particular significance as he introduced the concept of a brain of the city through this project that eliminated all the discrimination among the functions of a city hall, hospital, school, art museum, etc. and controlled the city via artificially intelligent information processing system – a concept being implemented these days through artificial intelligence. He also presented the characteristics of suggestive artificially intelligent environment as enclosed in a protective membrane, possessing interchangeable spaces, movable equipment, enjoying a man-machine symbiosis and handling a self-instructing feedback loop.
Finally, both architects realized their dreams of suggestive artificially intelligent environment in the Festival Plaza of the Osaka Expo ’70. Especially Isozaki being inspired by NASA’s space missions and science-fiction based movies of the 1960s, attempted to control the entire environment via artificially intelligent brain of the Expo ’70 – that is the main control room.
In this study, I examine the design process of the Tange residence based on sketches and photos kept by Akira Tarashima, who was in charge of designing the residence. This clarified the following four points.
First, I study the sketches and completion drafts of the residence, and classify them according to area size from Type A to Type F. Observing the front of the longer direction, we see that 32 shaku, 40 shaku, 50 shaku, and 60 shaku were under consideration, after which Type F became 54 shaku. I confirm that the various study sketches considered room allocation based on the basic modules of 4 shaku, 5 shaku, and 6 shaku. I also confirm that the plane and façade were drawn simultaneously and clarified the process from a modest-size one-story house (Type A) to the two-story completion draft with an exterior worthy of an official residence (Type F).
Second, Tange and Tarashima envisioned a one-story house and an open veranda from Type A to Type C, but the layout that placed the entrance and the back door back-to-back bears a striking resemblance to the Urawa house. They have an exterior like that of the Farnsworth House and match the explanation Tarashima gave to Fujimori. Moreover, while the children’s bedroom and the parents’ bedroom were separate from Type A to Type E, the wall between the rooms was removed in Type F to realize an unrestricted indoor space centered around a core.
Third, while the height of the floor from the ground was about 60 cm in Type A, B, and C, there were suggestions of raising the floor by 1.4m or 1.92 m in Type D. In Type F, Tange raised the floor of the residence 2.5m from the ground. Tange publicly stated that his reasons for adopting a piloti form were threefold: anti-dampness, anti-theft, and Seijo rules. Another likely driving force for the piloti adoption was his distinctive opinions on the nationalization of land during the postwar reconstruction and his strong interest in the Katsura Imperial Villa.
Fourth, Types D, E, and F show a process of developing the two-story proposal, and I confirm that they struggled with the placement of staircases and earthquake-resistant walls. Moreover, although the cross-section views showed designs in the roof surface, the fact that much of the external walls were made of glass and cold air could pass under the floors suggests that the plan was for a home that is cold in winter.
In the early days of the founding of the PRC, one of the biggest obstacles to the implementation of industrial priority development strategy was the shortage of housing for workers. Obviously, workers’ residential planning originated in Europe and the United States is the most mature, but this has led to a contradiction: while distinguishing from the architectural form of capitalist countries, it also develops industry efficiently. Therefore, the only way is to learn from the Soviet Union, which is also a socialist country. But in fact, after the establishment of the Soviet Union, the source of its residential planning was the UK and the United States. Through the transformation in conformity with the socialist ideology, the Soviet Union created a spatial model of residential planning that emphasized symmetrical composition and central zone. On this basis, China has launched a series of development applications. It can be said the modern residential planning theory is presented in China after a double translation.
The author investigated the contents of residential planning that appeared in the architecture professional books that were widely referenced at that time. The comparison found that when China first referred to the Soviet Union’s architectural professional book “Soviet Workers’ Residential District Design”, many problems appeared due to the lack of architectural knowledge of Russian translators. At the beginning of the First five-year plan, Chinese architects quoted a lot from the former in their re-edited" General Layout Design of Factory and Workers' Residential District". However, it corrects the wrong translation of professional vocabulary, adds the practical experience of residential design in Northeast China, and discusses the problems of greening and the form of residential buildings.
During the First five-year plan period, the construction of the residential planning of Beijing No.2 textile factory was very likely to be affected by professional books at that time. According to surveying and mapping, it was discovered that an additional green belt was set up in the center of the main road in the residential district, and the road width exceeded the Soviet standard. At the same time, the main road not only serves as the north-south axis of the block to connect the entrance and the central zone but also opened in the middle of the green belt connects the east-west blocks, which strengthens the relationship between the residential groups. These all design methods that have not been seen in Soviet residential planning. Instead, some of them are mentioned in the “General Layout Design of Factory and Workers’ Residential District”.
It can be said that during the First five-year plan period, the design of workers’ residential planning in China showed creativity. In professional books, you can see that designers are trying to combine Soviet experience, actively discussing design methods more suitable for China, paying attention to the local climate and living environment, and looking for more economical methods for residential planning. The central zone of the green belt, which integrates greening, public space, and transportation, presents a unique characteristic of Chinese workers’ residential planning. These show possibilities of how a modern settlement theory entered China and internalized the Chinese modern residential planning theory.
The purpose of this study is to examine the problems about the theory of architecture, using Japanese classical literature as a text, we have taken up representations of dwelling and have conducted architectural discussions of the aspects of spatial phenomena that appear in texts, while taking the previous research by the so-called Kyoto School of architectural theory, led by Masuda Tomoya. Masuda argues that "A house must first be positioned in its landscape". Tanaka Takashi, Masuda's disciple, applied the word "utsusukoto" to the phenomenon of dwelling, and aimed to open up the phenomenon of "scenery" from a new perspective that included the Oriental theory of the body and mind. In this context, Tanaka took up Saito Mokichi and others.
First in this paper, we would like to begin with the poetry of Tachibana Akemi, a Fukui poet lived at the end of the Edo period, about "dwelling" in own house. Akemi wrote 52 poems titled Dokurakugin, about the joy of living with his family. It can be said that the words in the poems capture the real scenery of the family's poor but peaceful life. We must not overlook the common thread between "dwelling" and "scenery".
Next, we would like to take up Kaidouki, author unknown, a travelogue of Kamakura period. Here, travel is defined as an act of leaving one’s house, and returning to it. The author’s view of dwelling could be outlined in his way of life, through the descriptions of the scenery he saw with his own eyes on the way, and the scenes of people’s lives, as well as through Kaidouki that expresses self-referentiality in the extraordinary place of travel. Even in the midst of a travel, the author’s thought of Miyako as his hometown, his home there, and his family, are a chain of scenery.
Then the third, take up the Haiku of Inoue Seigetsu, who wandered around Shinano at the end of the Edo period. He is said to have come from a samurai, but lost his family in a disaster. He eventually entered Inadani and stayed there for the rest of his life. It is thought that he is adrift not only in the spatial existence of own dwelling, but also in the temporal existence of his life. The word "wandering " is taken to mean the act of drifting away from one’s dwelling, also of moving one’s body and mind. So most of Seigetsu’s poems are written from the outside of the house to the inside, and it can be said that he wrote about the scenery of the house as seen through shoji and windows. There are also a few poems that depict the inside of a house, which must have been a real scene that shows how much he appreciated his home that he could not have.
Three phenomena can be contrasted and placed into "housing/dwelling", "travelling/not-dwelling" and "wandering/non-dwelling". Although we usually consider only "dwelling", but we can point out that the depth of "dwelling" becomes clearer by taking up contrasting phenomena such as "travelling" and "wandering ".
In this paper, we clarify the multidimensional reality of "dwelling" from the perspective of architectural theories of three phenomena, "dwelling", "not-dwelling" and "non-dwelling" in order to comprehensively reveal some aspects of the scenery of dwelling.
The present paper analyzes the spatial composition of Hosios Loukas with the theme and layout of the paintings, focusing on the relationship between the tomb and the paintings (Fig.1, Fig.2). Loukas' relics lie in “Space Λ” between the Church of the Panaghia and the Katholikon (Fig.4, Fig.12). Loukas’ tomb (sarcophagus) is located in the north arm of the crypt, beneath his relics (Fig.5, Fig.8). The tomb is visible in front of the south portal of the crypt (Fig.7), but the tomb (relics) is not easily accessed from the west portals of the Church of the Panaghia and the Katholikon. “Space Λ” rests in the gap between the two churches. The importance of Loukas’ tomb is unclear due to its architectural aspect. However, this tomb was presumably connected to all the churches with the layout of the paintings. This paper describes how the layout of the paintings of Hosios Loukas gives meaning to the architectural space. This church has enormous implications for determining how a holy space was constructed.
I surveyed Hosios Loukas in September 2012 and August 2018, and created three-dimensional images, interior elevations (Fig.13, Fig.14, Fig.15, Fig.16 upper middle, middle left, middle right, lower middle), an interior view of the ceiling (Fig.16 middle), and isometric drawings (Fig.16 upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right). I then analyzed the spatial composition of the paintings, focusing on the south portals of the Eukterion and the Church of Saint Barbara, the paintings in the Katholikon’s naos, narthex, northwest chapel, and “Space Λ,” and the location of Loukas' tomb to clarify the significance of the architectural space with the theme and layout of the paintings.
In the second half of the 10th century, the Church of Saint Barbara and the Eukterion had south portals (Arrow 1 and 2 in Fig.3), Loukas' tomb was venerated in the north arm of the Eukterion or the crypt (Arrow 1 in Fig.5). In the first half of the 11th century, based on the construction and connection of the Church of the Panaghia and the Katholikon, and the layout of the paintings, the old space, consisting of the Church of Saint Barbara and the Eukterion from the south portal to the north of Loukas’ tomb, overlapped with the new space after the translation of Loukas’ relics. This new space encompassed the Church of the Panaghia and the Katholikon from the west narthex to the east apse (Arrow 1 in Fig.4). The Katholikon’s naos, narthex, northwest chapel, and “Space Λ” are connected to the Christian paintings; Loukas was painted near his tomb, and Christ and the Virgin are painted opposite or behind Loukas (Line 1 in Fig.4). This establishes a three-dimensional Byzantine religious space centered on Loukas’ tomb.
The Church of Saint Barbara and the Eukterion were separated, with a space established in the two churches to venerate Loukas’ tomb from the south to the north. When the Church of the Panaghia and the Katholikon were constructed, the space for Loukas’ tomb changed into a subordinate space. However, a holy space from the west to the east was devised with the layout of the paintings that connect to Loukas’ tomb to represent donor prayers that invoke Loukas’ grace. His tomb remains as the center of the two churches to this day.