Image analysis using airborn MSS data was made to investigate actual conditions of each mixel and calculate vegetation cover ratio in each mixel. The MSS data with 1.9m resolution used for the analysis was obtained in urban areas in the afternoon on a summer clear sky day. Spatial distribution, frequency and spectral characteristics of mixels were clarified, and correlation between the value of vegetation index and the vegetation cover ratio in a pixel was investigated. On the basis of above results, we proposed a method to calculate vegetation cover ratio, and verified the competency of the method against the other method with no consideration about mixel.
This paper will discuss a measurement method and a case study of the outdoor micro-area-climate around a building, the results of which are important for the creation of a naturally cool space. It is difficult to predict the characteristics of outdoor micro-area-climate because of wide variations and disorder in the climate. Distributions of outdoor air temperature are measured by auto-moving aspiration thermo-sensors. From the average pattern of distributions, some basic characteristics of outdoor micro-area-climate near the building have been clarified.
This paper investigates the characteristics of thermal image which has responsibility in 8 to 14V m band (Band A) , in 6.5 to 8.6 μm band (Band B) and in 3 to 5 μm band (Band C). Experiment was carried out at the residential area on a summer clear sky day. Followings were obtained by experimental results. 1) The temperature of roof tile and aluminum sheet in Band A were measured lower than actual temperature by some degree based on effect of sky radiation. 2) The amount of atmospheric effect in Band B was estimated about 6 to 10K when radiant temperature of measured objects were 20K higher than atmosphere. 3) Acceptable measurement accuracy in Band B were limited within 200m in mid-latitude summer, and within 800m in the winter by the difference between atmospheric corrections and measurement errors. We proposed algorithm to measure radiant temperature of glass based on above investigations. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was verified by experimental results.
This paper reports the investigation on the entire record of maintenance expenses of an air-conditioning system installed in a nineteen-year-old officebuilding since the building was constructed. The result is revealing of the important weight which the scheduling of restoration maintenance occupies in the planning for maintenance expenditure as a whole. Therefore, this paper is also devoted a theoretical study on how to plan the timing of performing maintenance works for restoring an air-conditioning system from physical degradation, and on how to make a long-term forecast of the maintenance cost.
In the present study, we investigated the "samurai, s house" which can be considered as the origine of the urbane detached houses of Japanese cities. Results can be summarized as follows; (1) Zashiki is facing the entrance of the grounds ho matter which direction (2) This planning is generally seen in many feudal clan (3) These houses are open to the all directions keeping the continuity between the houses and gardens. This is extremely different from the modern houses which are rather closed to the surroundings.
The object of this study is to get a fundamental guidline for the architectual planning of the institution for the elderly with dementia. We studied cases to make clear the factors of a daily life at home, its chenge by relocation and process to become familiar to environments of the institute. We showed that to keep a daily life at home stabilizes the condition of dementia,to make a familiarity with other elderly or staff, a territory and a pattrn of behavior are important to become familiar to environments of the institute and some propositions for the architectual planning.
The points of architectural planning of a nursing home are discussed in view of excretion care for people with dementia. The discussion is based on the investigation on actual care in nursing homes for people with dementia in Japan.Main conclusions are as follows. 1.Common toilets for daytime care should be placed adjacent to day-space. 2.Every toilet-booth should have enough space for a caregiver. 3.It is advisable to place decentralized toilets with dirty utility and linen storage closely connected to them among residents' rooms. 4.Smallness of a care unit is advantageous for attentive effective care.
This paper conntinues from the preceding paper and describes accurately existance conditions of "The design process of creating living values" by assaying the planning process of the U-court project from the view of co-ordinators' work on residents. As a result of assaying, we recognize the following for the necessity of, co-ordinators and the character of design. The first it's called "planning by participant planner" co-ordinators participate in residents community, they advance a planning as "one-community". The second it's "horizontal communication" between co-ordinators and residents. The third it's "adrift planning" including unforeseen happenings.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze characteristics of land use change in relation to characteristics of district, such as land level above sea, time distance from Yamate Line, land use condition, zoning regulation etc. The result is as follows; (1) Agricultural and residential land component in stationary distribution of land use transition matrix have close relationship to characteristics of district. (2) Land use transition matrix has a kind of autonomous characteristic, so we should be aware of this characteristic and use it in land use planning.
This paper aims to clarify the position of the temporary resident in urban living and factors of community problems, based on the questionnaire to residents of studio apartments in Osaka city. The results are as follows; l)Residents are different in the living behavior according to the inhabitant consciousness. 2)The tendency of the community spirit of residents varies with the consciousness and the behavior, which cause of the community problem.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the Viennese housing policy in the inter-war years. I analyzed arguments about the municipal program. The data are largely from the record of the city assembly. I examined two points; why did the local government in Vienna intervene more in housing construction? Why were multistory buildings provided in central urban area instead of the garden-city? It was observed in this paper that the concept of the housing strategies depended on whether we regarded the housing as goods.
Kashima Jingu Shrine is one of the oldest Shinto Shrines in Ibaragi prefecture. "Takemikazuchi-no-kami", the god of war of the Yamato dynasty, is enshrined there. In old times, "Kashima-no-ohkarai", the god of water and agriculture in the Province of "Hitachi", was enshrined there. The buildings are located along two axes. One axis passes through the "Hon-den", the "Hai-den" and the "Niji-raon". The second axis goes across the "Kari-dono" and the"Ro-mon". The compound is composed of three areas. The first part is for "Kashima-no-ohkami", the second part is for "Takemikazuchi-no-kami", and the third part is for both of them.
The purpose of this paper is to study concretely on the architecture of the Dining Hall(Jiki-Do) of Toji in Heian Era. The plan of the original Dining Hall was a width of 7 bay and a depth of 4 bay (Fig. 3). They consisted of central area (5×2) and a single bay surrounding. On the other hand, there is the old document (Historical material) of official goverment in 1179. The contents of this document, however, included main members of the Dining Hall of the later Heian Era. According to the plan of original Dining Hall and this document, in effect, it is able to presumed the outlook and construction of the original Dining Hall (Fig. 6) and the Dining Hall of thelater Heian Era (Fia. 5). Because of the limit of histrical materials, it is impossible to restore to these style perfectly. However, it is important that the architecture of the Dining Hall of Toji in Heian Era was characterised by the size of main members.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the system of stone wall construction planning of Castles in Japan. This study is based on the methods of analysis from the Ishigalti-Chikuyou-Mokuroku(ICM). The ICM is the oldest document (written in 1655 by chief of Ano(穴太)) about stone wall construction system of Castles in Japan. The ICM offers many very important facts about the stone wall construction system of the first half of the Edo Period(1603-1867). The special characteristic of the ICM is that the entire construction process is described bearing in mind the actual job site conditions. The original idea behind the curved shape of a Japanese castle stone wall was based on the structural engineering principles of earth pressure resistance.
This is to survey the design of hydraulic power stations, built successively on the Kiso River in 1920s and 1930s, designed by an architect Shiro Sato. It must be very meaningful for the study of modern architecture, especially of industrial architecture, to survey the development of design for a series of these buildings which were designed for same function, in same region and by same architect. The design of the stations, reflecting the modern movement in Europe, varied from the Neo-Gothic style of Momoyama to Sezessionist's and German Expressionalist's of Yomikaki, Ohi etc., and finally to the International style of Nezame. But his last station Imawatari, designed almost same time to Nezame, has some of Neo-Gothic style, revealing the unique modernization process of Japan.
KASHIWAGI Kaichiro (1841-1898) had succeeded to a hereditary position as the head carpenter of the "Kobushingurai", a construction department of the Tokugawa government, however after the Meiji Restoration he lost the position. Then he was involved in museum administration to protect Japanese cultural assets and furthermore built many Japanese style residences as an independent carpenter. The aim of this study is to make KASHIWAGI's career clear and to locate his achievements within the historical framework by considering his role as skillfull carpenter and the features of his works.
A schematic plan of a Cistercian church in the sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt has long been considered as a manifestation of the method "ad quadratum". This view is based upon "square" found in the plan of Villard de Honnecourt. But the rectangle of the crossing of the plan is not "square", but slightly flatter than square. This article clarified that the Cistercian church plan of Villard was "opus ad triangulum". Rectangles composing Villard's plan have a rapport of a heigt and a base of an equilateral triangle. Comparing other squares and rectangles in the sketchbook with the rectangles of the Cistercian plan can show that this is the case. Villard's Cistercian church plan is composed by simple multiplication of this rectangle of the crossing, based upon an approximative method of making an equilateral triangle. This paper also supposes the process of making this plan.
The idea of "style-synthesis" (synthesis of historical style) is one of the important factor for the architectural-theory in Germany in the first half of the 19th century, which an architect, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, consciously accepted. It contains three dynamic concepts - style, development, succession - and it means an experiment for a new style, by integrating the ancient (greece) architecture as thesis with the medieval (gothic) architecture as antithesis. Through the analysis of Schinkel-studies it was clarified as follows: 1) This idea has been critisized as intentional eclecticism. 2) Recently it has highly appreciated as a symbol of "Zeitgeist" in the 19th century. 3) The method and the direction of "style-synthesis", -to harmonize the polarity, to continue thehistory with reverence etc.- are very suggestiv to create architecture today.
At first glance the Golden Ratio is not seen in the plan of the Brick Country House by Mies van der Rohe, but actually it is hidden there. The four walls including the three extended walls make the Golden Rectangle and it locates near the center of the plan. Furthermore there are close connections between the Golden Rectangle and the other most walls in the plan. So It is derived that Mies intentionally used the Golden Ratio to make the plan.
At the beginning of Showa era, surrounding mountains were highly noticeable factors in the landscape of Kyoto. There were two reasons for this. Firstly, the mountains became more important from the viewpoint of urban development. And lastly, the mountains attracted tourists and gained economic value. However, a new idea of forestry was required to maintain the ideal landscape because of the gradual changes in the landscape of forests. Artificial forests as well as cities were for the first time considered necessary in creating an ideal landscape. This paper examines that the early Showa era marked an epoch in the cityscape conservation.
The objective of this study is to understand the characteristics of human activities at the waterfront area, which we consider as a "water-familiar activities". A questionnaire survey was conducted at two waterside parks, and analyzed using a quantification method IK and clusteranalysis. As a result, it is clarified that the 4 large types and 6 small types of activity patterns are conducted at the waterfront area, and they are closely related to the attributes of people. Furthermore, it is revealed by AIC that there is a great connection between the activity patterns and direct evaluation on the waterfront.
In the thesis to discuss, the authors showed the importance of a cognitive aspect rather than a geometrically represented aspect of architectural drawings. But I think that the experimental method can not induce a correct result for the purpose. Because it is not clear whether a space really appears on the description which the authors gave their subjects in the experiment. So it is impossible to consider that a person generally recognizes a space referring to the structured "orientation system" which results from the analysis of the plans drawn by the subjects. And the great variety of the plans is the evidence that the subjects could not recognize the space only through the description.
This paper shows the answer to Shioi's discussion on our previously published paper, entitled ' Orientation in Cognition of Architectural Space'(1993.6.). The focuses of our argument against Shioi's are as shown below: 1. We emphasized in the previous paper the importance of the differentiation between architectural space as geometrically represented and that as recognized in our mind. And this does not necessarily mean denial to the geometrical nature of certain cognitive representation, which, though, Shioi argues does mean in her paper. 2. Shioi's questions to our experimental procedure seem to be derived from her misunderstanding of our description of the text which is used in the experiment. We sincerely apologize for some of our misleading desctiption and, however, recommend that she read Tachihara's original text as well.
The object of Tanigawa's paper is to show the following two subjects. 1) Stornaloco's proposal describes the integration of the irrational proportion (4:2√3:3) and the rational proportion(8:7:6). 2) Stornaloco's proposal contains the "Roriczerian method of equilateral triangle". However, the subject of 1) has already been established by Frankl and Panofsky. And the subject of 2) seems to be a self-evident proposition from the point of geometry.
It is answered that the point is the integration of the exact equilateral triangle and the ratio(8:7);and the exact equilateral triangles determined by Roriczerian method and the proportion(8:7:6)in Stornaloco's project.