This paper illustrates the status of the ownership and the occupancy by foreigners at the summer retreat areas in pre-war period Karuizawa. The study endeavours to investigate House Directory, Karuizawa Summer Residents' Association Handbook 1930. About eighty percent of the foreign poeple who have owned and occupied villas in Karuizawa are the missions and delegates to the annual meeting of the Federation of Christian Missions, which had been held from 1894. This intensity of missionaries also atracted secular foreigners and the upper class Japanese. Most of the foreigners have lived aggregatedly in the original residential area such as Atago, Sakuranosawa and Kamanosawa which have been developed until the end of Meiji Era, although the vast areas around them had been developped by the Japanese people lately. We find that the foreigners' dominant inter-personal environment is characteristic of the core area.
The study clarifies the housefront appearance types of single family houses in residential district of Tokyo area. First, the design pattern by exterior categorized in “garden” “parking” and “building”. The design pattern by roof form is categorized in “gable” “eave””square” and “terrace”. Second, housefront appearance types are found by the relationship between design pattern of exterior and roof form. Third, the characters of the housefront of surrounding houses are defined by group of housefront appearance types. At last, the Architectural languages for housefront appearance are clarified by “the refection of surrouding houses” ”the garden for surrouding houses” “the subdivision of the housefront appearance”.
Osaka Municipal Housing Corporation adopted a new rental system applied to unoccupied units in old housing estates. These units were rented to previous and new tenants with ‘in-requirement of restoring to original state’, ‘hadaka-gashi’ and ‘multi-unit use’ for the reduction of first stage costs. From analysis of the content and activities of tenants of this enterprise, it was obvious that this was an excellent system with both ‘possibility for customizing space’ and ‘possibility for customizing process of forming living environment’. And the costs had been collected for less than two years, so it is good system for entrepreneur, too.
The aim of this study is to clarify the space transformation of houses with raised floor in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conclude the result as below from the date mostly based on the field survey. Previously one family lived in one house, but now several families live in one house by making additional new space and dividing large previous house space. They can access to their houses by using vacant land space for passage or arranging stairs on several positions or sharing corridor and veranda with each other. They satisfy the needs by sharing living space and access.
The purpose of this study is to examine the changes of territoriality in urban low-rise housing. Furthermore, group territory is manifested by personal characteristics, physical circumstance and social environment. The results are summarized as follows; 1) The interaction between inside and outside is not only determined by interior planning and windows position, but also by practical use. 2) The most important thing of self-expression such as flower pots is consensus among inhabitants. 3) One of the reason by which people feel anxiety is less natural surveillance due to the changes of family and work pattern of the residents.
This paper aims to clarify the actual conditions of the environment of small-scale elderly care facility in which individualized care is provided. In this paper, we interpret the environment of elderly care facilities as‘a support environment’ which is unified the architectural environment and the human resources environment of the care staff. And we define the human gathering composed by care staff and residents as ‘the support gathering’. Then we proposed the method of describing the every scenes of living activity by this support gathering. Data were collected from behavioral observations and examination of patterns in the use of space at the small-scale elderly care facility that has both Group Living and a Day Service. By defining“support gathering”such as Direct care, Conversation care, Organizing groups and Beholding , the authors clarified the actual situations of the support environment of small-scale elderly care facility.
This study is a report of the result of investigating the sound environment at setting childcare scene in nursery institutions focused on children's learning activity aiming to make the acoustic environment as their learning field. By the behavioral observation and the sound field analysis at activity scene, we observed the characteristic of sound field at each study scene and the change of the acoustic environment when the teacher was setting the learning environment. The result shows that the sound by the children's behavior was a keynote source at dynamic activity scene like singing and dancing. Especially, the level of 1-2kHz band by children's voice and low frequency sound was characteristic. And for making settled space that was attached weight in young children's educational field, teachers often used the sound factor by the setting environment scene and a moderate silence was a very important environmental factor. For acoustic design according to the educational purpose, many-sided investigation of the sound space was essential to understand the teacher's setting behavior and children's behavioral pattern.
This paper aimed to examine the calculation method and the standard for area necessary for after-school children's day-care center. It was shown that the examination only depending on the evaluation by staff resulted in an indefinite outcome, and the indicator focused on kinds of children's plays was effective. Moreover, multiple foundations of the calculation were found, and the process of calculating the standard for necessary area based on the combination of these foundations was suggested.
The purpose of this paper is to show the planning theme of primary schools for teachers considering their duties. We grasped the characteristics of work space usage and the essential space elements to perform the duties. In addition, the contemporary roles of faculty rooms and the total functions of school facilities were searched by analyzing the influence of the functions of faculty rooms on space usage. It is noted that providing the individual and common work spaces according to teaching position is important. Moreover, the further investigation of the exclusive relaxing space and the future faculty room is needed.
The area of river sharing vast space in cities may potentially be to an important space. The purpose of this study is intends to clarify differences on evaluation mechanism of space for planning of attractive river areas taking into account of the cross-section shapes of revetment and the spatial compositions. In this study, river space intended for a variety of major rivers flowing through urban areas and small rivers flowing through the historic streets. The result, the psychological evaluation experiment to extract the axes of the five key factors on the structure of space psychology rivers were classified into five types by cluster analysis of consciousness. Further, fifteen types diagram were developed by combining the similar types broken down by profiles of river space and cross-section shapes of revetment.From these things, relationship between morphological attribute and psychological evaluation was clarified by the matrix analysis.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence that a Planar shape affects the spatial impression, throughout experimental verification about the spatial recognition characteristic of spatial volume perception of the non-rectangle space where one side wall is diagonal The results from the experiment comparing the feeling of spatial volume in non-rectangular space and the rectangular space are fallowing; 1) The evaluation of the spatial volume changed by the angle of a diagonal wall. 2) When the angle of a diagonal wall is 20°-35°, subjects had tendency to evaluate the spatial volume of rectangle space was bigger than non-rectangle space. 3) The direction of a diagonal wall and the dominating eyes of subjects were related to the spatial volume perception.
In the villages along the Miyakawa, a river in the Hida district of Gifu Prefecture, many traditional wooden folk and store houses have remained. In this report, the transformations in the wall construction of these houses are presented. The following three areas were researched: Tanekura, Sangawara, Suganuma, with the following findings. 1.Due to the shortage of timber resources in the 1900s and the expansion of rice fields in the 1920s, the board walls of the folk houses built on alluvial fans and terraces changed to mud walls. In the mountain villages, on the other hand, walls made of wood continued to be seen. 2.Between the Meiji and Postwar Period, the shortage of timber continued. The mud walls of the wooden storehouses situated in the villages on the alluvial fans, where rice fields had continued to expand, finally changed to thick mortar walls. In the villages built on terraces and mountains, the walls of storehouses saw a transformation from thick boards to thin boards.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of indoor and outdoor living spaces in contemporary Japanese courtyard houses. Analyzing the compositions of façade, and arrangement and visual continuity between courtyards and living rooms, suggested 10 types of compositional schemes. These 10 types include not only closed-type courtyards on the façade, but also courtyards that are partially open to the frontal street. As a result, the various typological characters of indoor and outdoor living spaces are generated by the combination of façade, spatial arrangement and windows. Analysis revealed that the 2 most prevalent types, which are mostly built before 1980's, contrast on house posture to the town. Furthermore, 5 common characteristics emerged among these 10 types.
LIJIANG old city was registered in the world cultural heritage of UNESCO in 1997. This district was called "The water town", and invents waterscape the waterway that flows in the house and the town by a historical, traditional style feature. Then, the role of the water that has been accomplished to the formation of a traditional regional society is caught, and it examines for resident's water supply. As a result, sightseeing and the social infrastructure maintenance in the region influence mutually, and the change is given to a traditional regional society. Moreover, it is important to defend resident's normative consciousness so that it may stick to the resident life for the water supply of three pools of water though it decreases, and LIJIANG old city may develop as "The water town".
In recent years, there have been diverse ways to correspond to the increasing elderly population in Japan. These include public administration, nursing service, medical service, NPO, private organization (profit organization) and local community. Although Japan's population is expected to decrease in the future, there is concern about rapid aging population. Especially in small provincial cities, it is predicted that implementing countermeasure action for elderly citizens will be difficult. Then, this study is comprised of the following research and analysis. 1. A method of extracting the area in need for elderly citizen countermeasures that reflect the distribution of elderly population and each household situation. 2. The realities grasp and opinion exchange of watch activities in region.
Culture has become considered as a crucial element in urban regeneration in the UK. This study focuses on new iconic architecture in England and aims to clarify its importance, practices, and challenges. It argues that 1) iconic architecture is expected to deliver vibrant local economy as well as pride and confidence to local people; 2) the British Government has exploited the National Lottery Funds to underpin iconic projects, which have become new essential landmarks for localities; 3) some unsuccessful projects reveal importance of adequate business plans, location and concepts for the projects, based on local needs.
The purpose of this research is to figure out the relationship between conservation of the city wall and the development of its surrounding area, by proposing what is called“city wall space”which is defined as taking the city wall and its surrounding area into account as one integrated space. The results of this study are as follows: 1) The city wall conservations law and development standard of the city wall's surrounding area are needed. 2) By the development of Nanjing city, the city wall is being changed with the urban expansion. 3) By cluster analysis which uses the data come from the function of the city wall spaces, the utilization situation and the physical features of the city wall, the city wall spaces were classified into four types, which would lead to the future planning in combination of conservation and utilization of the spaces. Finally, this paper concludes by emphasizing the new aspects of the function of city wall and the necessity of forming the city wall spaces.
This study aims to clarify the actual situation and the management system in order to re-utilize village buildings as commercial uses in UK. The major findings are as follows. 1. The repaired village buildings as commercial uses are utilized by the various small businesses that work around the whole UK and the world. 2. The village characteristics such as historical buildings, beautiful natural environments and warm community attract people to start businesses in the village. 3. The professionals of property management services work as a total coordinator in the village, to implement the continuous and smooth village building utilization.
There are many illuminated objects in Nakanoshima which represents “Capital of water” Osaka. The purpose of this study is to clarify how people recognize the nightscape in Nakanoshima by taken photographs and to clarify the nightscape's characteristics in Nakanoshima by the correlative analysis with the illuminance index we define. We clarified there were seven types of nightscape in Nakanoshima. In addition, The type of the nightscape is different even if depending in area. Moreover, We defined “vertical-horizontal illuminance ratio” and clarified it has correlation with taking photograph.
This study attempts to explore the local skaters' activity of appropriate skateboarding sites in public parks in Setagaya-ward in Tokyo. First, the author conduct the narrative interviews with 13 local skaters. According to results of the coding data, local skaters' group works has transformed from enjoyable to tiresome but inescapable. Second, the author used Karl E. Weick's model of “organizing” to examine the activity. The local skaters' behavior makes means and this can be divided into 3 different means. Since skaters have settled in a park, their everyday behavior reduces the mean-A which as moving tactics and increase the mean-B as settlement tactics. This result shows us that the local skaters can be autonomously cooperator of the park planning and management.
The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of public-opened Kyo-machiya as a way of conservation of dwelling related culture developed in them. In this paper, we study the actual situation and problems of public-opened Kyo-machiyas located in the central area of Kyoto city. Through the interview of the residents, who are engaged in the management of their own houses, we clarify the details of the way of accepting visitors, what made them open their houses at the beginning, and the problems they feel. As a result, we make it clear that there are residents' intention of showing not only the houses but the ordinary life they spend there, and we gain 6 points as problems concerning the management of their houses.
The study covers the architecture of Daijyo-ji Kyakuden. Method of the study was by analyzing field conducting fieldwork, the antique documents of Daijyo-ji and research of the Japanese art history.The results from the anlysis showed the following 5 aspects. 1. Preparation for the Daijyo-ji kyakuden rebuiilding started from March 1794 of 1786. 2. Pictures on partitions other than between the room of wistaria, the monkey, the duck, and the peacock have been drawn for the Tenmei era. Most pictures were drawn in the Tenmei era except for the pictures in the room of wistaria the monkey, the duck, and the peacock. 3. It is thought that the old draft were produced before August 1787 when considering the year of the order and the year of production of pictures on partitions. 4.As for the room of wistaria, carp, and dog, the modification had not been done since the year of rebuilding. 5. It is thought that priest's living quarters were planes similar to the old draft, however it was remodeled from the situation of the Shingu-ji hondo after 1829 or 1830.
As a result of my consideration of the changes about architectual control on the vassals' residences, and interpretation of architectual control's "Ooseidasare-joujou"in the Hagi Clan , the following points were obtained: 1 "Ooseidasare-joujou" was not only the unity of the past rules, but also the reform in line with reality. 2 Because the past rules didn't come up concrete inconsistent, in "Ooseidasare-joujou" they remind the past rule again and again.
This paper reports on how carpenters worked at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine in the Edo period. Carpenters at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine were divided into three levels. The highest level was Daiku, followed by Toryo, and Cho. Concerning this, the following three points became clear: (1)Daiku and Toryo were exempted from carpenters' obligation to Nakai family. (2)Daiku received the contracts for construction at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine, and if more carpenters were needed, Toryo and Cho also took part in the construction. (3)If a carpenter at an upper level was unavailable, another carpenter at a lower level filled in for him.
Antoni Gaudí based his architectural theory on the aesthetic theory of Manuel Milà y Fontanals. To figure out this relationship, we compare the discourse of A.Gaudí with aesthetic theory of M.Milà on on the following 4 aspects. 1. Difference of the basic theory about physical object. 2. The vision of ideal architecture. 3. About concept of Vida which is the core of Gaudí's architecture. And about the concept of Síntesis. 4. How they were observing the nature. Therefore we determine that the architectural theory of Antoni Gaudí was influenced by the aesthetic theory of Manuel Milà.
Between a perspective view and a ground plan of the Brick Country House by Mies there are a number of discrepancies. In the previous studies, for instance, it is said that they reflect different planning stages, the ground plan represents the final one and the perspective does the earlier. However more concrete relationships between them are still unknown. In this paper the relationships were derived from some clues in the two drawings, the dark window of the upper floor in the perspective and so on.
In “Die Weltbaumeister”, a book of architectural drama of the collapse and the rebirth of architecture published by Bruno Taut in 1920, three types of formal languages are found through the formal analysis of all pictures in the book, namely historical forms, vegetable forms and crystal forms. The system integrating all those types were especially found in the total form of his image of “Crystal House”. This paper has clarified this book shows Taut's thought about metamorphose of architectural forms, and is a relevant material to understand how his utopian architectural forms were generated around 1920.
The aim of this paper is to clarify how Pagoda-Park was planned and how the character of Pagoda-Park changed under the management of the Governor-General of Chosen. Newspapers and Official Records issued during the Korean Empire Period and the Colonial Period, are utilized as the primary materials. As a result of analysis, it emerged that Pagoda-Park was a "planned park". In addition, it is significant that the park was located in the center of Seoul. In the early Colonial Period, the park was opened to the public and was utilized for cultural purposes. However, due to the 3.1 Independence Movement, the Governor-General of Chosen quit maintaining the park. In other words, the character of Pagoda-Park was affected by the policy of the governmental authority.
This paper is to reconstruct the urban space of early Niigata which lay on the left bank of the Shinano River in the first half of the seventeenth century. For this purpose, the methodology of historical geography is applied to compare three maps. The first is the illustrated plan of early Niigata drawn at an unknown time, the second is the eighteenth century map of Yorii village which relocated to where early Niigata used to be and the third is the current map of the same area. The results of this study are as follows: 1. Two existing pathways are identified as those of early Niigata. 2. The modern canals of this area are identified as the left stream of the Shinano River in the period of early Niigata. 3. The dune formed before the fourteenth century is identified as the hill on which the oldest part of early Niigata used to be.
This paper explores the process of urban development of Shanghai Japanese district and analyzes its spatial character from about the 1890s to the 1930s, focusing on the North Sichuan Road district where a lot of Japanese lived from the 1910s to the 1940s. The essay describes the road and land development conducted by the Municipal Council that was controlled mainly by British officials, residential development by British and Japanese companies, and adaption by Japanese residents in Chinese or Foreign built houses to create their living environment in North Sichuan Road district. Finally, the paper examines the spatial relationships between the North Sichuan Road district and the other European settlements in Shanghai at that time. It is found that North Sichuan Road Japanese district was a suburban town that was mainly constructed by European authorities. At the same time, Japanese tended to plan the other necessary urban facilities in a flexible way in the European Settlement to support their activities in Shanghai.
Jiyu Gakuen Myonichikan, one of the first historic modern architectures to restore the buildings for practical use was surveyed to assess the effectiveness of the restoration works, as 10 years have passed since its completion. Damage and deterioration were found at some parts where the original materials and techniques were utilized for continuation of the original state from cultural and historic point of view. In the planning of restoration works, they took into account not only the cultural values but also the building's performance, however, such significant problems were caused during 10 years. On the other hand, there found neither damage nor deterioration in the parts improved for reconstruction and for practical use. In particular, improvement for practical use was quite effective in availability for the owner.