The purpose of this study is to reveal the situation of heat insulation in Japan in the 1930s, when the idea of insulation was scarcely known, and to describe innovative insulation methods proposed by certain architects who pioneered this concept during that decade. Furthermore, we examined the reasons why heat insulation did not become popular in those days. The heat-insulation methods used in Japanese houses in the 1930s can be classified into two types: wet-type and dry-type construction methods. In most applications of the conventional wet-type construction method, Celotex was used as a heat insulator and was applied only to the roof or/and the ceiling. This implies that heat insulators were used for the purpose of heat shielding. Amongst the dry-type construction methods, a new method called “Trockenbau,” which was mainly influenced by the methodology of Bauhaus, gained significant attention. Ken Ichiura, Kameki Tsuchiura, Chikatada Kurata, and others, who were the main innovators of Trockenbau, introduced the concept and materials of heat insulation to the architecture field through their designs and research activities. They also played an important role in promoting further research on heat insulation. In houses constructed using the Trockenbau method, Celotex was applied to the ceilings and walls as a finishing material and rice husks were used to fill the hollow sections of the walls in some cases. However, their interest in heat insulation remained confined to Trockenbau and did not extend to the idea that the introduction of heat insulation would improve the quality of life in Japan. On the other hand, some architects attempted to employ their own distinctive methods of heat insulation. Mamoru Nakamura and others worked on the wet-type construction method, whereas Antonin Raymond, Yoshiro Taniguchi, and others worked on the dry-type construction method. Mamoru Nakamura applied double heat insulation. Rice husks were filled into the spaces between structural members, making an “entire house built within boxes of rice husks;” the thermal performance was enhanced by the interior insulator. Nakamura believed that houses should offer usability, security, thermal comfort, and beauty and that comprehensively designed houses enrich the quality of life. Antonin Raymond used Celotex not as a finishing material but rather between studs placed inside wall bodies, thereby forming hollow layers partitioned by Celotex to further enhance the heat-insulation performance. Raymond recognized the importance of heat insulation as well as the importance of facilities in modern architecture. Yoshiro Taniguchi inserted tin plates in addition to Celotex inside wall bodies. His attempts to improve the thermal environment of houses were much more scientific than TrokenBau. The statements given by Taniguchi provide deep insights into heat insulation and reveal that he envisioned the advantages of heat insulation, which is a standard notion today. Despite the endeavours of these individuals, heat insulation was not widely understood at the time. This may have been because material development and technology improvement were hindered by the influence of WWII, and the Japanese were hesitant to adopt heat insulation owing to Japan's indigenous customs and thoughts.
Child care facility is the place that the infants who differ in age and parents spend in the same space, so the consideration of exclusive space reservation for babies less than twelve months old, and corner setting according to age stage, etc. is required. The examples secured tatami space indoors exist in a part, but the classification of space sphere corresponding to infants' age in the space of one room or the concept of corner setting is not clear. It is common that corner setting of facilities is individually held to experience of the facility staff or reference in the example of nursery school, etc. Although it is not necessary to require the level equivalent to nursery school, in order that the increase in fa cilities continues to be expected, the examination from a viewpoint of architectural planning is required. In this paper, firstly the subject of the present corner setting for the child care facility including the tatami space is arranged. Then, the experiment of two kinds of space type and the investigation of utilization are conducted, and this paper aims at explaining the relation of corner setting and the behavioral pattern of parent and child. Based on the acquired knowledge, the space composition and the function of corner setting are considered. In order to divide the stay place of baby and infant, installation of tatami space is effective and it is important to arrange toys uniting with infants' age. About the corner arrangement, it is the main point that dividing a picture-book corner with other play so a book can be read calmly, the corner of dynamic play by cart or vehicle, etc. secures a large space. There are also many parents who visit a facility for the purpose of the exchange with other parents as one of the purposes of facility installation, the corner installation which the infants and parents of different age can interchange is also effective like a block corner. In case of establishing playing house and a toy corner in tatami space, tatami space becomes not only baby but place of infant's play, so the space becomes a place of interchange of parents of infants of different age. Therefore, when a baby's exclusive space is secured to tatami space independently, it is effective as one method of corner arrangement.
Architecture space is three dimensional, but the method to represent them is often in two-dimensional mediums of photograph or perspective drawings. The perspective view is effective in expressing a visual performance of the building. Therefore I clarify the influence that neighboring scenes and atmospheres which give in an impression in Architecture drawing. And it is intended to obtain basic information to improve architectural and spatial representation. 39 pieces of representational painting which a building was depicted in the European Paintings from the Renaissance to modern times are selected as the object of the analysis. 50 students were asked to rate the psychological evaluation and the impression evaluation of a color, time, the season. Result of examining the impression evaluation of color. Total has been selected 24 colors. Therefore I performed the impression evaluation experiment on color, time, season. I performed cluster analysis from those results, and the paintings were classified into six types by the impression evaluation of the color. The colors selected from many peoples, "Green impression type", "Red impression type", "Yellow impression type", "Black impression type". It selected from many peoples [Black], [Gray], [White], with low saturation such "Low saturation impression type". It classified into different impression "Multicolor impression type" by the people. The pictures were classified in five types by the impression evaluation of the time. The time selected from many peoples, "Morning noon impression type", "Morning impression type", "Noon evening impression type", "Evening impression type", "Night impression type". The pictures were classified in five types by the impression evaluation of the season. The season selected from many peoples, "Summer impression type", "Spring impression type", "Winter impression type", "Autumn impression type", "Autumn winter impression type". In the psychological evaluation and the color impression evaluation, first "Multicolor impression type" positive evaluation was gathered in the high "Weak impression urban-type" "Comfortable rural-type". From this fact, when many of the color is used, it tends to give a positive impression. In addition, Is the many "Green impression type" is a high rating the <Idyllic feel> <Spacious feel> <Feeling clear> is "Comfort rural-type". Therefore, by a strong impression of the [Green], we know that there is a tendency that those of psychological evaluation are high. Is the many "Black impression type" is a high rating the <Dark feel> <Narrow feel> <High evaluation of feeling > is "Static Narrow dark type", "Closed urban-type". When [Black] [Gray] are used, it tends to give the negative impression. In the psychological evaluation and the time impression evaluation, A high rating of <Bright feel> were "Weak impression urban-type", "Comfortable rural-type" were many answers of [Morning] from [Noon]. High ratings of <Dark feel> were" closed urban-type" were many answers of [Evening] from the [Night]. Similarly high ratings of <Dark feel> were "Static narrow dark type" were many answers of [Morning] and [Evening]. In the psychological evaluation and the season impression evaluation, the higher the evaluation of <Bright feel> and Architecture impression is "Weak impression urban type", picture of this type are mostly "Fall or winter impression type". This is the presence of the A trees is considered to be because it is sparse. "Static dark narrow type" and "Closed urban-type" are concentrated in "Autumn winter impression type" and "Winter impression type". Earlier they have been found to be a strong impression of [Black] and [Gray].From this fact, when the strong impression of "[Black] [Gray]", when the season of the impression tends to be [Autumn] and [Winter].
Due to focusing on speedy and quantitative development style, it resulted in many constructions that didn't follow regulations in Korea. This is the main reason why Korea enacted the special law on the safety management of large public facilities in 1995. “The special law” has contributed to enforcing proper maintenance on facilities in Korea for about 20 years. However, it is a fact that the safety inspection·diagnosis task which is the minimum standards set by the legal guidelines is commonly overlooked because of low-priced contracts by the management subject. Therefore, in order to find out the realistic minimum legal standards and the actual condition of the inspection·diagnosis evaluation, we investigated and analyzed documentary surveys, research on the actual condition of the field inspection and the result reports of “the special law”
1. Documents survey We summarized the legal standards of “the special law” by type, subject, inspection cycle, process and evaluation items after analyzing documentary surveys. 2. Analysis of result reports Reports show that they continuously investigate and evaluate the same floors, the inspection items and the floors are arbitrarily selected by the inspectors. In addition, there were buildings that did not comply with the guidelines despite the fact that more than two types of members have to be investigated and evaluated. 3. Expert Survey After analyzing the Reports, we asked the cause of problems to consulting exports on the report analysis results. According to the experts' opinions, there is a need to investigate floors and members more than legal standard in order to evaluate the safety of the buildings. As another opinion from the experts is that most of the experts says that it doesn't affect to the result of the building safety evaluation as much as we thought when the same or different floors are evaluated over again. However, they voiced that the number of inspection items, floors and members could affect safety grades and scores. In addition, their opinion is that when the result is same as the previous investigation, describing only the result and the number of members and floors are very few, could result in an incorrect final report of the building safety evaluation.
After reviewing and analyzing the result reports and the inspection expert survey, we found that that those legal standards are not complied properly and the qualifications of inspectors can cause difference on the comprehensive building evaluation. The absence of the legal guidelines that are taking the difficulties into the consideration and supervision on field investigation can lower the reliability of comprehensive building evaluation. Therefore, it seems necessary to improve and revise the current legal standards and guidelines of “The special law” and utilize it as an absolute guideline for other countries and Korea which will allow them to discover unexpected deterioration in early stage. Additionally, nationwide disaster management needs to be enforced on cumulative damage to the structural function of buildings which are caused by natural disasters such as, low magnitude earthquakes.
Cultural landscape of mountain settlements is formed by combination of nature and human activities such as
agriculture and is represented as “living landscape.” The landscape consists of multiple elements which relate to one another.
This complexity makes the attempt of conservation distressing. This study attempts to construct a simple model composing
of “property,” “system,” and “habitants” for grasping living landscape by analyzing mountain settlements in Ukiha-machi,
Fukuoka prefecture. The case study showed that these three points led by human activities related to one another, which in
turn led to the preservation of landscape.
Looking over the updating of urban space such as advanced use of space and function update is highly suggestive in reading social issues of each age and the consciousness of planners. Nowadays, with the relocation of the Olympic games and Tsukiji Market, interest in urban space renewal is increasing. It is not a regional fragmentary discussion, but it is required to summarize the whole picture of space updating and designer's awareness that has gone through in Tokyo and to critically discuss future updating methods. In this paper, taking the 77 districts of urban redevelopment as an example, we examined what kinds of areas have been subject to renewal in Tokyo and how the new city image has been drawn for those areas in a timely manner. Through this investigation, the whole picture of the renewal of urban space that has been done so far was identified based on the statistical analysis.
1) The typology of existing environment and building change We classified the former land use targeted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for redevelopment projects and analyzed the renewal of building use and building coverage by development on a timely basis for each type. As a first result, seven types of conventional land use were obtained, and it became clear that they are changing to biased use. Secondly, at the initial stage of redevelopment, the pension rate of business facilities has been on an upward trend, but in recent years a wider open space has been added. On the other hand, it was found that the building peculiarity is planned to increase in the redevelopment of the residential area in recent years.
2) The transition of aims of district plan by administration We categorized the development goals that Tokyo Metropolitan Government gave to each district plan and analyzed their regional differences and transitions. As a result, four types of aim were obtained. While the "Cutting-edge development driving type" that forms a new city has decreased, it is clarified that "Habitability raising type" that improves the basic performance for living in the area tends to increase mainly in the three central wards of Tokyo.
3) Planner's discourses about concept of area update and interpretation of existing environments By analyzing the narratives on architectural specialty magazines that argued about the plans in the areas targeted for redevelopment, we revealed the transition of discussions that occurred with redevelopment. In the early stage of redevelopment, despite the immature debate, there was a tendency to tell the consciousness for new age and forming of new urban images. In recent years the discussion has matured, and development has been discussed from various viewpoints. However, the trend of new age consciousness and urban images tends to be decreasing, and it became clear that the explanation of the problems rooted in the community and the necessity of urban renewal are becoming the main story for urban update, instead of creating the new vision of Tokyo.
This study examines the characteristics of property owner, transfer activities and its contribution for the built environment regeneration through property transfer and regeneration programs by New Orleans City government after Hurricane Katrina. These programs, the Lot Next Door Program and the Auction, aim to bring back the Road Home buyout properties into market expecting to be regenerated by new property owners. The goal of this research is to develop a planning techniques and policy for the built environment regeneration after mega disasters. The methodology is an analysis of program properties' information, such as attribution of winning bidder of the Auction, property transfer activities, which are obtained from the Assessor's Office of Orleans Parish. It is demonstrated that percentage of property transfer “after” program is above certain level, and have strong relationship between the built environment regeneration after 10 years. More than 30% Auction bidding winner is private corporation and transfer activities, exceeds 20% among of all auction properties, that contribute to an increase of housing stock compared to non-transferred action properties. It is found that the Auction bidding winners gain more property sale benefit in white and middle-high income neighborhood. Owner-occupied housing increase by the Auction, however, there are some amount of remains as vacant properties which is especially seen in black and high poverty rate neighborhoods. The Auction functions as promoting first-time homebuyer for affordable housing. These are the limitation and effectiveness of the Auction program. The fact that more than 30% Auction properties owner are neighbors living near properties implies that their motivation is to maintain and improve their neighborhoods' property value. In the Lot Next Door program, percentage of transfer activities is less than 10% which is very small compared to the Auction. The Lot Next Door program was designed to intend to achieve low-density residential area which has large garden in the lot, although, transferred properties were regenerate as housing stock in the white and middle-high income neighborhood which is different from design concept. What do these results suggest us? The property transfer and regeneration program have limitation in causing neighborhood attribution gaps, such as race and income, led by market mechanism, however, it is prove that it is effective policy for the built environment regeneration which utilizes and integrates the market-based approach, a certain level of public intervention, residents' motivation for profit gain in resale and to improve their built environment.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, a huge tsunami damage occurred in the coastal area. Even in coastal areas of Mie Prefecture where the Nankai Trough Earthquake is expected, damage by the tsunami is assumed, but there are many municipalities unknown about the relationship between the disaster history and the subsequent formation of the settlement lands. Furthermore, a flood prediction map due to the tsunami of the Nankai Trough Earthquake is announced by Mie Prefecture, assuming a tsunami fault model assumed to bring the largest class tsunami to the coast of Mie Prefecture, and the maximum inundation area and flooding depth Extract. And in the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, it has been reported that the local cultural heritage including Shrines and Temples were utilized as a shelter. As historical shrines and temples have repeatedly moved in the past experiencing the damage caused by the tsunami, there is a possibility that they are located in places where it is hard to face disasters. First, in order to clarify the change in the form of the settlement lands, we collected topographic maps of four age groups (the period of the Meiji · Taisho, · early Showa, immediately after Showa 19 (1952 - 1955) when the Tonankai earthquake occurred, the late Showa era, the latter half of the 1980s) and created transition diagrams of the settlement lands form. Furthermore, based on the results of the Tonankai disaster of the Tonankai Earthquake, the flooded area of the building was identified and plotted on the transition diagram of the settlement lands form. Secondly, the predicted inundation area of the Nankai Trough Earthquake was plotted in the building inundation area of the Tonankai earthquake based on the tsunami flood prediction. Third, we plot the tsunami building inundation area in the Tonankai earthquake and the tsunami inundation prediction area of the Nankai Trough earthquake in the present topographical map, and clarified the positional relationship of the shrines and temple. Furthermore, it was confirmed by the literature survey whether the shrine and temple were designated as an official evacuation place. In order to confirm the above analysis results, we conducted interviews and field surveys to the city hall/town hall to the research area. Findings are as follows. 1st, most settlement lands were formed in the same place from immediately after the Tonankai earthquake to the present. And in more than half of the districts, it is found that the settlement lands expands outside the building inundation area of the Tonankai earthquake. 2nd, It was designated within the building inundation area of the Tonankai earthquake outside the prediction inundation area of the Nankai Trough Earthquake in nearly 50% of the research areas. 3rd, Shrine of 57.7%, Temple of 41.6% are located outside the building inundation area of the Tonankai earthquake and outside the prediction inundation area of the Nankai Trough Earthquake and functions as a shelter.
Life expectancy in Japan has been increasing in recent years. However, to enhance the quality of life of elderly people and to slow the increase in social security costs, especially in a rapidly aging society, it is highly important to extend people's “healthy life expectancy,” an estimation of the years of life during which people can expect to live in full health without a major disease and/or injury. Although everyday physical activity is necessary to extend the healthy life expectancy, fostering exercise habits can be difficult. Therefore, a walkable environment where people can walk freely should be included as a part of a population approach. However, elderly people may not necessarily walk much in neighborhoods where younger generations walk much because of the change in life style between before and after retirement. The present study analyzed the step counts of middle-aged and young elderly individuals and examined the relationship between the step counts and the proximity to urban amenities (train stations, commercial areas, community centers, parks and rivers) as indices of the neighborhood environment using objectively measured step count data from a large sample in Yokohama, Japan in June 2016. A total of 2,027 middle-aged men in 80 neighborhoods, 4,600 young elderly men in 133 neighborhoods, 4,744 middle-aged women in 150 neighborhoods, and 6,874 young elderly women in 160 neighborhoods were analyzed. First, by creating tables and a thematic map, we confirmed the gap in step counts between generations by neighborhood. Secondly, correlations between the step counts and neighborhood environment indices were calculated for four groups according to sex and generation. A two-way analysis of variance was subsequently conducted to compare the step counts of young elderly individuals with those of middle-age individuals and neighborhood environment indices. We confirmed the gap in step counts between generations by neighborhood and found that the nearer to train stations and commercial areas they lived, the more those in each of the groups walked, with the exception of middle-aged men. No significant correlation was found between step counts in any group and the distance to community centers, parks and rivers. We also found interaction effects for step counts of middle-aged men and the distance to commercial areas and community centers on the step counts of young elderly men. In the neighborhoods where middle-aged men walked a lot, young elderly men did not walk much unless urban amenities were located nearby, although the distance to such amenities did not affect the step count of young elderly men in the neighborhoods where middle-aged men walked less. No significant interaction effect was found in women. In conclusion, more commercial facilities and community centers within walking distance are desirable for young elderly men to boost their step counts in suburban areas. Furthermore, promoting use of these urban amenities, where local residents can socialize, may also encourage young elderly members of the community to walk more.
Landscape agreements managed by community residents would be a useful tool to activate local landscape activities. The purpose of this
study is to clarify the roles and the issues of Kobe City Residents’ Landscaping Agreements. The agreements have contributed to the
continuity of landscape activities and the reinforcement of the local landscape characteristics. We pointed out the problems: unpopularity
of the agreements for the developers, unchecked matters such as change of façade and signs and the difficulty of change of the site plan
in the design review meetings.
In this article, we compare travel activity environment that contribute to the increase or decrease of physical activity by travel activities in neighborhood environment for the elderly. Travel activity environment was subdivided into purpose, means of transport, physical activity, time spent, intensity, and distance. We investigated the travel activity environment in two areas with different regional characteristics of new suburban town and urban area, and following points become clear. 1) In both the New Town and the urban area, the most frequent purpose for going out was “shopping and services”, the next was “walking and sports”. And going out with the purpose for “socializing” is few in the New Town, and it is many in the urban areas. 2) Major means of transportation for the elderly living in the New Town and the urban area was “walking”, and additionally in the urban area, the use of “bicycles” was also seen. These two moving means are used especially in neighborhood movements. Therefore, when analyzing the travel activity environment in the neighborhood, adding not only “walking” but also “bicycle” to analysis subjects is effective for grasping the actual situation. 3) The travel activity factors that influence the increase physical activity were “walking and sports” by walk or bicycle, “shopping and services” by walk or bicycle, and “socializing” by walk. 4) Looking at going out activities by walk, the influence of “walking and sports” was the largest, and the next was “shopping and services”. “Socializing” had few occurrences in the New Town, and it was a factor that causes the significantly difference in physical activity with the urban area. 5) Looking at going out activities by bicycle, effective activities for increase physical activity were “walking and sports” and “shopping and services”. In the urban area there are exercise facilities and shopping facilities within the range where they can be moved by bicycle. In addition, the topography is easy to use bicycles with less height difference. The above environment is considered to encourage the elderly to going out. The results showed that designing neighborhood environment to be activity-supportive could have a potential to contribute to increase physical activity in daily living for the elderly.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, the housing lease program for disaster victims provided over 60,000 privately rented houses as temporary housing for households displaced by the disaster. The number of rented houses exceeded the number of newly constructed prefabricated temporary dwellings. Victims in the damaged area occupied rental houses through this housing lease program not only in their original municipalities that had suffered damage but also in areas distant from their municipalities that had not sustained any damage by tsunami. Because available housing was acquired very quickly in the damaged areas and there were few rental houses available in tsunami-damaged coastal areas, those households that could not find rental houses in their municipalities during the early stages had to move to other municipalities. The result was that households moved from their original location to other municipalities. This transfer of residences will have an effect on the number of locations where permanent homes will be rebuilt. Disaster reconstruction projects in a damaged area are implemented over an extended period of time and the period that households are living in temporary housing reaches a thousand days. Those victims who cannot wait for reconstruction projects to be completed in their hometown should begin rebuilding their new houses near the site of their rental houses. Alternatively, households that become familiar with the area around their temporary houses should decide to stay in that area or municipality. As a result, the number of affected households who intend to return their original municipalities will decrease over time. To examine the influence of population movement between municipalities on the number of places where houses were rebuilt after residents moved out of the leased housing, approximately 3,000 cases of lease termination six years after the disaster in Iwate Prefecture and approximately 2,000 addresses after lease termination were analyzed. The analysis produced the following results. (1) Approximately 80% of the affected households left the leased temporary homes, usually two or six years after the disaster and five years after they had moved into leased housing (2) A quarter of the households that had lived in Iwate Prefecture before the disaster established their new permanent residences in other municipalities. This relocation of households is mainly seen as a movement from small towns to large cities in urban areas. In case of households moving from their original municipalities through this lease program, 60% of households have not returned. (3) Of the households from outside the Iwate Prefecture, half returned to their prefecture and 40% have reestablished themselves in the municipalities where their rental houses were located. The results of this analysis reveal that it is likely that this housing lease program will encourage changes in residential movement after a disaster, especially the movement from small towns in rural areas to large cities. In the future, this situation should be taken into account in the implementation of the housing lease program for the provision of temporary housing after large-scale disasters.
Vacant housing problems are prevalent in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, even in a suburban city with high demand. In such areas, it is socially inefficient that houses that are potentially advantageous in terms of building/locational characteristics and could be utilized in the used housing market remains vacant for extended periods. On the other hand, some vacancies are being utilized for public purposes without any compensation. However, previous literature on the actual conditions of vacant houses and owners' willingness to utilize them has not differentiated between the potentially advantageous and disadvantageous varieties in the used housing market. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the building/locational characteristics of vacant houses to those of the entire housing stock in a city, (ii) to investigate whether long-term vacancies exist, even among those that are potentially advantageous, (iii) to clarify the reasons for this social inefficiency, and (iv) to identify the appropriate places for the public use of such vacancies. We obtained evidence regarding long-term vacancies in a suburban city of Tokyo using a novel dataset of building/locational characteristics of vacant houses and questionnaire surveys conducted on the owners. The data were collected through a survey of vacant houses and the property tax ledger from Kawaguchi city, Saitama, which has a strong housing demand owing to convenient access to central Tokyo. Generally, vacant houses have disadvantageous building/locational characteristics, including narrow/no front roads, a small area of floor space, and oldness, compared with occupied houses, suggesting that the used housing market works to some extent. Indeed, houses less than 23 years of age have a small probability of being vacant, suggesting that most are placed on the market soon after the residents have moved out. However, long-term vacancy surely exists, even among vacant houses with advantageous characteristics, such as wide front roads, a large area of floor space, and newness. Indeed, we found that more than 80% of vacant houses have been vacant for longer than 2 years, and more than 20% for longer than 10 years. Among long-term vacancies, structural differences clearly exist. Disadvantageous ones remain vacant because there is no demand for them. Potentially advantageous ones, on the other hand, remain vacant for a period, but are finally utilized by the owners or placed on the market. This temporal social inefficiency is mainly caused by (i) the inheritance of unnecessary houses or the relocation of owner-occupiers, and (ii) their intention to maintain their houses as “assets” for an extended period because they are likely to utilize the houses again in the future. When owners are relatively young (that is, younger than 60 years old), they are more likely to utilize (that is, use by themselves or sell/lease on the market) their potentially advantageous vacant houses again. Generally, however, houses remain vacant until they become relatively old (that is, 40－49 years of building age). Nevertheless, those temporary vacancies are likely to be leased for a period for public use without any compensation, especially by relatively young owners who find it difficult to maintain relatively new but currently vacant houses.
This study analyses the contents of the building construction documents used in building the Kojima House, which was built in the early Shōwa period in Sano City, Tochigi Prefecture. The Kojima House consists of a Western-style house, a traditional Japanese-style house and storage structures, which are connected to one other and were built by the Ogawa-Gumi, construction company. The findings and knowledge obtained through the analysis of these documents are as follows. ·A total of 19 (20) sheets of architectural drawings, 23 cost estimate reports, 16 receipts and invoices, 21 receipts (and invoices) for the interior furnishings and attachments and 3 landscaping agreements were found. Furthermore, a report recorded by the owner on the total building cost, two records of the house's inauguration ceremony, a catalogue, business cards of the furniture suppliers and a photograph album, among other items, were discovered. · The construction of the Western-style house was supposed to have started at the beginning of October 1925 and ended in 1926. The construction of the traditional Japanese house is believed to have commenced on 27 July 1926 (i.e. as the Western-style house was being completed) and basically completed around the end of August 1927. Subsequently, the general work, which included landscaping, construction of storage structures and so on, was finished in 1928. Then the final liquidation was done on 22 December 1928. · Payment for construction of the Western-style house was divided into two instalments, whereas that for the traditional Japanese house was divided into six instalments. The payment for the small, attached structures was completed in seven instalments. · The total cost report recorded by the owner states a cost of 94,757 yen and 27 sen for the house, which almost corresponds to the receipt amount. Similarly, the construction cost of the European style house is stated by Yamaguchi as 11,521 yen and 66 sen, which almost corresponds approximately (1 yen difference) to the receipt amount. This study's analysis therefore demonstrates that the owner recorded the payment amount in the contents of the total cost report. It also shows that the building construction documents of the Kojima House include basically all of the reports and receipts related to its construction.
From ancient times, mountains have been worshiped in Japan. Mt. Fuji is archetypal, and the stone huts that served its pilgrims can be regarded as the original form of current mountain huts. Nowadays, since Mt. Fuji is a World Cultural Heritage site, its huts are required to be historically based. Although some historical materials describe the stone huts that existed during the Edo era, the changes stone huts underwent during the era of great transition from worship-ascent to alpinism remain unclear. To investigate these changes, we examined historical materials, held interviews, and conducted field surveys on the Yoshida trail, from where great numbers of pilgrims who belonged to Fuji-ko societies made worship-ascent. At the start of the Meiji era, although Fuji-ko was reorganized after the separation of Shinto and Buddhism, stone hut owners, who had recorded the location and scale of each hut since the late Edo era, were still permitted to manage them under the Yamanashi prefectural governor. Since the middle of the Meiji era, railway lines to the foot of Mt. Fuji were gradually connected. By increasing the number of climbers, and even pilgrims, Yamanashi and Shizuoka Prefectures issued regulations for individuals living on the mountain to ensure the safety of climbers and improve sanitation. Chiyozaburo Takeda, the Yamanashi prefectural governor, then decided to repair the trail and renovate some facilities, especially at the eighth station, to make Mt. Fuji an international tourist site. In Meiji 40th (1907), one stone hut was renovated into a post office, a police box, and a first aid station, and the other two into lodgings. A model lodging designed by government engineers, the Fujisan Hotel, was then built. It had a completely different appearance from stone huts (structure, lighting and ventilating facilities, two berths, etc.). With cooperation between the government and some local citizens, the Fujisan Hotel was realized as modern architecture. Some oshi and locally influential people responded to Takeda by founding a stock company to manage the huts at the eighth station. The former had quickly changed their shukubo to ryokans, and the latter had built a fortune in business from the Edo era. As a model, Takeda had expected other stone huts to develop independently, but this did not go as planned. By the end of the Taisho era, the stone hut sites where trails met at the fifth, sixth, and the eighth stations were expanded. Although the size of these huts may also had changed, many seem to have retained their forms from the late Edo era. On the other hand, at the seventh station, where no trails met, only one-third of the stone huts expanded their sites, in particular, the one hut had changed the facade with no cinders stacked around the wall, i.e. more open. These changes were managed by the owners of the stock company. In addition, around the time of the Great Kanto Earthquake in Taisho 12th (1923), a mountain hut and a post office were built at the eighth station, and a king post was introduced by the owner of the Fujisan Hotel. Through the Taisho era, these changes were led by those concerned with the stock company at the eighth station. During the Edo era, oshi and their servants, hyakusho, owned and managed the stone huts. During the Meiji and Taisho eras, people had different positions and ideas compared with past owners; in other words, extrinsic motivation changed the old customs and opened the door to modernization. In this way, the equalities among the stone huts maintained by oshi and hyakusho during the Edo era might have been lost.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of spatial structures of Okura-syo owned by Hirosaki domain, and the factors of forming the space. For that purpose, I noticed the inspection station and the eaves of Okura. Chapter 2: The previous studies and the procedure of this study were shown. In the Hirosaki domain territory, there were the Okura-syo for collecting the tax rice and transporting the rice by ship to Osaka or Edo (the latter is called “Kaimai”). There is an only architectural remains in Hirosaki city. That was one of the several Okura in the Kiko-Okura-syo in Hirosaki castle town. That Okura was renovate. But, we have the drawings of eleven Okura-syo. Those Okura-syo were targeted on this research. Chapter 3: The spatial structures of each Okura-syo were shown. In the Okura-syo for only collecting the tax rice, there was essential “Onagaya” (a row house used by officers relating to Okura-syo). The inspection station in large-scale Okura-syo, was temporary hut. In all the Okura-syo in Hirosaki domain territory, the okura-syo that the permanent inspection station existed, were confirmed three. Two of these were small-scale Okura-syo that were used for only collecting the tax rice. And one of these was large-scale Okura-syo at export ports. There were many enclosure type as for the type of building arrangement. The others were parallel type. The eaves of Okura could be classified into the following two categories. The first one is long eaves, which covers around the entrance, the second one is "Tomae-hisashi", which covers only the entrance. In the each Okura-syo, there were many “Tomae-hisashi”. On the other hand, the long eaves was one in the each Okura-syo. In the Itayanogi-okura-syo of the year 1692, although the entrance of Okura was two, the inside of Okura was divided space into more than two partitions. For that reason, in the inside of Okura, there was a corridor along the doors. In old mud-walled warehouse that was an okura in kiko-okura-syo in the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate, there was no partition. In those Okura's inside, the workers were able to pass from a door to next door. Chapter 4: I examined about the standard form of Okura-syo owned by Hirosaki domain, and the function of long eaves that was set to front of Okura. As a result, the following standard form of Okura-syo owned by Hirosaki domain had clarified. The first one, type of building arrangement was the enclosure type. The second one, in all Okura, the entrance was two, the eaves were “Tomae-hisashi”. But, the long eaves were set to the Okura (that arranged at the back of site) for inspection and place of rice straw bag, when the permanent inspection station was not built. Chapter 5: In conclusion, it developed that Okura-syo in Hirosaki domain territory were characterized by following two things. The first one, there was a standard form. The second one, the only long eaves were provided on the main building of Okura-syo, in comparison with Okura-syo in the heavy snowfall area in Japan. As the factors of forming the space, it was mentioned that there was a passage inside of Okura, and the permanent inspection station was not built.
Japanese city fell into the housing shortage, which was caused by intensification of war during WWII. To deal with this situation, Division of Housing in Ministry of Health and Welfare held HMC (Housing Measures Committee) and drafted “The report of HMC”. Researches of the past pointed out its aspect of housing supply measures. On the other hand, HPRCD (Housing Policy Researching Committee of Dojunkai) tried to draft the Housing Act at the same time. It was drafted by four sections in HASRS (“Housing Act” Special Researcher Society), the research group of HPRCD that have researching themes as follows: Section 1 (Housing census), Section 2 (Housing standardization), Section 3 (Housing supervision) and Section 4 (Housing supply).
This paper shows a process of formulation of “the report of HMC” and its significance in the history of Japanese housing policy by associating activity of HPRCD with “the report of HMC”. We reveal facts as follows;
Officials of Division of Housing tried to hold Housing Policy Committee to establish housing policy that modelled after Western countries. They also took part in activities of HPRCD and intended to enact Housing Act as uniform law about housing. However, they could not hold Housing Policy Committee because of intensification of war. Actually, they had to follow political line that contributes to production expansion and solve housing shortage in areas of munitions factories and urban cities the highest priority. Given this situation, they decided to hold HMC and incorporate ideas gotten thorough research of HPRCD with “the report of HMC” “The report of HMC” was composed of as follows; (1) “Guideline to found Rented House Owner Association (tentative)” (2) “Guideline of special measures of housing supply” (3) “Guideline to found Housing Corporation (tentative)” (4) “Guideline of housing census” (5) “Several methods needed for carrying out housing measures”. The measures of (1), (2), (3) and (5) were drafted based on evaluation that was shown from the research by Section 4 of HASRS. Especially, establishment of Housing Corporation was discussed first of all at HMC because it was considered as most effective way by Section 4. Moreover, matters had been researched by Section 1 was strongly reflected on (4). Section 2 and Section 3 couldn't incorporate their ideas into “the report of HMC” because the measures concerning housing standardization and supervision did not directly contribute to solving housing shortage. However, they made effort to realize their ideas during HMC.
“The report of HMC” played important role in proposing housing supply measures at WW II such as the Housing Corporation Act. Moreover, this paper shows its significance that it was product of compromise of activity of drafting Housing Act. Therefore it partially included ideas gotten thorough comprehensive research about housing policy.
The purpose of this study is to figure out the relationship between Frank Lloyd Wright's architectural thought and his design through an analysis of modification system of his works. This paper focuses ‘A Home in a Prairie Town’ which appeared in ‘The Ladies' Home Journal’ and regarded as one of the prototype of the Prairie Houses. It belongs to the classification of Hickox Type out of 8 types of Prairie Houses defined by this study. It has arrangement of dining room, living room, and library in a straight line, and is defined to be noted as (D-L-Lib) by the diagram B which prescribed by this study as the connections of rooms. This paper deals with following 21 houses as the Hickox type of his works. Emmond house/ Parker house/ Woolley house/ Devin house project/ Hickox house/ Home in a prairie town/ Henderson house/ Metzger house project/ Cheney house/ D. Martin house/ Sutton house/ A. Johnson house/ Westcott house/ Bock studio project/ Shaw house project/ M. Roberts house project/ Irving house/ Balch house/ H. Adams house project#1/ H. Jaxon housing project/ Brigham house. The first 3 houses that precede Hickox house have sliding doors with pocket between dining room, living room, and library. Devin house project has alcoves between the 3 rooms. Hickox house has no partitions between them, and following 3 houses are the same as it. They emphasize living room by beams on the ceiling or open ceiling space. In Cheney house, hip ceiling with moldings unifies the 3 rooms, and the horizontal flying beams under the ceiling with bookshelf segment them. D. Martin house has double horizontal flying beams with curtain. The preliminary and subsequent plans of D. Martin house have different designs of moldings on ceiling from constructed plan of it. It shows that Wright has been continued studying the relationship of that 3 rooms with moldings. In A. Johnson house moldings on living room ceiling extend to outside porch of both sides. The boundaries between the 3 rooms in Westcott house are ambiguous with partitions that extended from each end of fireplace in living room to halfway and stopped short of the ceiling. There exist no boundaries although the names of the 3 rooms and furniture are written on the plan of the Bock studio project. H. Adams house project#1 has asymmetrical plan with flying beams of different width, accordion curtain, and moldings on ceiling encircle the 3 rooms. Brigham house the 3 rooms encloses around central inglenook in a horseshoe shape. The results of the analysis of modification of Hickox type houses are as follows: 1. The modifications of Hickox type houses come into existence from relationships between living room, dining room, and library. 2. The elements have key roles in modifications are continuous ceiling, horizontal flying beams, sliding doors, hanging partition wall, mouldings, curtain and short screens. 3. The main motif of modifications is understood as “integrated individualizing.” In conclusion, from the perspective of his architectural thought at the time, the meaning of Hickox type houses is understood as his concept of “organic simplicity.”
This study aims to elucidate the transition process of the architectural view of Hiroshi Ohe. Ohe often used the term “konzai-heizon” which means interminglement and coexistence, to describe his architectural view. To determine the mechanism of the principle of Konzai-Heizon, we collected and analyzed Ohe's discourses. The transition process was found to be a spiral motion accompanied by convergence and diffusion, with konzai-heizon as the basis. Ohe began to doubt the philosophy of modernism in architecture in 1954. Within about ten years, during which he traveled overseas twice, he established konzai-heizon as a civilization historical view, which he began practicing as a design method. This method is considered to have been completed for the time being in the design of the Nogi Kaikan (1968). Starting in 1973, Ohe began to avoid using the word konzai-heizon. We point out that the concept that Ohe had regarded as lacking in konzai-heizon was consistency. It is assumed that works with the consistency desired by Ohe include the Kakunodate cho Traditional hall (1978) and the National Noh Theater (1983). In 1987, Ohe started to complain about the consistency of the National Noh Theater and came to recognize that the center of architectural design is chaos. It is assumed that the "chaos" mentioned by Ohe describes not mere disorder, but multi-dimensional consistency, integrating methods tried in the National Noh theater (1983) and Kakunodate cho Traditional Hall (1978). Since 1956, Ohe consistently aimed to restore the romantic architectural view included in traditional architectural style and decoration, which included various concepts about the human mind and body that were abandoned as unreasonable by modernism. However, Ohe did not entirely reject modernism, as he acknowledged that he was a rationalist even through his later years. Ohe aspired to a multi-dimensional architectural view based on both modernism and romantic equivalence. The word "arbitrary necessity" that Ohe used to express his architectural view in his last years is understood to have the same meaning.
The Meijijingu Gaien Stadium was constructed within the boundaries of the Meijijingu Gaien Park, following the orders of the Emperor Meiji, to commemorate the imperial honor of the Meiji Period in 1924. The main objective of this paper is to study the spatial placement of the Meijijingu Gaien Stadium in regard to important aspects of the construction process. The research adopted the publications referred to the construction process of the Meijijingu Gaien Park. The assessed period is from 1887, with the establishment of the Aoyama military field, until 1939 when the 10th Meijijingu National Sports Festival was held at the Meijijingu Gaien Stadium. Considering the plan of the spatial placement and the spatial composition, this study concretely verifies the planning process of the Meijijingu Gaien project through: a) the actual land use by extracting and associating; b) the matters concerning the facility; c) the statements of the mayor of Tokyo, educators and constructors; and d) the figure of the project plan in publications. The spatial placement of the Meijijingu Gaien Stadium was analyzed following 3 important aspects. First, this study confirmed the history, the social background and the geographical transition related to the Emperor Meiji in the context of the Meijijingu Gaien Park. As well, we positioned to the ideological background, the origin and the initiative of the construction of the stadium from the mayor of Tokyo SAKATANI YOSHIRO. Second, we seized the circumstances of the construction of the stadium through the statements from the educator KANO JIGORO and the constructors involved in the planning process of the Meijijingu Gaien project. Additionally, we inspected the spatial composition of the construction process of the Meijijingu Gaien Park and the spatial placement of the Meijijingu Gaien Stadium. Moreover, the spatial significance of the royal box seats in the Meijijingu Gaien Stadium was corroborated. This study clarifies the initiative of the construction and the development of the plan for the Meijijingu Gaien project, based on the statements of the mayor of Tokyo, educators and constructors. Furthermore, it reveals the history of the establishment of the spatial placement of the Meijijingu Gaien Stadium.
This paper tries to provide the perspective of development process of modern market planning in Taiwan under the Japanese rule. It reconstructs the spatial configuration of major markets and clearly depicts transformation process of commercial space in the local cities in southern Taiwan. Historical materials of this research have been compiled using the "the Public Documents of the Governor General of Taiwan's Office (台湾総督府公文類纂)", which is an administrative historical document that has not been sufciently read. The conclusion of this paper is as follows.
1. Fish market period The fish markets designated in the early market policy of the Governor-General of Taiwan in 1900s merely redefined the market zones on the streets in order to accommodate street stalls on the road and in front of the temple, and the shop plots which were layouted along the street and the middle corridor cover with tiles or thatch and the retailers were collected the land rent for the market by the police department under Tainan prefecture. While, these markets does not have sufficient open spaces to manage stalls on the street.
2. Establishment of public retail market As late as around 1910, however, these existing markets were removed from the streets and the shops were assembled in the modern market facilities within the city blocks. Typical market plan was caracterized by the subdivided compartments in accordance with different types of shop management and different goods, and the restructuring of existing markets included not only retail stores but also the auction market. As the block type market was established, the urban improvement in the local was also developed. On the other hand, the open space of market facilities was filled with consumers and sellers and buried in temporary shops.
3. Expansion of public retail market These block type markets were rebuilt again around 1935; Shop plots of different management types were integrated into one, the narrow and crowded spaces were reorganized so as to improve the hygiene environment of the facilities, and rows of streetside shops which were equipped connects market facilities and street commerce within the block in order to reestablish the market as the commercial centers in the respective cities. The market was redefined as a commercial base for the first time.
The shogunate was responsible for controlling and managing the various activities conducted on the streets of Edo commoners district (chōninchi). The street spaces, on the other hand, were maintained by the townsman (chōnin) who lived in the commoners district. While the town commissioner (machi-bugyo), street commissioner (michi-bugyō) and the commissioner of engineering works (fushin-bugyō) were the shogunate officers in charge of supervising the work, the commoners led the actual maintenance work. Their task of maintaining street spaces (street functions and public safety) was assumed both in terms of workload and cost by the towns along the street, and the range managed by each town could be spatially. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate Mochiba (the posts of responsibility) that were spatial divisions to the town's management of street spaces and the feature of spatial maintenance system based on a case study of Minami tenma chō 2, Minami saya chō, Minami nushi chō, and Matsukawa chō.. This paper uses the term “street spaces” to comprehensively describe the human and built environment that evolves along the street. The first section investigates how Mochiba (posts of responsibility) was positioned in the management system of the street spaces by the shogunate (machi-bugyō, the town commissioner). It points out that the town commissioner (machi-bugyō) strongly recognized the spatial range that the town (chō-jū) should be responsible for the maintenance and order around the 18th century. It correlated with the management system for street spaces was established by the shogunate by mandating an application process for the townsman's various management and construction activities carried out on the street in the 18th century as pointed out in my paper. Based on the above, I presented the following hypothesis. Mochiba was equivalent to the range where the prefix attached to each house and lot (ie-yashiki), and had in the cooperativeness and exclusivity of the town (chō). In other words, it was not the principle set from above by the shogunate. Although the shogunate did not clearly make Mochiba legal system, they attempted to thoroughly enforce this control by dividing the street space into Mochiba (posts of responsibility) and assigning these Mochiba to the various towns and each owner of the residence. The following section analyzes the specific character of the Mochiba in commoners district (chōnin-chi), based on a case study of Minami tenma chō 2, Minami saya chō, Minami nushi chō, and Matsukawa chō. Therefore, the section was examined from three theme: Ban (maintaining public peace and order) and the restoration of the street and sewage (maintenance of street function) that it is the most basic in maintenance work of the street spaces by the town. This discussion gave that physical environmental conditions of street spaces prescribed an individual assumption of responsibility for maintenance and management by townsman (chō-nin) and chō. Lastly, I would like to point out that the spatial feature of Mochiba (posts of responsibility) in commoners district. Then, the paper concludes with a discussion on the responsibility of the maintaining public safety and the maintenance of street function could be separated on one street through a case study of Mochiba was newly set or expanded.