The purpose of this paper is to make clear the transformation process for 20 years of the co-operative housing "U-court". In management action, it is based on voluntary management for 20 years. And the organization and method are transfigured so that it may correspond to the necessity for community life. In the action for enjoyment, the adult resident took action as enjoyment of oneself first, and it was activated by children being involved in there. The sense of values formed of living together has produced the next activity. The chain for which activity induces the next activity is a factor which the power of living together maintains. The resident's aging will advance further in the future. It will be asked how the power of living together works.
This study examines if the spatial units arrangement of the dwelling would adapt to the lifestyle of the family. By researching into the way of living of the family through the term of the experiment conducted in the experimental housing NEXT21, the spatial units arrangement changed by the remodeling fulfilled the needs which the dwellers had recognized. As the result, the significance of changing the spatial units arrangement of the dwelling was verified.
The aims of this paper is acquiring planned knowledge through present and actual condition grasp of “community base small multi care facilities” which is a place to support the aged people requiring care of being home that was newly appeared by the public-nursing-care-insurance revision in April, 2006. Investigation is based on the actual condition grasp investigation by the questionnaire in a nationwide scale. The management of institutions and the actual condition of a construction outline which have been just institutionalized became clear. Since there are many examples using especially the existing building, it is necessary to grasp from now on in nearby details, such as the method of practical use of the existing building, and a subject in that case. Moreover, since the state of the space composition of “visiting” and “night staying” portion, the kind of compound function, etc. are also the points which lead to the state of the plan of the facilities directly, analysis is advanced and pursuit of a planned subject and pursuit of planned knowledge are needed.
This paper aims to grasp the physical characteristics of school buildings which have open plan classrooms and clarify the characteristics by municipality, the interaction among the municipalities and the guideline for school buildings. The surveyed municipalities are Tokyo, Toyama and Akita prefecture. The main fingings are as follows; 1)As opposed to the ratios of open type schools to all schools are 20.5% in Toyama prefecture and 14.9% in Akita prefecture, the ratio of Tokyo metropolitan area is 6.0%. 2) On the partition type between a classroom and an OS, the open type in Akita is more than in Tokyo and Toyama. About the arrangement type of classrooms and OSs, the ratio of no passage route type in Akita is less than in Tokyo and Toyama. 3)A form of partitions of open type classrooms are selected on the basis of the evaluations of the past constructed schools in municipality. 4) Some municipalities in Tokyo dicide not to construct open plan classrooms because of a serious financial condition and low evaluations of open plan classrooms.
(Objectives) 1) To examine the present conditions of after-school childcare in the integrated “After-School Child Plan” program. 2) To determine the ideal model of a childcare program. (Methods) 1) We classified the present condition of childcare offered by 13 local government programs on the basis of our analysis of the data obtained through hearings, observations, and questionnaires. 2) We analyzed the results that were revealed through the classification. (Results) 1) Based on the analysis, we classified the integrated programs into eight types. 2) We concluded that among these eight integrated program models program type 2 was the most desirable.
The Study clarified how neighbourhood amenities are located following their spontaneous emergence in a suburban residential area developed through land readjustment projects. The main findings of the Study are listed below. 1) The scope of the development of neighbourhood amenities by a private developer is limited as the emphasis is placed on profit-making amenities. 2) In a situation where the locationing of neighbourhood amenities is left to spontaneous emergence, there is a tendency for such amenities to be clustered around a railway station. 3) The unit number of neighbourhood amenities shows secular changes while reflecting the characteristics of individual zones.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of lighting conditions on an impression of nighttime streets by changing the color temperature and the placement. The subjects were all women and they estimated the routes whose lighting conditions were controled by us. The experiment was carried out at night (8pm-9pm). The subjects walked along routes(6 patterns) and estimated the impression of each street. The results found in the experiment are summerized as follows; a) lower color temperature improves the impression of security. b) color temperature influences on visibility of space. c)on nighttime streets, the existence of others makes an impact on a sense of safety.
When passengers in a subway station face a fire, they are expected to follow instructions from station attendants to evacuate from hazardous areas. However, the number of station attendants available in any one place is in fact quite limited. For this study investigating the effectiveness of loudspeaker announcements guiding passengers during an emergency, a series of experiments was conducted in an existing subway station in Tokyo, revealing that announcements that take into account signs and spatial features of the paths in the station are able to direct subjects more smoothly than those typically employed up to now, particularly in cases where people have to take unintuitive routes such as going downstairs first to reach the exit.
The purpose of this paper is to show the structure of educational assistance organizations related with a primary school, by analyzing characteristics of educational activities and visions of relationship between organizations and a primary school. Main results are as follows; 1) The 7 types of organization, which were constituted of 3 hierarchies (comprehensive - multiple functional- specific functional organizations), were grasped. 2) For the future organizations, it is required that they participate in the school management with residents or take part in roles of educational activities about community. 3) The various combinations of 7 types in each school are cleared. The activation of comprehensive organizations leads to the development of the others.
The aim of this paper is to study the spatial characteristics of old village (SHUMURA) in the last years of the early modern era in Okinawa, by clarifying the arrangement of old public office (MAGIRI BANSHO) through the restoration simulation of spatial composition of SHUMURA. By doing researches, hearings, fieldworks, and restoration simulation, three characteristics are clarified, such as 1) the characteristics of arrangement and formation of SHUMURA differ depending on the policy of Ryukyu Government, 2) the planning method under that MAGIRI BANSHO is mainly arranged as the core of SHUMURA, controls the scenic characteristics, and 3) the intentions of Ryukyu Government reflect the social structures as well.
As people buy daily foods at the super-market recently, many small neighborhood stores were shut. But neighborhood stores have some important functions for the community. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of the neighborhood store for the elderly generation people. Three methods of surveys were taken for this study; 1) a survey to the dwellers in the mini-housing development in 1960s,2)a survey to the customers of the store in the area, 3)an observational research of customers in the store. The results are as follows. Main customers of neighborhood stores are elderly generation people and they live very near the store. People who enjoy chatting (or communicate with) neighbors in the store like shopping at the neighborhood store.
Historically, rural landscapes were an outcome of villagers' successive maintenance resulting from the social system functioning there. We refer to this tendency as the “traditional landscape control system”. However, the ability and activity of the system has decayed due to aging and depopulation, which create critical situations of rural landscape preservation. Also, recent landscape preservation projects installed in villages are beyond the capacity of the system, and create some confusion in the villages. In this study, we examined the current situation of the system in the integrated survey of a rural settlement named Ochiai and presented a method of reorganizing of the system.
The immigration division system played the role of a large-scale, systematic development of uncultivated field in Hokkaido. The purpose of this thesis is in the search for the reason though reads, solves the approval process of the plan, and know why the village planning and settlement design were not planned to the immigration division. As a result, followings become clear. Though the necessity of the village planning and settlement design were recognized enough, but those were not able to be done for the various problems. Various problems were 1) lack of detailed land investigation data on village location, 2) absence of plan theory of road division technique for suited village arrangement, 3) necessity of large-scale business accomplishment in immigration divisionetc,etc.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new method to analyze the water environment in an urban area by modeling a “Water Path Network” using GIS Hydrology Modeling. “Water Path Network” is defined as a sequence of network-like passages of surface water with a view point of co-environmental urban planning looking at the relationship between road network and surface water flow. The method enables to classify six characters of water environment in an urban area; flood inundation, intercept of water system oweing to infrastructure, increase of water environmental load caused by reclamation, increase of water environmental load by land readjustment projects, surface water clot area, and passive water path. This new method will contribute to the realization of co-environmental urban planning by giving an urban landscape a rationally-designed water environment system.
This paper aims to clarify the diversity of open courtyards in faubourg Saint-Antoine area in Paris, by focusing on spatial composition and by analyzing the exterior space arrangement and the connection with the street and with the buildings. Firstly, the arrangement patterns are shown by analyzing the arrangement of the compositional units articulated by their surrounding buildings. Secondly, the connection patterns are described by analyzing the distributive role of the courtyard and the form of its connection with the street. Finally, by considering both of these patterns, 10 types of spatial compositions appear which show the diversity of the open courtyards. Then, comparing these types reveals their structural characteristics.
This paper firstly gives a historical review of the evolution of No-wall Elderly People's Home (NwEPH), which is the supporting system for the elderly at home in Q-community (Q-SSEH) in Beijing. Then the actors of Q-SSEH and their collaboration, the features and outcomes of Q-SSEH are analyzed to summarize the pattern of community-leading supporting system for the elderly at home. Conclusions are as following: 1) Q-SSEH is a typical community-leading supporting system for the elderly at home; 2) The relationships of the three actors are collaborative and multi-winning; 3) NwEPH is the core manager in Q-SSEH; 4) Q-SSEH's main function is to provide a platform to connect all the actors in Q-community together to help the elderly.
The purpose of this study is to develop a method to evaluate walking accessibility of elderly people including topographical aspect, and to analyze the current condition and dynamic trend of elderly people's accessibility using developed method. The results are as follows; 1. Generally, the arrival area by foot of elderly people is 10% to 25% less than youths. 2. There is district where the accessibility is improving when being elderly, around station in suburban area, because of target faculty change as being elderly. 3. A measure for improving accessibility or promoting rehabitation to more convenient district is necessary in old hilly residential area, because of increasing of elderly people. 4. Accessiblity problems won't become serious in center districts but in suburban area there is a possibility to become worth.
Considering provisions for human damage due to a large earthquake, it is important to understand the characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of population in urban area. In this paper, we construct a model which simulates, on geographic information systems, the route choice behavior and transfer behavior of railroad users. The spatiotemporal distribution of users is estimated by applying the model to the Tokyo metropolitan area, using the data taken from a person-trip survey. Some numerical examples using the proposed model are shown for detailed disaster prevention planning.
Understanding characteristics of spatio-temporal distribution of population, which varies according to weekdays or holidays, is one of the most important issues in the field of urban disaster prevention planning. However, the existing person trip data based on weekdays cannot be used for estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of population on holidays. In this study we propose a method to convert the existing person trip data from weekday-base to holiday-base, and examine the differences in the spatio-temporal distribution of population. We also attempt to compare the number of people who might lose their lives under collapsed buildings on weekdays and holidays. Some new findings are demonstrated by numerical examples using the data about an established city area in Tokyo Metropolitan area.
This paper explores the ways in which planning system controls development design, by focusing on the conditions of the establishment of a support system to control development design in UK in 1999. Since 1990, UK urban policy and planning policy have constantly referred the importance of deign control to deliver sustainable developments. However, the government reform program progressed by Thatcher and the successors have developed difficulties to maintain enough planners and architects inside of public authority, particularly to control development design. The reconsideration of design control system finally established the Commission for Architecture and Built Environment (CABE). Through the research on the process of the establishing CABE, this paper demonstrates the following key points to develop a support system for design control. They are the importance of presenting planning policy to make consensus and partnership among plural public institutions, and the importance of establishing a system to provide free information and technique to local authorities and also the public.
This study aims to construct a method for seeking view points of moon landscape based on analysis on the composition of Japanese traditional Ukiyoe pictures drawn by a famous painter, Hiroshige. By analyzing the cultural landscapes expressed on Ukiyoe, we clarify 5 essential factors such as the season, hour, key element, ambient, viewing manner and categorize into 10 composition types. Based on the results, we construct the application method of seeking the viewpoints for the traditional moon landscapes with composition of the geographical elements and moon condition through a case study, which is intended to create the aesthetic values of landscape planning harmonized with the nature.
This paper clarifies actual condition and problems of district plan (DP) system of “article 12-5, (1)-2-RO” in city planning law from analyses of guidelines by prefectural government and all examples in Japan and concludes as follows: 1. “RO DP” type is recognized as important tool against sprawl in many guidelines but has been hardly utilized so far. This is a big problem. 2. “RO DP” type consists of mainly concrete 4 application types: environmental improvement type, type for extant settlements, type for roadside areas, disordered developments prevention type. 3. Effects of “RO DP” type are composed of “I DP” type effect, which provides new areas of good conditioning grid, and “HA DP” type effect, which preserves extant rural fabric, besides“RO DP” type effect, which regulates areas of buildings and houses randomly dotted.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of Compact City policy which is adopted by many cities as the idea of sustainable city planning measurement. The results are as follows; (1)Actuary in Aomori City tendency to become compact has appeared after 2000. (2) But the people who tend to live in inner city and supports population increase in city center area are mainly young generation, and the aging of population in suburban area is still progressing. (3) It is expected that elderly people who cannot move to inner city by economical difficulties will be left behind, so Aomori City Government needs to adopt more effective policy for accelerating removal to inner city of elderly people.
There are two types of skateboarding places at public parks in Tokyo. One is the purpose build parks; the other is the appropriative sites. When skaters discover an appropriative site, they stay the site as they can, take their own boxes and ramps, and make a small group for the maintenance. They name there group “local” (e.g. “Akihabara Local”). In Japan, primary sites have been moving from the appropriative sites to the purpose build parks, science 1990's. Refers to an short interview with the 64 users of a park and two sites, the notions of the skaters has two tendencies as follows;(1) the needs for the adequate place to skateboarding move, (2) for the appropriation itself to make relationships of the skaters group. Corresponding this youth culture, the local governments has build and maintain the purpose build parks, and cooperated with the locals to keep a few appropriative sites.
VFM(Value For Money) is a fundamental principle of PFI(Private Finance Initiative) aiming to provide the most high-quality service for the nation. VFM is composed of two elements, "Price" and "Quality of service" and it is necessary for achieving the purpose to be evaluated properly at each stage of the PFI projects. There are many problems of the VFM evaluation though a lot of PFI projects which have been executed in Japan. In this thesis, the correspondence of PFI Promotion Office concerning VFM is investigated and the questionnaire to the public sectors and the private companies in charge of PFI projects is analyzed. As a result, the difference of the recognition between the public sectors and the private companies is understood, and the problem of evaluation about the VFM is clarified structurally.
This study aims to through clarifying the householder dweller's characteristic of the Gakuenmae Neo-police which was developed in period of high economic-growth, and by the private enterprises, investigate the way that should be of the future in these aged suburban detached housing estates. The findings are as follows; 1)With the maturity of the housing estates householder dwellers aged 65 and over is more than 70% of the whole. 2)Elderly to be cared for ratio is less than 10%,and there are many dwellers greeting the cheerful advanced age period with health.3)The family type of ‘Households consisting only of a married couple’ ‘elderly one-person households’ increase remarkably and rises to total a little less than 60%.A verage per household members is less than 3 people. 4) More than 90% of the residence are purchased by order, the others about less than 10% are acquired by inheritance and used-houses. 5)The houses which passed after building more than 20 years is beyond total 60%.The ratio of the rebuilt is 23%, and the extension or remodeled residence is more than 50% of the whole. 6)Although it is the Neo-police where the balance between generations is being lose, but the householder dwellers are satisfied with the present life, and they are wanting to continue to live there until to the last moment.
This paper first proves that the life of the Japanese housing stock can be calculated depending solely on the housing stock data published in the House and Land Statistics Survey (the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) which has been regarded inappropriate for that purpose mainly because of its inconsistency with the flow data shown in the House Building Statistics (the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism). Having Applied the Kaplan-Meier's method, the life is given by the 50 percentile value of the accumulated survival ratio of the same cohort. The system dynamics model thus reconstructed from the House and Land Statistics Survey consequently shows a good accordance with the House Building Statistics. The change of the life since 1973 indicates that the life has been consistently becoming longer over the surveyed period, that houses built more recently have longer life, that rebuilding (houses rebuilt on the same lots) has been gradually increasing and so on. The increasing vacancy ratio (surplus stock), on the other hand, suggests the importance of further investigation into the regional difference in the housing needs particularly when the 200 year long life house project has been launched by the government and at the same time when regional disparities of wealth has become problematic.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the residents and related designer consultants evaluation of the joint housing project after Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. We researched 7 condominiums provided by the joint housing project. We analyzed 102 documents of residents and questioned to 123 households of their evaluation for the joint housing project by questionnaires. And we questioned 20 designer consultants of 18 joint housing projects. And we questioned 8 local government staff who related to these projects. Several strategies which are necessary to support the establishment of a joint housing project are as follows. 1) Create an enabling environment for the public developer's participation, because there are small number of family who transferred to the joint housing projects, 2) Encourage the intention of private organization such as NPO to participate, 3) Attempt the public support for the expense of the adviser which emerge at the early stage of establishment of the project.
This study analyzes the difference of maintenance cost of individual building of the complex of condominiums. As a result of the analysis, the following items were clarified. •In the complex of condominiums of the similar shape, the large difference of the maintenance cost is caused in the renewal of the incidental hardware of the buildings. •In the complex of condominiums of the different shape, the large difference of the maintenance cost is caused by the difference of the construction area. These results show that it is necessary to manage the maintenance cost of each building separately.
On the Jotomon-dai(上東門第) and Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第), the following points were clarified: 1. The whereabouts for Empress of the Emperor in Jotomondai(上東門第) was Shinden(寝殿). 2. The whereabouts for Fujiwara-no-sanesuke(藤原実資) in Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第) was Shinden(寝殿), and whereabouts for Fujiwara-no-Michinaga(藤原道長) in Jotomon-dai(上東門第) was Tai(対). 3. The difference of the whereabouts of the master in Jotomon-dai(上東門第) and Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第) is caused by a regent and the chief adviser to the Emperor system.
This series of papers aims to clarify the characteristic of the modular proportioning of the bracket complex written in the hereditary writings Kamakura Zoei Myomoku recorded in 16th to 17th centuries by the carpenters in Kamakura. This paper clarify the placement method of the Makito bearing brocks, and inspect the relationship with three kinds of design method of the Zen style bracket complex shown in the precedent study, comparing with the old draft of the Buddha hall of Engakuji temple in 1563. As results, the design method that uses the equal int
"Roll Sensaku Factory" by KAGEYAMA Hitoshi who was the first Japanese machine engineer was completed in Meiji Era 42(1909) in The Imperial Steel Works, Japan (The Japanese Government-control Yawata Iron Works). After that, two iron frame structural engineers who were architectural engineers were invited from the Yokogawa Kyoryo Seisakusho in Taisho Era 5 (1916), and "The second Ohgata Factory" was completed by their designs in Taisho Era 8 (1919). It is described that the designer of the factory construction changed from the machine engineer into an architectural engineer and that the Japanese Government-control Yawata Iron Works consigned the design of "The Second Atsuita factory" to the Yokogawa Kohmusho, a private company, in Taisho Era 9 (1920).
In this research, we clarified how the regulation of prefectural official residence had transformed through the beginning of Meiji era, from 1868 to 1876, and examined what characteristics the planning of that had. The result can be summarized as follows : 1. The regulation which relates to prefectural official residence had gradually began to be formed, as part of the prefecture finance, from Jul. 1869. First of all, the rule of expense for construction and maintenance was clearly provided. But first, it seems that the management was imperfect. 2. At Jul. 1871, the abolition of clans and establishment of prefectures (Haihan-chiken) was executed. The style of rule to prefecture changed completely, and the management by the government was rapidly strengthened. For prefectural official residence, as a result, united regulation for all prefecture was enacted at May 1872. And we could know that the regulation was almost followed perfectly. 3. The plannings of the prefectural official residence built in that age were various for each place, though it was common in the point that order corresponding to the class is formed. We could know, in that age, the planning that corresponded to the class had been groped for respectively.
East Mebon,built in the middle of 10th century under the direction of King Rajendravarman II, is the Hindu temple of pyramid type in Khmer Architecture. The purpose of this paper is to find the relation among Dimensional plan of each building and Layout in East Mebon based on the construction process and measurement system. The fundamental point of Dimensional plan and Layout of major building at upper terrace is different from other building at lower terrace. It is possible that major buildings at upper terrace have a strong correlation with the central tower, but other buildings at lower terrace don't have it.
This paper discusses Cristóbal de Rojas in Cádiz after the assault by English and Dutch fleet in 1596. After the discussion of over one year, the court approved his project on the fortress of Santa Catalina. According to his own words, his project was made to replace with the project of a castle by Tiburzio Spannocchi. However, by analyzing how the court made the decision, this paper demonstrates that in the court the project of Rojas was not regarded as the alternative for Spannocchi's project because the castle was designed to defend the city not only from the enemy from outside but also from the foreign citizen in Cádiz. However, Rojas's fortress did not have this double function. Therefore, unlike his own words, Rojas's project could not be alternative for Spannocchi's in terms of function as well as size. This paper discusses his activity of estimating the construction cost as professional aspect of a military engineer and also shows similarity between Cádiz and the city Rojas included in his own treatise
The aim of this study is to clarify the criteria of the relation between streetscape and housefront through car management. First, we investigate the streetscape and make photograph of continuous elevation of housefront. Secondly, we analyze the ‘Housefront Unit’ as the arrangement of boundary, ground, and building elements, examing permutations and combinations.Thirdly, 13 housefront types are clarified through the similarity of element's characteristics adn that arrangement of ‘Housefront Units’. The we pointed out relationship between the several types and generated of condition as a point of compass, width of lots, and width of car. The streetscape of Okusawa are structured in relationship with those 3 composite conditions. Finally, by comparing distribution of 3 conditions or 13types in several parts of Okusawa, we verified the several distributional patterns in typical Japanese residential streetscape.
The purpose of this paper is to clarifly the tourism development by Syobei Morita. He planed this enterprise to cooperate with Nankai Railway Co. Ltd. and other. but he could not obtain their cooperation. So he constracted the road include two tunnels, waterworks, and land development by himself. In 1917, he established Shinwakauratochi. Co. Ltd. and started tourist hotel named Shensyuukan. But in 1924, the company went bankruptcy affect by depression in Japan by panic after first worldwar and Kanto district earthquake. He was a pioneer of Shinwakaura development. The result was that he defended the adjoining place Wakaura that is a histric spot from the development of the modernization.
The purpose of this paper is to get the basic knowledge of ‘Hiraizumi’ town, one of the medieval central city in Japan, from the four indexes of building's axis which explained to relation between building's axis, contour line, surrounding mountain landscape, streets and north-south's axis. As a result, three conclusions were found. The first is that many buildings are not parallel to the streets. The second, there is little possibility of agreement with top of the mountains. The last, there is urban infrastructure like ‘Jobo’ urban system around Motsu-ji, on the other hand not like it in Yanaginogosho. Therefore the Osyu Fujiwara family did no more than develop the blocks, and many buildings are supposed to be arranged according to owner's idea.