To examine the feasibility of incorporating a thermal environment in condominium dwelling unit designs, we assembled detailed drawings of building elements and net quantities to create an architectural planning and design database. Using this database, we then compared the envelope average U-value (hereafter referred to as UA) with external factors such as adjacent buildings and orientation to clarify the effect on UA and heating load. We then compared UA and heating load, excluding external factors, with the individual building elements to determine ways to achieve high energy-saving performance with respect to each building element.
This is study on the effect of other people's activities on elderly dementia residents by the behavior tracking survey with automated face recognition technology. 1.The majority of the activities found in the common space were “inaction”, and “conversation”. The expressions in “inaction” had the lowest SI (Smile Index). 2. The higher ability residents had the greater the SI measured. Residents with less ability in ADL exhibited lower SI. 3. This indicates that there is difference in facial expression, though “inaction” seemed a uniformly non-active state. 4. Residents had high SI when watching “ conversation” “conversation and housework” or “caretaker's action”.
London Borough of Tower Hamlets has successfully renewed local public libraries as Idea Stores. This research focuses on UK library policies, London spatial plan and Tower Hamlets's community plan, and aims to make clear of progress of reorganization of public library in Tower Hamlets, which corresponds to the local problems and needs. It turns out that Tower Hamlets Council relocated the libraries according to the London Plan and local development framework. Besides, it expands library service based on Central Government's library polices as well as Tower Hamlets Community Plan. These policies, especially local government's plan, provide important context for refreshing Tower Hamlets's libraries.
The objective of the research is to understand the cognition of the Western paintings, which represent three dimensional architecture and spaces in order to obtain the fundamental knowledge on the reception of two-dimensional spatial representation. The Indication Method was used to quantitatively analyze the architectural and other elements in the paintings, their composition, and the impression they give to the viewers. The research clarified the elements which characterize the paintings, including their categories and the degree of impression. The observation on their composition, moreover, showed the implication of the element structure and the spacial depth in the composition in two-dimensional representation in Western Paintings.
This study aims to clarify how a world of metaphor as method of collaborative design involves users into an architectural design process. We organized BOOK WORLD PROJECT in Rakuo Elementary School of Kyoto and conducted some workshops particpated by about 90 students. The students generated a lot of ideas for their new Book World in the workshops. In this paper, firstly we described the process and what students ideated. We made 3 metaphorical worlds of Book World based on their ideas. Secondly we analyzed the process of developing of the plans through 3 worlds and how the metaphorical worlds effect on students' minds. As a result, we revealed that a metaphorical world activates students' thinking processes and support them to generate new ideas. In addition, we make a apoint that the metaphorical world makes students more proactive in participating in the design process and making the world of their Book World.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relation between design variations of building parts and building system configurations at building modification. The effects of building system configuration upon the design variations of building elements were analyzed based on a newly developed concept named “structural diagram” of building. This analysis revealed some prerequisites of adaptable building system as follows: it is important to allot different building sub-performances to different building elements to increase variations of partial design, and it is also important to draw up any spatial rules to coordinate building elements to which allotted different building sub-performances.
In this paper, we propose the floor planning method focusing on concentration and communication based on the planning flow having generality. For the target organizations, we select eleven research groups having the diversity on concentration and communication. First, we arrange influence factors on concentration and communication. We evaluate the influence factors by analyzing the characteristics of the organizations drawn by the questionnaires and experiments. In the planning of ‘work area’, we select the partition height, the bookshelf height, and the seating configuration as the crucial influence factor, and these variations are prepared for the selection. In this organization, all variations are selected, and it is used for the verification of the planning method. In the planning of ‘communication area’, we determined the specification through the planning method based on the user interviews, and carry out the planning, the management and the measure in the operation phase. We verify the hypothesis on communication by the POE.
The aim of this study is to clarify the framework of architectural thoughts with the word "box" through analyzing design theories of contemporary Japanese houses. Firstly the conceptural recognitions for "box" are classified into four categories (Simplicity, Unitarity, Primordiality, and Histricity) through analyzing articles written as design theory for houses by architect. Secondly the organization forms of "box" are analyzed from two aspects. The one is the characteristics of "box" which is classified into Mass type and Volume type, and the other is the operations on "box" which shows the number of "box" to operate or not to operate. Finally relations between the conceptural recognitions and the organization forms of "box" are analyzed totally including a chronological consideration.
The principle of normalization enables as many users as possible to use existing shopping streets with diverse characteristics. Creating shopping street environments based on this principle is expected to become even more important in the future. This study is part of a series of studies aimed at identifying barriers at shopping streets. The previous study in the series examined four existing shopping streets and identified various barriers in the shopping streets from the perspective of users. This study continues where that study left off, gathering basic knowledge on problems and issues facing shopping streets from the perspective of the operators of the stores that make up the shopping streets.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the combination of subsidies, the coordination of process and the organization structure of department to realize a valuable reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Based on the condition of reconstruction projects in each municipality, we categorize them into the following five categories; “land rearrangement oriented”, “group relocation oriented”, “complex”, “public housing oriented” and “large city.” Each five category shows the direction of reconstruction and it is associated with the process of reconstruction, structure of the section and the formation of meeting. For valuable reconstruction, it is necessary to organize these factors.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the constructing of machizukuri system based by residents' activities on hometown tax through a case study on “Autonomy Institution of Machizukuri of Ikeda” in Ikeda Town, Fukui Prefecture. The results are the following: "The project to realize a small happiness" which is the main project of "Autonomy Institution of Machizukuri of Ikeda", has served by producing 41 machizukuri activities and encouraged the gradual development of machizukuri activities, which lead to educating the residents to become as actors for decision-making. The member of the “Autonomy Machizukuri Committee”, which is the decision-making organization of “Autonomy Institution of Machizukuri of Ikeda”, has changed from outside contributors to residents. Along with the change of members of the committee, the initiative of decision-making shifted from outside contributors to organization by residents and and machizukuri system by residents has been constructed.
The purpose of this paper is to show the relation between the actual condition of citizen participation in green space conservation and citizen consciousness. The method of investigation was interviews to administration and citizen groups and questionnaire surveys to local citizens in Maioka and Niiharu, Yokohama city. Results are as follows: (1) In both towns, green space was protected and maintained by citizen groups and administration, and it gives local citizens favorable impression for living environment with green; (2) The comparative analysis showed some points of difference in the actual condition of green space conservation and citizen consciousness between Maioka and Niiharu; (3) Citizen consciousness was presumably influenced by the actual condition of citizen participation in green space conservation activity from two important points of view, “established period of groups” and “opportunity and purpose of groups during the initial period”.
The purpose of this study was to understand the living conditions of the three-generation Uyghur Tribe living in urban areas and rural areas centered on the Kashgar district and to clarify how the lifestyle of the Uyghur Tribe is changing viewed from the aspects of the three generations' clothing, food, housing, daily life, religion, etc., in both areas. The research method was a questionnaire survey given to the three generations comprising 5th grade tribal elementary school students and the parents and grandparents of the students. It covered items relating to the dwelling life, eating habits, clothing, daily life and religion of the three generations in both areas, and we gained an understanding of the present conditions thereof. Also, in order to define the changes to these, we established standards to deem them "is maintained", "is about half maintained", or "isn't maintained", and we classified them into 11 patterns from a to k.
This study found that was present in 31 river flood prevention by focusing on flood zone spread throughout the country, had been released so far by the Ministry of land, infrastructure and transport 8 rivers of river tradition technology local-architecture initiatives. Also, captured about this flood, flooded water, water in the seedpods that are from the characteristics of the river basin and flood control as the regional initiatives found similarities in each location and architectural initiatives show the specificity of each region. Architectural ingenuity seen parts depending on the heigh and members of the dynamic characteristics have also seen. This is devised to meet than expected inundation, revealed it was in addition, combination of layered flood response. There were architectural ingenuity has been resident behavior in the flood zone are flooding in before the earthquake - disaster - stricken after the cycle of life and recovery as soon as possible to support, to help it.
When setting benches on pedestrian routes in city center, considering which kind of benches are preferable, especially, for the elderly is important now. In this study, after Kansei Evaluation experiment toward them either living in urban or rural area, I get combination rules of benches components preferred, by using rough set theory analysis. Both select “about 2m width surrounding vacant space of building” with “1,5 minutes sitting”, but detail components are different. Rural aged select setting on wooden tiles with high-backrest and awning, easy to understand as bench and its space. Whereas, urban aged select low-backrest without them (=simple components).
In this study, we report the contents of a study on past policy evaluation and future measures for earthquake resistance in Aichi Prefecture ever. Support of seismic diagnosis and seismic retrofitting costs auxiliary of houses and buildings as "self-help", seismic diagnosis required the support of roadside architecture of emergency transportation road necessary to emergency and restoration measures activity as "mutual assistance", as "public assistance" to report the results of the analysis of the current status and future challenges for seismic retrofitting, etc. of public facilities to be a disaster prevention center.
The aim of the present study is to elucidate the effects of UNESCO's World Heritage Tomioka Silk Mill on its environs. Using the results obtained in the present study, we will examine problems with the establishment and realization of a plan to design a World Heritage town in the future. The study methods are summarized as follows: Chapter 3 describes the operation history of the Tomioka Silk Mill and setting of areas to be investigated; Chapter 4 describes land-use changes in areas along streets, while Chapter 5 describes the study of landscape design.
Increasing female career development leads to separated lifestyles, which has brought about the needs to investigate their detailed life form as well as regional life support on personal basis and network building. This study defines the married couples, living separately due to their career and relocation, as “double career-double residency”, which should be differed from male-only-transfer, female at home. We conduct research on dualcareer household's work, life and regional life. The result shows working women tend to depend on their parents for their child care and housework. We firstly suggest sharing comprehensive information such as parenting, living and housing condition and career.
A lot of public facilities that were built in accordance with high economic growth and population growth have become old but it is difficult to maintain all of them. In addition the roles that public facilities should play have been also changing due to the change of the demographic ratio such as declining birth rate and aging population. Therefore it is necessary to reconsider how to supply public facilities that are able to satisfy citizens' needs. This study is aimed to analyze various citizens' concrete activity in public facilities in 3 municipalities including their potential needs about the facilities.
Architectural offices embrace the concept of ‘relationship marketing’ in general because relationships are considered important in the provision of professional service. The focus of this study is the examination of relationships that are perceived to be important in the present and the future as well as their present and future positions in the ‘Superpositioning matrix.’ The data was collected by fieldwork survey and interviews on 18 respondents and then empirically analyzed and linked to the model that combined the Superpositioning matrix and ‘Gummesson's 30Rs.’ The findings include current trends of position and the relationships that are emphasized in any particular position in the matrix. Additionally, the findings could suggest some key relationships for the delivery of client's and architect's value in managing a project and architectural offices.
The H housing is a one of co-housing managed by a stock company; its residents are shareholders of this stocks (We called this “Stock company method”). There is no other example of cooperative housing in Japan, because there is no legal support for this system. The H housing is the limited example that achieved it with similar using as a stock company. So, this paper aims to clarify substance of management in this house from analysis of dweller meeting records. In conclusion, its character is following: 1) autonomous and democratic management, 2) independent-minded stance at the time of new residents choice. The problems is following: 1) Environmental underdeveloped in the funding and the taxation, 2) Too little evaluation in the stock price, 3) The contradiction in whereabouts of common service fee at the time of vacancy, 4) Unclear responsibility whereabouts in the maintenance at the time of vacancy, 5) The lack of technology in the space planning and the maintenance management, 6) a great burden on residents at the time of new residents choice, 7) deficiency a long-term forecast on aged residents
I examined the investigation of the stricken area by J. Conder after the Nobi earthquake, it's following points to become clear. The contribution sent from the Nobi earthquake stricken area to the European newspaper publisher in Yokohama by Conder is the contributions of signatory X. placed on November 7th, 14th, 21th, 1891 issue of the Japan Weekly Mails. The reason to regard Conder and signatory X. as the same person is because the companions to the Neo-valley is equal to Kozo KAWAI and Toyosuke TANAKA with the articles of X. in the Japan Weekly Mails. and mention of Conder's memoriam.
Prasat Sour Prat towers (hereafter PSP) were built just in front of Royal Palace and Royal Plaza in Angkor Thom. This location is very important. However, despite the significant site locations, laterite block is used for the primary building material of PSP. This paper aims at a point why PSP was built with laterite blocks, and touches guess in a background in those days about a relation with a method of construction of PSP. And the features of PSP become possible to understand more by comparing with laterite structures of a Koh Ker remains group. The background of laterite using is important key that is understood why PSP masonry methods have some distinctive features. Especially, the processing and masonry techniques of PSP, it is possible to see the features obtained rapidly during construction.
The apse vault used in Sens Cathedral unites a part of the sexpartite vault system leading up to it and was designed to create uniform pier intervals of both straight and curved areas of the grand arcades. Such a vault system can only be constructed at the same time as the positioning of the grand arcade piers. This constraint proves that the rib-vaulting for Sens cathedral had been intended from the starting point of its construction, i.e., around 1140. By introducing round-pier structures into the central nave, Sens Cathedral produced not only a regular alternation of round and compound piers but also a united series of sexpartite vaults and an apse vault with uniformed pier intervals.
The drawings as critical information for ancient Roman study often include some mistakes or divergence. A large difference was confirmed when the map of Pompeii and Ostia, the drawings of floor mosaics and the plans of houses were compared to the drawings produced by a laser scanner. These incorrect records and drawings could eventually lead us to not only loss of new study opportunity but also incorrect study results. The existing mosaic plans could be recorded differently due to a prejudiced impression and the plans might be completed as they are supposed to be in a restored drawing. In the plan of Insula IX of Regio III, the thickness of a half number of walls is recorded differently and the locations of the center line of the walls are partially unmatched. An existing surveying method would easily be reflected by consciousness of a surveyor.
This paper studies the results and issues of the architectural proposal system, to select the architects by the architectural department of Sapporo City, arising from the survey of the participants' presentation methods and opinions. The following 4 issues may be cricical; 1) Information disclosure to the participants (architects) and public is not sufficient. 2) Equity and transparency are not shown satisfactly in the selection criteria. 3) While the evaluations criteria are not disclosed, the presentation has become like architectrural competitions. 4) The particitation is a burden on the architects unfamiliar to the proposal system by the Sapporo City.
This study aims to clarify the types of composition in the editorial order of the photographs on architectural magazines. To achievethis aim, this study set the focus to 118 columns which is showing Japanese contemporary houses and analyzed these columns with viewing from the character of photograph on each page, the number of photograph and the size of photograph on each page. By these analyses, this study found out 1) 2 types of editorial order meanings that is concerned to the character of photograph oneach set of pages, 2) 3 types of editorial order meanings that is concerned to the number of photograph on each set of pages and 3) 2 types of editorial order meanings that is concerned to the size of photograph on each set of pages. As the conclusion of this study, all types that are interpreted by above analyses are integrated to the typical 10 types of composition in the editorial order of the photographs on architectural magazines.
This is a case study on individual reclamation in Kanagawa-shuku, aimed at understanding of the character of waterfront life and construction around coastline in the early modern period. The living space in Kanagawa-shuku has three-layered elements; firm land, new ground reclaimed from the sea and the sea by the coastline. People have been making the ground around the coastline gradually with the intention to use the waterside spaciously. At the same time, the ground around the coastline grew naturally with deposition and it was often washed away by storm or wild wave. The coastline had changed both naturally and artificially. It indicates that waterside development in the early modern period was strongly limited by natural condition and people made the most of the ground growing naturally, in order to improve their living space.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the components of new industrial city planning and land development in the Bansyu Coastal Industrial Zone during WWII using Hirohata, Aboshi, and Takasago as case examples. In this paper, landfill projects, building of wide-ranging roads, and land reallocation projects at each city will be reviewed according to the official city plan. Full-scale industrialization in the Bansyu area began with the Hirohata Steel Works in 1934. This plant site development method was used for the landfill projects planned in Hirohata, Aboshi and Takasago. Meanwhile, the Public Body Enforcement Land Readjustment Project was used as the standard for building wide-ranging roads. At Hirohata, they built wide roads to serve as fire lines to support air defense and allocated schools and parks properly in each urban block. Consequently, the contents of the plan were found to be similar to a neighborhood unit.
This study is the second paper of “Indoor environment in cultural property buildings and aging of panel paintings—The case of Kobuntei-okugoten in Kairakuen—”. Sounji Hondo is a religious facility, what has been used basically closed. On the progress of the panel paintings of the aging, the difference of indoor environment on two buildings can be considered with different use. Comparative study on both conditions, is indispensable to the elucidation of degradation damage factors of wall paintings. In Sounji Hondo, human damage caused by the use than indoor environmental change was seen big. Still it can be said that the progress of deterioration damage in recent years is small when considering the historically received influence
Architectural spaces can be divided into smaller spaces such as, but not limited to living rooms, entrance, and corridor. Then, a room connectivity graph can be constructed. However, a robust algorithm to construct the graph from a shape of architectural space has not been established. Before constructing the room connectivity graph, specifying dividing lines and occluding edges corresponding to the lines are needed. In this paper, We propose a method to discriminate occluding edges which are corresponding to the divisions from others such as a tiny relieves or decorations. Compared to previous method, Our method is robust against the addition of trivial vertices, or orientation of vertices of shapes. Using our method, true positive rate of the discrimination is 86%, and true negative rate is 85%.