In recent years, the number of shared houses in Japan has been increasing, but in 2013 some offering poor living environment appeared and action by the legal system have been made. Along with it, it appeared private organizations which create standards for housing standard of shared houses, and in October 2017 the government also set standards relative to housing standard of shared houses in the new safety net system.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual state of shared houses operated in Japan focusing on the spatial elements relative to housing standards. And through the comparison between the local standards of government and private organizations for housing standard, verifying the possibility of spreading shared houses utilizing existing stocks.
In the statistical survey to grasp the actual state of the shared houses, we collected and investigated 103 cases. Also, to extract spatial elements and compile each, the area estimation method using CAD software was used.
The results are as follows.
1) The satisfaction rate of the private room area standard is lower than the total floor area standard in both the local standard set by the government and that of private organizations. Furthermore, 39.8% are cases that satisfy the standards of private organizations but do not meet the government standards. In other words, the government standard is low and it does not correspond to the actual situation of the shared house.
2) From the aggregate result of the minimum private room area, regional differences are seen in the satisfaction rate of the government standard. The satisfaction rate of Tokyo is 13.4% lower than that of the other regions.
3) As a countermeasure to standards, member companies of private associations have tended to take actions not depending on costly renovations, such as reducing the number of rooms to rent and the capacity. In addition, there is a private association which check if the applicant company meet the local standard, so that it can guarantee the housing standards of the shared houses its members provide.
4) To disseminate shared houses by utilizing the safety net system provided by the government, there are issues on the hardware side and the management side.
Therefore, as a requirement for the spread of the existing stock utilizing the new safety net system, the classification of those who need support, setting standards about area and equipment in accordance with the of building types target lessee considered to be necessary. Furthermore, it is thought necessary to provide support for operators and share information with local governments and the like, secure buildings that can be utilized as shared houses, and prepare a management system according to the physical condition of the lessee.
For centuries, traditional townhouses and their villages have succeeded to the systems which are gradually transformed by the residents' demands of the times. Unique elements exist within a village's structure, space composition and its resident's behavior in relation to the natural environment, local climate and history. Heyai, a system of sharing the gap between townhouses by extending several rooms outward. These constructions eliminate the majority of space between neighboring houses. Dashidana, on the other hand, is a multi-functional space found in fishing villages, and along with Heyai, both are vital elements for the design of townhouses in Izumozaki, Niigata.
The present study clarifies the characteristics of the spatial transformation of the townhouse focusing on Heyai, a townhouse frontage, as well as the renovation of a corridor, and Dashidana. The study examines the distribution of Heyai in relation to the frontage of the townhouse in Izumozaki. Additionally, the study analyzes the transformation of space composition and how Dashidana have been influenced by changes of the village's structure.
The following results and observations were obtained during the study.
1) Heyai, the system for sharing the gap between townhouses by extending rooms outward is common in Izumozaki. This area provides a shoe locker, Butsudan (a family altar), and a sink cabinet.
2) Gyoka (a fisher townhouse) tends to have a narrow frontage, with its Heyai mainly located on the "Kami (west)" side of Izumozaki. Alternatively, Syoka (a merchant townhouse) have wider fronts and Heyai are located on the "Shimo (east)" side of the village.
3) These townhouses possess Dashidana on the back-side, which is used as a working space for fishers, a drying space or storage. Architectural features of Dashidana such as its floor level, the texture of walls, floors and ceilings differ between fisher townhouses and townhouses owned by merchants.
4) The construction of a bypass road along the shore in approximately 1980 changed the village structure and prompted the establishment of a main entrance for visitors on the back side of the townhouse.
5) Changes in the village structure have led to a decrease in Dashidana, the renovation of the corridor floor and a change in the approach of the townhouse.
6) Visitors approach a fisher townhouse from the front or rear, however, as for a merchant townhouse, the approach is only made from the front.
7) In the case that a guest approaches from the rear of a fisher's townhouses, the townhouse whose receiving space is located on the front-side maintain the traditional way of living. Conversely, lifestyles are inverted for residents living in townhouses whose receiving space is located on the back-side.
Following the changes made to the village structure in Izumozaki, an approach from the back-side of the townhouse has become an important aspect of daily life. Moreover, there has been a transformation in the space composition related to the traditional space, Heyai, Dashidana, the renovation of the corridor floor and approach of the townhouse. The study clarified the systems in which residents of seaside townhouses have adapted to change by altering the function of certain rooms, but at the same time, maintained traditional space composition wherever possible.
It can be found many public libraries in Japan have had the tendency of providing the services supporting citizen’s learning activity and a variety of events for the enhance of multimedia uses in addidtion to book rental service since 1990s. Therefore, the planning theory specified to book reading and rental of a public library is needed to revise, corresponding to those multipurpose uses of a public library. Then, in order to establish the public library’s planning theory meeting current needs, this study pays more attentions to the spaces and the operation arranged for citizen’s multipurpose use and the relationship of them, and aims to examine the current situation of space and operation of public libraries, based on the responses from the public libraries which have managed itself for citizen’s multipurpose us. To reach this study’s goal, the questionnaire research to the public libraries (924 libraries) located within 1 km distance from s station in Japan was implemented in 2016, and 550 responses (59.5 %) were collected. As a result of intensive analyses of the responses to the questionnaire, the followings were found.
The libraries with the operation policy for stay-type have increased since the late 1990s when the direction of library planning and operation as the stay-type came to be discussed. And, based on the tendency of the responses to each question related to the question items about the spaces for the multipurpose use, firstly, two classification axes could be extracted by mathematical quantification theory class III, and secondarily, 3 types of libraries were categorized by non-hierarchy cluster analysis. Among them, the libraries of Type A are relatively spacious and seemed they can meet the variety of citizen’s use purposes. In fact, this type's libraries tend to take the stay-type policy in its operation and to prepare the spaces for citizen’s various uses and activity actually. But, even the libraries of type A tend to be likely to become the problems in the securing of budget and the establishment of the operation system for knowing citizen’s needs.
As the next step of research, based on the findings in this study, the case studies on the spaces and the operation for citizens’ multipurpose uses will be conducted carefully in order to establish the planning theory for current needs to a public library.
The rate of aging in Japan has been rising and the current rate is 27.3%. As the expectation, the rate will reach 38.4% in 2060 and the number of users of elderly care facilities will also increase in the future. Considering different spaces in the facility, common space takes an important role for the users in terms of communication and interaction. The existing research also reports that the quality of common space is closely related to the degree of satisfaction of the users and almost all of the users in day service center will spend a lot of time in common space. Based on this background, the evaluation structure of common space in day service center was investigated through the individual interviews for the users.
Material & Method
This study included 14 different types of interior photos of common space. These photos were collected from the website of each day service center in Aichi prefecture in Japan. This research was also conducted using evaluation grid method. As a first step, 46 participants (36 female and 10 male) divided interior photos into 5 groups according to their preference. Following that, each group was evaluated and the factors for the evaluation were asked until the participants stopped answering. From the result of the interview, 5 large classifications and 34 small classifications were obtained as the evaluative words. These words were analyzed by mathematical quantification theory class III and cluster analysis.
Result & Discussion
As a consequence of cluster analysis, 4 clusters were obtained. Cluster 1 needs for the functionality of space taking in Japanese style and the external environment. The feature in cluster 2 was seen as the need for the flexibility and comfort of space by the balance of equipment in space. In cluster 3, the participants require uniformity and design quality by color and material of space. Cluster 4 needs for a sense of unity and interaction realized by the arrangement of furniture and individual parts in space.
Comparing the common evaluation words in each cluster, the difference in the evaluation of calmness, brightness, and sophistication of space could be observed. In the evaluation of the calmness of space, for instance, cluster 1 evaluated the calmness from the Japanese element and cluster 2 evaluated from the homely atmosphere. On the other hand, cluster 3 evaluated the calmness from the warmness of space and cluster 4 evaluated from familiarity and relief to space. In the evaluation of brightness, cluster 1 and 3 evaluated the brightness of space from both artificial and natural right. Cluster 2 evaluated the brightness from artificial right and cluster 4 evaluated natural right. Regarding the sophistication of space, cluster 1 evaluated the sophistication from the less stuff condition and cluster 2 evaluated from the combination of furniture. Unlike cluster 1 and 2, cluster 3 evaluated the sophistication from the number and size of opening and cluster 4 evaluated from the openness of space.
As the result, 4 types of evaluation structures were revealed as the needs for "functionality", "flexibility and comfortability", "uniformity and design quality" and "a sense of unity and interaction". In further research, a similar study will be conducted on common space in different kinds of elderly care facilities such as nursing home and geriatric health services facility and those results will be compared to realize the ideal common space to improve the quality of life of users.
Falls and Injuries are a serious problem in daily life and sometimes cause to death or change in physical condition drastically, however, how and where people fall in residential area such as in the houses or on the roads are unknown. In this study, fall situation and dangerous place in daily life were clarified by analyses Ambulance Dispatch Data in Omuta City.
By using Ambulance Dispatch Data of 2016, case of falls were extracted and two analysis were conducted: comparison to public data in Tokyo and detailed analysis of Omuta’s data. In first analysis, public data related to falls of Tokyo Fire Department and fall data in Omuta except for traffic accident and disease were analyzed in order to evaluate data of Omuta. In Omuta data, exact fall cases could be taken after defining fall and using fall models and these were analyzed by each age and medical conditions after falls focus on fall places.
From first analysis, it was clarified that average age of fall in Omuta was 10 years younger than that in Tokyo and more people in Omuta fell in houses compared with Tokyo. Second, all of data in Omuta was analyzed. The number of targets were 4,769 and that of fall was 1,272. Over half of fall cases happened in houses and 60% of fall in houses happened in living room and bed room. The number of fall cases of people in 55 to 59 years old started to increase sharply and the number of 85 to 89 years old was maximum in fall cases. In fall places, highest average age of people in falls was elderly facilities, followed in order by houses, roads, public facilities and work places. In medical conditions, falls in houses tended to cause serious damage for people, on the other hand, falls on the roads tended to course mild case. There were many fall cases related to toilet and these occupied 17.2% of whole fall cases and 32.3% of falls happened in houses. In fall cases related to toilet, the number of falls in toilet, corridor and bedroom was more than that in other area. Furthermore, by analysis of fall models and places, it was clear that there were many fall cases by stumble and some barrier outside of house in lot, however, there were few cases which people got severe damage by falls outside of site.
The number of fall cases happened in houses and in living and bed rooms were largest in all cases, in addition to that, the average age of people who fell in houses were higher than that on the roads or in the facilities, so it indicated that fall prevention in houses for the elderly was urgent in the future. Especially in fall cases in houses, falls related to toilet were most important because these falls happened in toilet, on the corridor and in the bed room and tended to get severe damage for people. By using fall models, the number of falls by stumble were large outside of houses in lot, so this results indicated that there were many barriers in the garden, garage, approach to the entrance compared with other areas. On the other hand, the number of falls by external forces were large outside of houses because of traffic accident. In population aging rate, Omuta had already become 20 years future situation of Japan, thus the results of this study would apply to other cities in Japan.
Architects design buildings in consideration of constraints such as law, owner’s request, relationship with neighbors and their endurances. Compared with buildings, installations have less constraints and are characterized by space expression with high degree of freedom and carefully selected elements. Therefore, principles such as the features of the element and the mechanism of composition appear prominently on works. In this research, the objective is to reveal how architects perceives and realizes principles when architects perform creative activities by analyzing the text description on the installation works, which prominently expresses the principle caught by the architect.
The flow of this research is as below:
1. Subject of this research is 931 samples from the text description on the installation works produced by architects that refer to original creation for a principle focused by the architect in architectural magazine “Shinkenchiku” and Italian architecture and design magazine “domus”.
2. Extract the sentences that contain words: Medium of Principle, Disposition of Principle and Action of Principle. Medium of Principle is the word described as element having the principle focused on by the architect. Disposition of Principle is the word described as role and state inherent in the Medium of Principle. Action of Principle is the word described as motion and behavior of the Medium of Principle.
3. Analyze and consider correspondence relationships between Medium of Principle and Disposition of Principle, and Medium of Principle and Action of Principle.
4. Based on the tendencies of correspondence analysis, frameworks of semantic contents of the principles are derived. By using them to make a matrix to identify aspects of principle of creation and categorize them into types to provide insights and draw conclusions.
Through the investigation of the matrix between Medium of Principle, Disposition of Principle and Action of Principle, 24 typical aspects of principle of creation in text description on installations were derived.
From these, the architect set the purpose of the installations for the three stages of his own thought, creation of space and experience of space, and found the possibility of development of creation.
As a way of utilizing the principle, the architect finds the aspects of works by principle such as work by the principle itself and realization of latent principle. In addition, the architect finds aspects of the principle born by the works such as the principles born as a result and the principles through the construction process. The architect utilized the value of the found principle from these two aspects.
From the 24 typical aspects obtained, how the principles relate to architectural creation is examined. It reveals groups of semantic contents with the themes of unique concepts in architecture that could exist behind and around the 24 typical aspects. As a result, six themes as the principle of building creation were found; artificiality and nature, surrounding environment, existence of building, strength, construction, human emotions. Therefore, we can say that there exists the correlation between architectural thought and method to materialize the principle. This is thought to be an important guideline for future creative activities by architects.
When designing buildings, architectural designers interpret elements from Chinese civilization, such as China's ancient literature, Chinese metaphysics, Chinese paintings and the theory of Confucianism to form buildings in a direct or abstract manner. The latent "Chineseness" exist in buildings created from the interpretation of such elements. Therefore, the latent "Chineseness" of buildings is shown in various aspects and could be recognized in the text description of buildings. In this research, the objective is to reveal how architectural designers envision "Chineseness" in their design processes and embody it in buildings through analyzing the text descriptions of the architectural designers.
The flow of this research is as below:
1. The subject of this research is 1,090 samples from the text descriptions that architectural designers refer to "Chineseness" in the architectural magazine, Architectural Journal (Jianzhuxuebao) during 2000-2017.
2. Extract the sentences that contain words: Typical Chinese Element, Disposition, Building Component and Operation. Typical Chinese Element is the word that indicates objects and events as Chineseness. Disposition is the word attributes of Typical Chinese Element. Building Component is the word of architectural components or materials reflecting Chineseness. Operation is the word described as the act to Building Component by architectural designers.
3. Analyze and unscramble correspondence relationships between Typical Chinese Element and Disposition, Building Component and Operation.
4. Based on the tendencies of correspondence analysis, frameworks of semantic content are derived. Using the tendencies to make a matrix to identify aspects of "Chineseness", categorize the subject into types and provide insights of them to derive the conclusion.
Through the investigation of the matrix between Typical Chinese Element, Deposition, Building Component and Operation, 23 different types of polymorphism of "Chineseness" were derived. From the viewpoint of Chinese civilization, these types show 6 aspects: the aspect of introverted characteristic, the aspect of the influence from ancient theories and regulations such as Chinese metaphysics and etiquette, the aspect of narration which could not be understood by a glance, the aspect of embedding feelings in ancestor's heritages, the aspect of expounding of shapes, and the aspect of respecting and following the ancestor's traditions.
Consequently, it could be said that the architectural designers extracted "Chineseness" from behavior, the imagination to the ideal life, theories and thoughts, and physical objects in the history of Chinese civilization, and endued them to contemporary buildings in a new form via operations related to the visual effect of buildings, or spatial operations that aim to induce certain user experience and ambiance. Furthermore, it could also be said that the act itself shown a feature of Chinese civilization, which means that the "Chineseness" appears not only in the substantial buildings but also in the design processes. Overall, it revealed that the architectural designers consider the building as a medium to express and keep in conversation the uniqueness of the cultural and intellectual heritage to impart the story of the once glorious civilization.
The objective of this paper is to quantify the room shape in terms of visibility of a visual target within the room, thus finally to obtain the optimal room shape. A wide variety of visual targets are envisaged, such as a blackboard within a classroom, a stage in a theater, or a painting in a gallery. Their common point is that they are so important that their visibility impacts the room shape. In order to obtain planning guidelines of various rooms with various visual targets, the visibility theory is developed in both a unified and a deductive way. In concrete terms, (i) A reasonable function for expressing “point-visibility” is proposed from an arbitrary viewpoint. The proposed formula not only is understandable intuitively and operational, but represents generalization of approximation equation for the solid angle of the visual target. (ii) Next, a reasonable method of aggregating point-visibility is proposed. Therefore “area-visibility” as a value for evaluating the space as a whole is derived, doubly integrating the p-th power of point-visibility. Area-visibility can be used to evaluate both classrooms that need equality among students by focusing bad view areas, and galleries where the visitor can determine the viewing position by focusing good view areas. (iii) Finally, the optimal room shape is derived in which area-visibility is maximized. Here, we obtain the optimal aspect ratio of a rectangular plan room where the visual target is on one wall.
Through the process described above, this paper is successful in clearly describing area-visibility as the formula containing three parameters and obtaining the relationship between these values and optimal room shapes. These three consist of the two parameters derived from the point-visibility function（negative impact α when viewing the target at an angle, and negative impact β when viewing the target far away）, and one parameter introduced when aggregating point-visibility (degree of inequality p in the visibility distribution).
This means that “α and β representing human eyesight” and “p depending on rooms’ usage” can be directly linked to an “evaluation value of room shape known as area-visibility”, and thus the “optimal shape of the room”. In other words, once the preconditions are determined, we can obtain information immediately that is useful for planning and design. In consequence, this is considered to be valid knowledge that allows the visibility evaluation that previously was carried out based on experience to be performed objectively.
This study clarified the actual conditions of housing education and the housing education skills by comparison of school type.
The main findings are as follows.
1) The percentage of hours of classes in the housing education is about 10% of the whole and less than in other educational fields. Junior high school is about 3 hours more than high school, but both junior high school teachers and high school teachers think that it is not enough in the present situation, and the teacher thinks that the ideal number of class hours is required 3 to 5 hours more than the current situation.
2) The number of items to be implemented in the class content is about 2 more items for junior high school than for high school. In junior high school there are many basic class contents. In high school there are relatively many developmental and professional class contents. Many of the junior high school teachers and high school teachers think that it is difficult to implement even though they think the developmental and professional class contents are necessary.
3) The number of items offered by the teaching method is higher in junior high school than in high school. In junior high school there are relatively many students' subjective and experiential teaching methods such as active learning.
4) Home economics teaching years and the times of participate in workshops for housing has junior high school less than high school, and the number of credits for housing education is almost the same.
5) Teacher's educational confidence is high in food education, clothing education, childcare education, low housing education. Skill in class content and skill in teaching method is higher for junior high school than for high school. Especially in junior high school there are high skill in teaching method, in addition, there are many things that both skill in class content and skill in teaching method are high.
6) Both in junior high school and high school, educational outcomes is higher as the confidence of housing education and housing education skills are higher, Therefore, the housing education skills defined in this research is effective for regulating teacher's housing education skills both in junior high school and high school. Because of the differences in curriculum, the number of items of class content and teaching method implementation is higher in junior high school than in high school, and housing education skills are better than high school than junior high school. Therefore, when comparing over the school type with the definition of the same housing education skills, we must pay attention to the number of years of home economics teaching that affects housing education skills, the times of participate in workshops for housing, and the number of credits for housing education subjects.
7) Teacher's important awareness of housing education and participate in workshops for housing is higher for high school than junior high school, and evaluation of housing educational environment is very dissatisfied in both junior high school and high school. Participation intention of non-participation in housing education training is higher as the housing education skills is lower, and both junior and senior high schools are not specialized in home economics, 0 times of training, less than 4 credits, and intention not to participate with non-affirmative teachers of housing and living environment consciousness.
8) A higher awareness of positive affirmation of housing and living environments for teachers with higher confidence of housing education and higher housing education skills. Confidence and housing education skills and these awareness improvements are interrelated.
The theory of psychological ownership (PO) of ethnobotanical (ETB) plants in sustainable tourism for social-ecological revitalization was studied in Irouzaki, Japan with two objectives: to study PO of residents regarding local ETB plants; and to study the current state of and locals’ ideas for ETBs in the theory. Review, workshops, interviews and action research were done. Results showed limited PO of tropical and native ETBs due to modern life and local depression. Although the connection to landscape is currently low, the locals want to use ETBs for deeper connection with the landscape and culture, and to create a brand identity.
By the development of motorization and increasing of population, sprawling the urban area and concentration of population to downtown became problems. The Area Division System (ADS) was enacted to respond to this problem in 1968. However, there are local cities where the operation of the ADS is an obstacle to revitalizing urban areas.
As the City Planning Act was revised, the ADS became selectivity by the local government. By abolishing the ADS, there are local governments that can control land use considering the actual situation of each region. However, due to the abolishing the ADS, it has been pointed out the urban structure will become more sprawling.
New problems such as increasing of the vacant lot and vacant house by the decline of the city, hollowing out of central city area, and pressure on municipal finance are pointed out due to the shift to decreasing birthrate and aging of the population society.
To construct an urban structure that responds to these problems, the Act on Special Measures concerning Urban Reconstruction was revised in 2014. Guidelines for establishing the Location Normalization Plan had been developed based on the idea of "Compact City plus Network" which is medical, welfare facility, commercial facility and residents are collectively located, and residents including elderly people can access these living convenience facilities by public transportation.
In this study, the target is governments that abolishing the ADS and formulated plans for site location optimization, considering the area where urban structure sprawl is progressing due to abolishing the ADS, make the population concentration tool that can examine the future urban structure, and build concentration urban structure model. We aim to examine the realistic future urban structure that local city should target in the future.
The results are as follows.
(1) As a result of building the future estimated population based on the population before the abolishing ADS and the future estimated population based on the population after abolishing the ADS, the future estimated population based on the population after abolishing the ADS has more than the future estimated population based on the population before the abolishing ADS. Even though the increase in population corresponds to the purpose of abolishing the ADS, the result of the model indicates the possibility of urban sprawl by decreasing population in the Use District and increasing population in the outside area of the Use District.
(2) As a result of the construction of concentration urban structure model with consideration of sprawling by the abolishing the ADS, the compact urban structure with a moderate population is constructed.
(3) According to two types of concentration urban structure model (with or without consideration of suburban sprawl), a result of the model without consideration of suburban sprawl showed the dotted distribution of the population in suburban areas. On the other hand, the model with consideration of suburban sprawl showed the urban structure which population concentrated in the meshes near the boundary of the Use District.
This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of the change in the appearance of the streets and the spatial composition of Shinbashi Street, Gion-Shinbashi district of Kyoto.
We proposed a method for quantitatively analyzing by extracting the occluding edges and the elements that appeared using a 3D-model created by CAD software. The viewpoints were arranged on Shinbashi Street in every 1.8 m, and the number of elements that appeared and their change by type were analyzed for a total of 80 viewpoints. The findings are as follows:
Viewpoints where three or more elements were appeared, the elements were appeared from behind protruding into the street, appearing the entrance of shops or alleys. At that time, the peculiar elements that didn’t appear in other places could be seen. These elements were often seen on the north side; the townscape had a space composition that greatly changed its appearance and revealed the peculiarity of some of the elements.
Lattice doors and walls, which are building elements comprising the entrance of townhouses and alleys, appeared more than 25 times from the 80 viewpoints implying these elements appeared frequently.
Next, distances from the viewpoints to the occluding edges and the elements that appeared were measured; in addition, types of combination of occluding edge and types of elements were analyzed. Those tendencies were as follows:
Four types of combinations of occluding edges were found. Among them, occluding edges |: are those only in the vertical direction; ⊥: are combinations of occluding edges in the vertical direction and the moving direction, which are the main combinations. On both sides of the street are areas where townhouses have/don’t have komayose, and the main occluding edge combinations also change at the change point between these areas.
From the wall side of the renovated buildings on the north side of the street, or the wing wall separating the entrance of the alley and the neighboring house, and from the projecting lattice window in front of the townhouse that operates a store, multiple elements appear five or more viewpoints. In other words, these areas cause significant changes in the appearance of the streets because different elements appear from the distant viewpoint to the nearby viewpoint.
Many elements appear from the back of the wing wall or the projecting lattice window and the komayose. However, when elements appear from the back of only the wall, since it cannot be seen in a traditional townhouse, walls that overhang the streets of the reconstructed building are heterogeneous for traditional townscapes. Furthermore, in adjacent two townhouses, which are built around the area, meters are placed behind the projecting lattice window, and they appear in the nearby viewpoint while walking.
Finally, targeting a combination of 48 occluding edges where an element appears, the appearance patterns of elements were classified. Furthermore, by the arrangement patterns of the edges and the elements that appeared in each appearance patterns, we clarified the following.
Cases where only one element appears and cases where multiple elements appear from multiple viewpoints are the main appearance patterns. In the case of a continuous appearance, the elements arranged on the far side of the street and dispersedly arranged with respect to the moving direction. Furthermore, since the building elements and the arrangement elements are mixed in many cases, the size of the elements also varies.
There are few cases where the arrangement elements occasionally appear from occluding edges ⊥, and therefore, these elements are placed higher than the komayose.
In recent years, environmental problems, especially garbage (general waste) problems are getting worse as urban development progresses. According to the statistics of the Ministry of the Environment of Waste and Recycling Countermeasures Department of the Waste Management Division of the 47 prefectures, the amount of garbage discharge per person per day in Nagano Prefecture has been low for 2 consecutive years from 2014 to 2015. It is ranked first for the least amount of garbage in the country.
Environmental conservation activities in this research refer to those activities such as reduction of waste (general waste), treatment and recycling. In order to promote the formation of a recycling-based society, it is necessary to clarify the actual situation of environmental conservation activities by civic cooperation in Nagano Prefecture. Although there are many previous studies on civic cooperation, environmental conservation activities, but there is no comparison and analysis of the actual situation of environmental conservation activities by civic cooperation for all municipalities in one prefecture. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire survey on the actual situation of environmental conservation activities by civic cooperation in Nagano prefecture to administrative officials concerning environmental conservation of 77 municipalities in Nagano prefecture.
Findings: 1) The municipalities groups in Nagano prefecture, which engage in the preservation of the environment by government-led& citizen participation scheme and citizen group-led& citizen participation scheme, show a tendency of drastically decreased amount of waste reduction. 2) The contents of environmental preservation activities implemented in regional collaboration are mainly concerned with conservation of rivers 3) Reducing household waste reduction is more effective than reducing garbage in business community.
Issues: 1) City and town have many types of environmental preservation activities than village 2) More than half of municipalities are ungrasping about the result of activities 3) Nearly 30% of municipalities feel that human resource development is necessary with cooperation partners.
To plan for activities that foreigners can easily participate in the future, we must devise measures to improve awareness of the environmental issues among foreigners and motivate them for more participation.
In this study, we examine the process for dealing with the earthquake ruins in Miyagi prefecture caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, including the preservation, removal, and maintenance of the ruins. For this purpose, we analyzed 21 earthquake ruins, extracted 30 elements of the maintenance process, and created appropriate labels. We created time series charts and flowcharts, and extracted four stages of the preserved earthquake ruins: (a) the treatment decision stage, (b) the basic concepts stage, (c) the design stage, and (d) the operation stage. In cases where ruins were not preserved, they were divided into “inverted” and “exclusion” types.
Based on the events that occurred during the maintenance of the earthquake ruins, the time following the earthquake’s occurrence was divided into three periods: pioneering, consideration, and implementation. During the pioneering period, it was decided that the police station in Onagawa Town would be preserved as an earthquake ruin, and that a fishing vessel in Kesennuma City would be dismantled. Toward the end of this period, the government decided to support the initial cost of earthquake ruin preservation. During the consideration period, many municipalities discussed and decided on the treatment of earthquake ruins, such as preservation or removal. During this period, municipalities held a conference with earthquake ruin experts, in which each municipality decided to preserve their ruins in accordance with the values noted by experts. Finally, during the implementation period, the municipalities performed concrete reviews of the preservation and management measures. When reviewing these cases, the opinions of citizens were considered as to whether the ruins should be preserved or not. Subsequently, we focused on the citizens’ opinions in the maintenance process and organized their contents, methods, objects, dates, and so on.
Among the 37 opinions, 83% were compiled by the municipalities, while the remaining 17% were spontaneously submitted by the citizens. We created the labels “Earthquake tradition,” “Candidate selection,” and “Treatment of preservation/dismantlement, etc.” to classify these opinions. Further, there were opinions on utilization methods based on earthquake ruin preservation plans, which we labeled as “Proposal for preservation and utilization” or “Draft policy for preservation and utilization.” For the relationship between opinion content and treatment decision, we used the labels “Majority in favor of preservation” and “Preservation requested.” When preservation was excluded, the labels were “Majority oppose preservation” and “Opinion unknown,” which almost agree with “inverted” and “exclusion” types, respectively.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that in the maintenance process of earthquake ruins, municipalities were the fundamental entity. We suggest that citizens’ opinions and the advice provided by experts may help establish a consensus on administrative decision-making for earthquake ruin preservation in a step-by-step manner. Moreover, we clarified that the treatment decision is decided based on the intention of a majority opinion from citizens. We believe there is a possibility that citizen participation at the decision-making stage may affect the design or operation stage. Further research on the relationship between earthquake ruins and citizen opinion is required to facilitate sustainable management in cooperation with citizens.
With diversification of the household structure, it is becoming an important issue to help housing distress people obtain housing. In addition to public housing, private rental houses are included in housing safety net, but restricting occupancy of single elderly people are not uncommon in private rental houses. In order to resolve the concerns of the landlord, it is important not only to find housing, but also to provide housing support to keep in touch with the seniors for monitoring their health situations and taking care of possible emergencies.
Objective and Method
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual conditions of housing support provided to single elderly people by social welfare corporations and property management companies. Although it is difficult to secure organization who provide housing support, collaboration between social welfare corporation and property management company found in any region can be applied to other cities well enough. So 383 consultants and 67 contractors managed in Kyoto City were examined to grasp the outline of the contractors and the characteristics of housing support.
Some results show as follows:
1) There is a difference in age and care-need between male and female contractors, but old-old accounted for 60% of the total, and the effects of housing support are seen to some extent. Regarding the reasons of moving, emergency correspondence is the most, but there are many cases where diverse and complex factors are lurking including disability and abuse.
2) "Narrow, old and inexpensive" can be cited as a feature of contractors' houses after moving. And more than half of the public-assistance non-recipients rent the same level as the public-assistance recipients, and they tend to keep the rent low by choosing a house with small area.
3) Housing support before the moving is shared between social welfare corporation and property management company, but housing support after the moving is made mainly by social welfare corporation. The periodical confirmation and the movement to the contractors' houses account for majority of the time required for housing support after the moving. However the traveling time is only about 15 minutes/week, because the contractors' houses are located near to the base facilities.
4) For the reduction of burden on staff and sustainable implementation of housing support, some social welfare corporations have been reviewing such as "interviewing when using day-care services", "using non-professionals" and "decentralization of base facility".
After the Act on Special Measures to Forward Municipalities' Moves for Vacant houses was enacted in November 2014, local municipalities started to actively advance measures for vacant houses, which had become a social problem. However, no fundamental solution has been identified for problems regarding vacant houses. Many municipalities are considering their policies and investigating the actual conditions on a trial-and-error basis. In this study, we identify the actual distribution of vacant houses based on the result of field survey in Maebashi City. We also examine the necessity of regional sectioning based on the ratio of vacant houses to take effective measures in a local city based on the survey result.
As a result, for Maebashi City, the population aging rate and population density can be used as indices to identify the trend of the rate of change in number of vacant houses from the city center to the suburban area. Most local cities are expected to show a similar aspect because they experience similar issues of aging and decrease in population to those in Maebashi City. The number of vacant houses does not increase unless the resident leaves, even if aging is advanced. The transfer of the resident to a home for the aged and the death of a single resident occur with high probabilities in areas with high population aging rates. Therefore, it is expected that the resident is not replaced to make the house vacant, and the rate of change in number of vacant houses increases especially in an area with low population density.
In this study, we sectioned Maebashi City into 4 concentric areas of "Central Business District (CBD)", "Inner city", "Suburbs" and "Outer suburbs", based on which we established a model to verify the necessity of regional sectioning in a local city and propose favorable measures for the problem regarding vacant houses for each area.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of spatial structures of Okura-syo owned by the Kumamoto Domain in the Edo Period. This study highlighted that three buildings of Okura remain in current Kumamoto prefecture, and some Okura-syo had the Yard for placing the straw bag of rice as well. The Yard was an outside storehouse to keep the straw bag of rice collected. Due to abolition of the Jikatachigyo system where lands were given to the Domain vassals so that they could collect their salary from such lands in 1680, the need of Okura arose and the scale of Okura-syo was expanded.
Chapter 2: The previous studies and the procedure were shown. The study on Ochaya also referred to Okura-syo as some Okura-syo were established with Ochaya, Domain's accommodation for rest and stay. In addition, in view of the partial remaining of stone buildings such as the Yard, a scope of Okura-syo in the site was considered.
Chapter 3: The Okura-syo for which consideration on spatial structures is available were found in two castles and five towns/villages. First, the formation process, components of spatial structures and facts were shown respectively. Kawashiri-machi had three Okura-syo, of which "Higashigura" and "Nakagura" as well as Ochaya formed the external enclosure. Each Okura-syo had the internal enclosure. Also in Takase-machi, Ochaya, the Okura group and the Yard formed the external enclosure. However, the Okura group did not have the internal enclosure. Many Okura-syo with only one building of Okura were found as well, and the scale of such Okura was large. Okura-syo at a river port had the unique spatial structures. First, the main Okura stood with its gable side facing to a river. Second, there were some Kura standing opposite each other without sharing the gardens, where the straw bags of rice were piled up for storage.
Next, the types of the building arrangement were considered by comparing with the Kaga Domain with large fiefdom. The Kumamoto Domain had only a few parallel types and enclosure types that were often seen in Okura-syo of the Kaga Domain. On the other hand, the study found many Okura-syo without having any type of arrangement: (i) the Okura-syo with only one building of Okura, and (ii) the Okura-syo with more than one Okura but arranged in disorder. Finally, the formation factors of the above were considered. For the first one, the existence of the Yard and increased scale of Okura can be the factors. For the second one, the sharing of the space was not necessary for each Kura. The Okura-syo at a river port had the spatial structures where each place for storage of goods such as the Yard, garden and Okura linked to the port.
Chapter 4: In the end, the conclusion of this study was stated. In the case of the Kumamoto Domain, many Okura-syo did not have a building arrangement, and their spatial structures were different from other Okura-syo in the heavy snowfall region in Japan. One of the factors has been found that they could use the outside space for a storage of the straw bag of rice.
This paper clarifies the characteristics of Masaru Sekino’s “national housing” theory targeting Chapter 9 “National Housing” of Sekino’s book A Short History of Japanese House, the draft plan “Japanese Housing Development Model”, as well as “Housing Style Model” recorded in the conference presentation, “Fundamental Problems in Japanese Housing Styles”. The following characteristics were identified in the “national housing” theory seen in Sekino’s A Short History of Japanese House.
Sekino wrote A Short History of Japanese House in order to have a correct perspective of history so as to establish a housing policy aimed at eliminating the growing housing problems. As per the “development model” shown in it, “national housing” is positioned as the ultimate goal of housing architecture development. This “national housing’ is different from the meaning of “national housing” talked about during the war.
Chapter 9 “National Housing’ of the A Short History of Japanese House depicts the process of the resolution of various problems including earthquake resistance and fire prevention, adaptation to the Japanese climate, and seating style and practical floor planning issues, through the acceptance of Western housing after the Meiji Restoration, and positions “national housing” as the ultimate goal of such housing architecture development. At the same time, it discusses the importance of exploring ideal housing architecture widely accessible to the common people and that goes beyond conventional housing architecture mainly targeting the wealthy. Further, it also notes that it is an issue to be considered in the context of its connection with urban planning and housing policy.
The content of descriptions in the conclusion, or the “development model” shown therein, present an overview of the history of Japanese housing and making it a model while emphasizing the importance of capitalizing on the “old, early traditions” in a “new spirit”. It is noted that it is through this attitude that the ideal future housing development will be actualized. Further, in the “development model” as well, “national housing” is positioned as the ideal form of housing development. It is considered that “national housing” corresponds to the three top aspects of culture, nature, and society, and it consists of independent houses, rural houses, and urban housing.
In the conclusions of Chapter 9 of the A Short History of Japanese House, “national housing” is described as the core, and if one compares it with chaptering according to systems up to Chapter 8, the content of the descriptions is different. It can be considered that there was an intention to reinforce the discussion of national housing which became active during the war from a historical viewpoint. However, with respect to the concerned portions, even given the post-war reforms, no major reforms were made. From this as well, it can be considered that “national housing”, considered to be a product of the wartime regime, was regarded, at least by Sekino, to be a problem that continued after the war. Here, one can recognize the need for examining the housing issue of “national housing” not just as a wartime issue but also as a problem that continued after the war.
The Teikoku-Kogyo-Kaisya was one of the construction companies that was approved to be established in September 1887, following the Nippon-Doboku-Kaisya (Japan civil engineering company) founded in March 1887. At that time, our country was in the rise of modern industries, and the organization responsible for rapidly large-scale civil engineering and construction work was socially requested. This company was noted as one of the large construction companies at that time. This company had received evaluation that it was finished in a short period of time with some achievements, although the company had large local companies in the local industry and the public works which the incorporators worked were also large, but the actual situation is It is not clear.
The Teikoku-Kogyo-Kaisya was also the builder of the Naniwa Spinning which J. Condor conducted the investigation after Nobi earthquake. This article aimed to clarify the history of the company by showing the process of dissolution from the application for establishment of an imperial industrial company which had not been previously known. The Teikoku-Kogyo-Kaisya as its predecessor, in July 1887 filed applications for a company to be The Teikoku-Kouhu-Kaisya with a capital of 100,000 yen, and the company filed as the Teikoku-Kogyo-Kaisya on September 14, 1887, and permission was given on the 16th. In addition, this was recognized to be foundation time of the company in the statistics documents. However, in this company, the dispute occurred after approval in January 1888, the promoters since its establishment have been wiped out and replaced with members of Maejima Hisoka. The Teikoku-Kogyo-Kaisya was inaugurated in March 1888, and Hasegawa Yosimiti was appointed as the first president. Several internal trouble were caused after the establishment in this company, the company was divided in July, 1889. And, in a general meeting of November 16, 1890, the company decided dissolution.
The author shows that J. Condor has traveled to the afflicted area after the Nobi earthquake occurred on October 28, 1891., he posted a survey report from the site on "The Japan Weekly Mail.", and later summarized it in "AN ARCHITECT'S NOTES ON THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1891." (herein after referred to as "NOTES"). He progressed to Nagoya, Gifu, Neo Valley, Ogaki and Osaka as research sites in the disaster area of the Nobi earthquake. This article aims to clarify the building year of the building and the character of the building about “Kankouba” in Nagoya where Condor visited. No research on this building has been seen in the past, and the following points are obvious.
Condor said that in Nagoya's townhouse, the building called brickwork had been seriously damaged, among them, he reported the afflicted situation of Kankouba. Condor described the plane, the damage situation, the reason for the damage, about this building, and he called it Aichi-Kankouba. However, the damaged Kankouba in Nagoya, it was built in the east side of the former Tamaya-tyo 4 tyome, behind Nakamura-ya, this one built in 1889 suffered tremendous damage, and two photos were transmitted about this. The Kankouba that satisfied the conditions of location and construction year was Anei-kan. From the two photos, we can confirm that the third floor of wooden structure was set up on the brick upstairs. It is thought that Condor did not report this third layer because it was already finished cleaning up the third floor part.
In this study, we analyze the transition process of the pyramid temple leading up to Angkor Wat erected in early 12th century in Khmer Architecture. The purpose of this study is to understand the composition of the temple complex and the method of construction in each era by verifying the relations between the foundation and the building.
An architectural book and a ruler of the Angkor period are unknown. Therefore, the inspection of the layout plan of the temple complex has been performed using the grid division found in Indian architecture books as reference. In this study, we focus on the differences between the master plan in Indian architecture books and the arrangement of the building in actual construction.
In this paper, we discuss positional relationship between the foundation and the building in Ta Kev constructed around 11th century. Assuming the datum point in the construction process as previously reported, we performed numerical inspection to derive the relationships between the foundation and the building based on the point. We found that the relationship greatly differed from those found in the previous two temple complexes.
In the previous temples, the north-south axis did not intersect perpendicularly with the east-west axis. The method of the layout building in the lower foundation changed to the layout related the foundation. However, in the upper foundation, the method arranged based on the main sanctuary were inherited.
In Ta Kev, the east-west axis and the north-south axis intersect perpendicularly. The lower foundation is arranged based on the main sanctuary and the upper foundation is arranged based on the lower foundation.
Through this study, we clarify the method of relating each part with a circle that was used in the center of the temple until then is used in the whole area of Ta Kev.
The present paper examines the building phases of the theatre at Messene. It describes how the theatre experienced three major periods of building spanning the early Hellenistic to Roman Imperial periods; Hellenistic theatre period as the wooden mobile scene building and the later stone skene and proskenion building, Roman theatre period as the marble scaenae frons and its destruction and repair, and post-theatre period as a quarry. Each construction activity included reusing materials from the previous structure. Through this study, part of the life of the Messene theatre as a public building in mainland Greece is revealed.
Le Corbusier’s Modulor is a theory of dimension and scale for architects. The Modulor replaced the dimensional standards, principles of Purism, and tracés régulateurs used in achieving the “machine aesthetic” advocated by Le Corbusier during the 1920s, and it brought harmony to both the interior and exterior of buildings such as the postwar Unité d’Habitation in Marseille, the Cabanon, and works of religious architecture.
Why does the Modulor’s human figure raise its left arm? Despite the wide dissemination of this distinctive posture and physique, what role the human figure played in the Modulor research, and what it brings to the theory, remains unknown. The human figure in the Modulor is not merely a diagram or explanation of the theory, but also at the heart of the theory. In this paper, by tracing mutual adjustments between theory and bodily expression (part and posture) at each stage of the formation of the theory, we argue that there was a deliberate transition in graphic representation. Next, the freedom of behavior attained by the Modulor's “arm-raising body” in comparison with the “mechanical body” of modern aesthetics, mathematicians and architects, was a criticism of the efficiency of diagrammatic representations of the human body.
The standards that motivated the Modulor research arose from the modern knowledge that supported mass production and allowed its distribution across languages and national boundaries. It is shared by Le Corbusier's advocacy of “machines for living” and his artistic movement Purism, as well as modern art in general, including the Bauhaus and other architectural movements. But under the “total warfare” policy of the Nazi regime in Germany, Neufert-based standards were adopted not only in ordinary mass housing, but also for maximum efficiency in the planning of concentration camps, and for forced labor by national prisoners of war. The expression of the body in the Modulor made diverse and free behavior possible through a relaxation of the whole body. The posture of raising the right arm indicates the height of the space unavailable for labor/production. Such a posture is irrelevant to functionalist thinking and efficiency-oriented human understanding.
However, for architects it is an everyday attitude, a posture that confirms the height of the ceiling. With this posture the Modulor critiqued the mechanical body, including the Neufert body, and discovered a free space that cannot be grasped by spatial concepts and may be considered a meaningful space.
The purpose of this paper is to use these issues to clarify the function and role of the human figure in the formation of the theory of the Modulor.
The aim of this study is to clarify the rhetoric in composition of Contemporary House Architecture with Square Plan. Square have the specificity that 4 sides are equal to each other and symmetric with respected to 4 axes and also center. Firstly, [Comparison between 4sides] and [Measurement with 4axes and center] are defined as principles of Composition of House Architecture with Square plan from the specificity.
[Comparison between 4 sides] is to examine the arrangement of openings and the shape of the eaves through the four elevations of the same width. An architectural expression in elevation achieve by the relation between the elements controlled via this self-reference system. [Measurement with 4 axes and center] is to examine the arrangement of walls and the shape of roof as volume with symmetry respected to 4 axes and the center of the square. An architectural expression in plan achieve by the relation between the elements controlled via this symmetry system. As elements which these principles are applied, consider “Opening arrangement”, ”Wall arrangement”, and “Roof shape”. Roof is part of the four elevations and also element forms the volume that is the prerequisite for Wall arrangement. In this point, Roof shape is condition Opening arrangement on elevations, and also condition Wall arrangement in plan (Fig. 1).
Opening arrangement is considered from a combination of type of opening, position, and interrelations among openings (Table2, 3, 4). Wall arrangement is considered from a combination of means of division, layout as equivalence division, and position of Main room (Table5, 6, 7). Roof Shape is considered from a combination of shape of eaves and position of elements on roof (Table8, 9). Through consideration, Patterns of each element are defined (Table10, 11, 12).
Each arrangements and shapes of Elements create the relations between equal 4 sides and 4 axes given by the specificity of square. As the result of examination from this points, the relations between 4 sides and 4 axes are summarized as Fig, 3. Elements pattern in  keep 4 sides and 4 axes equal. [2o] keep only 2 opposite sides and 2 opposite axes symmetry. [2n] keep only 2 diagonal sides and 1 diagonal axis symmetry with emphasis of a corner.  keep only 3 sides and 1 opposite axis symmetry with emphasis of a midpoint. And also, Elements pattern in  with emphasis of the 4 midpoints, 4 corner and the Center are defined as [COMPLETE] arrangements and shapes.
Through examine combinations of elements patterns with , 9 composition of House Architecture with Square plan are defined (Table13. Fig4). Comparing these compositions and the composition of Villa Rotonda, the following rhetoric in composition were clarified ; [Integrity=Rotonda], [Representation by Complete Element], [Unification by a Pertial Relationship], [Controlled Difference by Complete Element] [Contrast between Pertial Relationships].(Fig. 5)
This paper is about Le Corbusier being in possession of some of photographer Eugène Atget's photos. Le Corbusier used them to illustrate urban planning concepts in his books. The focus is on the period between 1931 and 1945, roughly corresponding to the time between the two world wars. It is a period of major changes in principles of the European art world. This paper chronicles how Le Corbusier's writings and his outlook on Paris, the people, and living conditions had evolved.
First, I clarified the points of contact between Le Corbusier and the Surrealists. Then, I investigated the chronology of how Le Corbusier could have acquired Atget's photos. Atget died in 1927. Three years after that, in 1930, Atget's first photo album was released. The very same year, Le Corbusier worked with the Surrealists, such as André Breton, on the avant-garde magazine Minotaure. Two of Atget's photos were found in Le Corbusier's collection, to which I present two possible ways in which they might have been acquired:
1: Le Corbusier might have purchased the photos at Atget’s atelier while Atget was still alive.
2: Le Corbusier might have gotten the photos from the artists working on the aforementioned "Minotaure" in 1930.
I have found a reference to "Jeannuot of Dessinateurs Industrielles" on Atget's list of clients, but it is yet to be confirmed whether this person is Charles Edouard Jeanneret or Pierre Jeanneret.
Subsequently, I have verified that Le Corbusier used Atget's photos in three of his books. In "Plans No. 2" (1931), "Le Ville Radieuse" (1935), and "Le Lyrisme des Temps Nouveaux et L’Urbanisme (1939), he used some of those pictures in the chapter called “Menace sur Paris”, where he expressed his concern over the situation in Paris and described his vision of an ideal city. The pictures were combined with a sketch of “Plan Voisin”, and it can be said that they were a part of Le Corbusier's city planning concepts. In 1931, three of Atget's photos were used. I found that in 1939 only one of his photos was used, together with Le Corbusier's sketch. On the other hand, in "Précisions" (1930), only the sketch of the Plan Voisin was used, while none of Atget's photos was included. Hence, this leads me to conclude that Le Corbusier changed the attitude towards Atget's photos during this decade.
Finally, I have presented a description of the situation in Paris from 1930 to 1940, and the subsequent period until the beginning of the Second World War in France. In Paris of 1932, infectious diseases - such as cholera and tuberculosis - spread mainly around unsanitary environments, and an adjustment - based on modern ways of thinking - was necessary. Le Corbusier immersed himself in research actively and searched for a new vision for Paris. Le Corbusier aimed at an environment where humans can live healthier and more sanitary lives, and in his vision of the future there was no place for the old Paris present in Atget's photos.
This study aims to clarify the realities of city improvement in the prewar period by studying the history of devising a city plan as well as the implementation of the plan and projects other than city planning in a local city with reference to the case of Matsue City. Matsue City designated areas subject to city planning on the basis of a preparatory city planning survey. Road networks proposed in the city planning preparatory survey were not necessarily translated exactly into streets as envisioned in the city plan; however, the lakeside roads constructed survived down to the postwar period and ended up as park roads, although they were not incorporated into the official city plan. The city-planning project of Matsue City ended up with only one city-planned street being developed as a state-aided unemployment relief project. However, it is clear that the civil development plans achieved a certain degree of success as evidenced by the landfill project implemented as part of the partial rerouting of the Hii River, road improvement by central and prefectural authorities, an unemployment relief project, land readjustment of fire-damaged areas, and the forced relocation of buildings.
The Hii River project facilitated city improvement because soil dredged from the river was used as landfill to improve farmland behind Matsue Station, improve lakeside roads, and to fill in parts of the Kyobashi River. At the same time, roads were improved and the layout of city streets was altered as an unemployment project. The readjustment of reconstituted fire-damaged land in the Shoto area was implemented by a city planning association, but it was a semipublic project because the mayor of Matsue City was made president of the association and because the city bore the construction cost. The project facilitated the improvement of the city center in terms of sidewalks. A reconstruction project implemented as post-treatment of the forced relocation of buildings was the starting point for the postwar city planning of cities that were not damaged by the war, although the project was not as big as the reconstruction plan for war-damaged areas undertaken during the postwar period.
This research is a basic study on utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) by applying deep learning to the fields of architecture and urban design.
In recent years, the use of budding technologies, such as deep learning, has increased in the field of architecture and urban design. While this technology has potential in various fields, this study focuses on learning and deduction of sensibility evaluation and impression of design. Needless to say, the relationship of design with sensibility and impression is important, and the design heightens sensibility and impressions. However, the causal relationship of quantitative representation (feature value) and feature value of design with impression is complex and is characteristically difficult to deduce. Such a characteristic is a property similar to fields where deep learning has been successfully used. It is, therefore, thought that AI using deep learning could be applicable. As mentioned, this research examines the budding properties of AI that deduce “street names and desire to visit” based on city landscapes. Specifically, the “desire/no-desire to visit (classification)” and “degree of desire to visit” are deduced, and as constituents of image consciousness, street names are also classified (21 classes).
The object of the study and the city landscapes were prepared from 21 streets selected from a large city and sightseeing information. The images for city landscapes were obtained from street view on Google Earth to ensure that these images were not of any one building, ground, or sky. A total of 2,100 images, 100 for each street, were considered.
Deduction AI with high precision was first successfully developed to deduce “classification of street names (21 classes)”. Its precision was approximately 86% for the F-value with a K-coefficient of 0.8508 (p-value = 1.6e-15). Next, for the classification, deduction AI with high conformity with desire/no-desire to visit criteria of test subjects was successfully prepared. Its precision had a K-coefficient of 0.8920 (p-value = 2.2e-15). Further, for deducing degree of desire, there was little difference in the degree of desire to visit between test subjects, and AI permitting deduction with high correlation was successfully developed. For its precision, the effect size of Wilcoxon’s signed rank test (test of paired nonparametric data) was 0.18, and Spearman’s rank correlation was 0.7564 (p-value = 0.0005742). Finally, to generalize the methodology of AI using deep learning, the 95% confidence interval that considered 100 kinds of AI developed using this method was confirmed to be small. Specifically, the effect size did not exceed 0.2 (a threshold value indicating small effect size) and did not fall below 0.6 (a threshold value indicating high correlation). Under the experimental conditions of this study, the AI developed using deep learning can be described as a method that presents generality in the degree of precision.
From the perspective of the experimental conditions of the study and usage, a successful impression deduction AI for city landscapes with good precision is developed. This provides the first step in systematically organizing and investigating the hitherto unstudied budding potential of deep learning in the fields of architecture and urban design.