Greenbelt Homes, Inc. (GHI) in the US. is a housing cooperative corporation which in 1952 took over one of the 'Greenbelt Towns' developed by the Federal Government during the Great Depression. GHI, unlike most of the condominium communities, has established the rules and regulations which allow individual residents to make some external modifications to the original building (i.e. additions to the unit). This case study, based on the on-site survey, traced the transition of the management style of the built environment in GHI, and pointed out that the policy introductions of 'Addition Maintenance Program' and 'Resale Procedures' in the 1980s had played an important role in ensuring the operation of the corporation.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the estimations of living environments and intentions of housing relocation in early postwar Japanese New Towns(NT). The following are major findings. 1) Most residents are pleased with the plentiful nature that is accessible in every NT. However, the renewal method of rebuilding and sales of land entail risks that can include great changes to plentiful outdoor environments. 2) Many residents in Kozoji NT recognize the inconvenience of location and do not think of this NT as a permanent residence. However, this NT is attempting practical use of former residential structures. In addition, housing relocation in Kozoji NT is being undertaken actively, with particularly high rates for duplexes renovated as single-unit dwellings.
This paper aims to clarify spatial transformation of Japanese railroad tied residence district in the Kyongju city (KOREA). Kyongju railroad tied residence area had built 37 semi-detached houses as railroad tied residences. Japanese style railroad tied residence was introduced and modified by Korean occupants. In this paper, we discuss spatial pattern of Kyongju railroad tied residence and the transformation process of living space. Kyongju railroad tied residence area still maintain the original formation and appearance although over 70 years have passed since its foundation. However, transformation has began since railroad tied residence was handed to the new inhabitants in 1970. As for exterior space, we found out 'TEOTBAT' and 'GOSAT', which are both semi private and semi public space for inhabitants in this district. It is also pointed out that 'Living room' and MADANG are created in the Railroad Tied Residences. The appearance of 'MADANG' and 'Living room' are caused by position change of entrance. In particular, transformations are seen at the position of toilet, kitchen and living room.
This paper aimed to argue some points in order to develop the design guidelines of glassed-in spaces of detached houses in Hokkaido. Architectural composition was analyzed to explicate design approaches on planning of the spaces. The following four patterns were turned out; 1) a main passageway space connecting some rooms separated into two blocks, 2) an alternative passageway space buffering relations between some rooms and outdoors, 3) an additional space attached to a room for a secondary use, 4) a space designed for a room with a limited use. Actual condition was analyzed to explicate design references on planning of the spaces. It was turned out that glassed-in spaces should be designed with flexibility to suit several uses such as storage, leisure, work and reception. Additionally, glassed-in spaces should be designed with attention to the thermal environment in summer and winter, the visual and functional linkage with outdoor environment, the spatial preparation to receive visitors, and the management system of frequent maintenance.
This paper is a study about the relationship between "free schools" and environmental resources in a city. The results of analysis are as follows; 1)Most of the buildings of free schools are small. But, students sometimes use city infrastructure well and sometimes cooperate with people in a city. 2)Students use environmental resources in a city sometimes with a few familiar students and sometimes with many students who are not familiar with each other. 3)Staffs get and stock much information about environment resources to get better environment for students. 4)For cooperating with people in a city, staffs are making their network with effort.
This paper aims to make clear the staffs "image of unit care" and "idea of the space". The staff made the design proposal by the theme "house where the elderly with dementia live with the staff', "the capacity of the unit is ten people", and "two units". The drawing and the design concept were analyzed. The followings were obtained. 1. The image "user's room is a private room in unit care" was established. However, The difference was seen in the specification and the area of common space. 2. The staff thought about the environment by dweller's aspect and staffs aspect, and which to be valued, the space composition was different.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristics and present ways of use on commercial buildings including large-scale shop closed in recent years. About the cases of 4 companies, the survey was conducted to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry to inquire the present ways of use and the architectural characteristics. In location the closure of commercial buildings is strongly the problem of the local district. The most frequent case is "reuse", and the main function is continuously retailing. However, the change of business style and the reduction of space are awoken in accordance with passing years.
Even though there are new approaches to create space has been discussing among outstanding architects recently, the basic method to grasp the relationship between human behavior and space remains an exisiting style. This paper investigates three featured spaces to draw the activity vector field from movement of people to explore the concept of the function of space or spacial charateristic. The findings are followings; The activities caused a program influenced surrounding space in new universal space but in ordinary space did not. We develop a new method to draw the activity vector field based on probability of each movement. With the method we succeed to grasp a couple of act, which might express the redundancy of space.
This paper aims to analyze the spatial construction and composition of the "Kitsugan" harvest festival on Taketomi Island, Yaeyama, Okinawa. There are lots of place of worship and six groups of prayers, Yamaninju, on Taketomi Island. Each group has a primary place of worship. In order to clarify multi-function of each place of worship and ritual composition and procedure in each village, the relationship between (1)Yamaninju's primary place of worship, (2)places of worship to which Yamaninju should pray, and (3)types and locations of the place of worship is analyzed in detail through a review of the performing procedure of the "Kitsugan" harvest ritual. Data were collected and recorded from a series of field studies and literary reviews of the period.
The main aims of our research are to restructure the regional planning methods for agricultural community with sustainability. On this paper, we aim to figure out the social and economical infrastructure condition in rural area. And set up the indicators which represent the capacity of living conditions on agricultural community, and correlate those indicators with geographical conditions. Using the census data in Japan, we got results as follows. 1. We configured the 15 geographical condition patterns which are integrated physical landform and regional building control. 2. We figured out that the capacity of living condition for agricultural settlements vary by the geographical condition patterns. 3. And we presented the regional planning methods which vary by present living and agricultural conditions based on physical landform.
This paper explores socio-spatial changes in a backpacker area in Vang Vieng, Laos. In this rural town, homogenous built environment forms a tourist area where the "indigenous characteristics of underdeveloped rural town" remain and are prominent. The paucity of tourist development is one of the special attractions of the town for international backpackers. However, local people are pursuing vigorously further evolution of the town as a tourist place, and therefore, transformation in the socio-spatial structures of the area has been proceeding at a remarkable pace. In that sense, locality of rural town which has attracted foreign tourists is very fragile.
This paper examines the dynamic changes about population, community and spatial composition occurring in land development in Kobe area during the Taisyo Period. In brief we found that according to public documents and inscriptions, the period form 1917 to 1922 the land development project took place in two stages. In the first stage (before 1920) the land were developed for public use, whereas in the second period (after 1920) the land were developed for industrial use and private housing. The trust consist f the collaborations between pubic, the enterprises and private landowners. In particular, we examine the development and the decline of the Nishidai. Arable Union as the city of Kobe increasingly exerted control over the town of Suma.in 1919 when Kobe City annexed Suma. Another hand these prepared housing sites provided leased land and a lot of lent houses after arable land business. The new relationship of sharing land benefit was formed to the new community style at this land area.
The objective of this research is to clarify the characteristics of formation process of row houses block No.5 in Higashikujo, Kyoto, which mostly occupied by Korean, focusing on a shift in right of lands and buildings. The research also aims to reveal the process of a change in right of ownership and life style of people due to transformation in living spatial configuration of row houses block. Using the oral history for analysis, the characteristics of transformation process of row houses block can be concluded as follows; 1. In the beginning, each family of Korean who usually are relatives or came from the same local area in Korea immigrated to the area. 2. The early stage of transformation is the outcome of changing the original living spatial configuration to meet the life styles and living patterns of Korean who was still mere tenants. 3. The next stage of transformation when Korean had gained the right of lands and building, is the result of making sure of stable and peaceful living environment by them.
In cold and heavy snow cities, original urban design approaches are required against snow and strong wind in winter. We showed the comparison to snow and wind affects between medium rise and high rise urban block using the wind tunnel simulation in case of downtown area of Sapporo city. Consisting of medium rise buildings up to eight floors is better than high rise buildings 14 floors for reducing snowdrift and strong wind with snow. Finally, we pointed out seven urban design guidelines for winter cities. This paper shows the new approaches for urban design in cold and heavy snow cities.
This study gives the viewpoint how to specify identity of townscape, in terms of expansion of urban environment. It especially refers to general Japanese cities. First of all, the concept of "KAIMAMI scene" is presented based on related studies. It is supporting and extending the general concepts on streetscape, by adopting an angle of pedestrians' visual action to sideways. The second, influences of "KAIMAMI scenes" upon pedestrians on the street are inspected with photo projective method. Impressiveness of scenes is studied in relationships with spatial elements based on interviews to the subjects. Then, perceptional patterns of impressive "KAIMAMI scenes", which suppose to affect impressions of total townscape, are studied. These studies are made in central urban area of Sendai.
This paper focuses on the Tenmaya department store in Okayama city and the Darumaya department store in Fukui city, describing the characteristics of the locations, the exteriors of the buildings, and the background of the surrounding cityscapes when the stores first opened for business. Tenmaya opened in a part of Okayama that had been a commercial district since the Edo period. Darumaya was established on the site of the former prefectural office across from Fukui Station. Tenmaya's display windows gave it a modern appearance, while Darumaya was housed in a low-rise building that had an accessible feel for shoppers.
The purpose of this study is to get a basic finding concerning the effect of improving turn possibility of fire engines in the intersection by the installation of corner cut and deployment of small fire engines in crowded wooden houses district with narrow streets. First, we formulated the condition that the turn of fire engines on the corner is possible in consideration of corner cut. Second, we achieved the above-mentioned purpose through solving the following three problems.  Analysis of minimum scale of intersection where turn of fire engines is possible.  Simulation concerning installation of corner cut and deployment of small fire engines in an existing crowded wooden houses district with narrow streets.  Measurement of error margin when an index concerning minimum scale of intersection is applied to the crowded wooden houses district with narrow streets.
The purpose of this study is to consider the characteristics of urban space in Kyoto based on the analysis of the distributions of Cemetery. From the ancient times, there was funeral area in the hillsides of three mountains (Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama), which surround Kyoto City. The urban periphery was very different from the inner urban area in the term of spatial and cultural quality and those two areas have long been interrelated each other. Cemeteries located in the urban periphery had been greatly changed on the process of so called modernization from Meiji Restoration. This paper clarifies the changing of distribution of cemeteries based on the analysis of historical maps. Major point of consideration is the transformation of urban space in Kyoto through the analysis. This paper concludes that the environmental change cemeteries and around cemeteries brought the fall of the relative relation between a life space and urban periphery.
This article attempts to clarify matters as follows. (1)What is the adequate ratio of agreement dwellers living in rental houses or condominiums consider for the refurbishment of respective common spaces? (2)Could the relations of their consciousness on agreement be existing between attributions of dwellers and target spaces of refurbishment? (3)Also what kind of relations between laws/acts and consciousness of dwellers is existing?
The purpose of this study is to clarify actual condition of network residence in 2 cities of Kanto area. We continued the survey and from the data analysis, the following results were obtained. 1) The average number of members of "family consciousness" surpassed that of household will be 7-8 in Kanto area. The average number of households among the network residence include 2 or 3 dispersed residence. They have same tendencies between Tohoku district and Kanto area. 2) On the whole, a little less than 20-30% of households are 'non-network residence' type. They have a point of agreement between members of 'family consciousness' and members of living together. Over 70% households have the 'family consciousness' to more than 2 dispersed residence, which belongs to the network residence. The average of the number of dispersed residence households are approximately 3 in every district. 3) In the larger cities, a smaller scale household belonging the network residence are the mainstream compared to the family that three generations live together. 4) We focus on the life cycle of families, and set up the three spans divided by two fixed stages through the life. From analyzing the data with these stages, we made it clear the structure of the network residence and the character of the district.
The purpose of this paper is to consider on the bear cub-cages and the storehouses of Ainu people in the Ainu Culture stage(13c-jate 19c). So, we carried forward this study by following steps. At first, we collected the drawn materials concerning the bear cub-cages and the storehouses of Ainu people in early modern period (late 18c-late 19c). Secondly,we collected the Archaeological Records concerning the bear cub-cages and the storehouses in the Ainu culture stage (13c-mid 18c) . Next, we analyzed the drawn materials and the arrengiment patterns of the pillar holes of the excavations. We made it clear that there were various forms and basics plane in the Ainu Culture stage(13c-late 19c).
In this paper, we examine the residential area of Oji Paper Co. Ltd. Tomakomai factory. The residential area had located around the factory. Officers area located near the main office, and the welfare buildings had a high amenity for officers. Worker's area located around officers. Officers area didn't expand but got number of residence increased. Almost all the houses made from wood, and served out by the company until WWII. The structure of the houses changed into concrete blocks or RC. after the war. Many welfare buildings were there in this company town, buildings for officers, like club-house, were built led to workers before 1933. After that, the welfare buildings were served for all employees without difference of class after 1933.
This paper aims to identify biographies and works of an architect in regional areas, and announces him as Regional Architects. Yoneji Sakae, born in 1904, graduated from Tokyo Art College in 1928. After his graduation, he worked as an architect in the architectural section on Karafuto Agency until 1941. During wartime, he went back to Hokkaido and got a position in Japan Electric Power Co., Inc.. He belonged to Hokkaido Electoric Power.Company, Inc. in 9 years, and then he established his design office in 1960. We suggest three points of Regional Architects; awareness of profession as an architect, technical approach against local climate, and consideration on local scenery. First, he described the necessity to unite architect together. Second, he used various styles and expressed beauty in city scape and architecture. Thirdly he reported on problems in snowy and cold areas.
In this paper, I will analyze the construction and character of the Imperial Court Nohgakujo. The theater, designed by Katayama Toukuma, was built in 1915 for Emperor Taisho's accession ceremony, and was dismantled the following year. It can be said that this represents the first case in which the Noh performance space manifests as a theater proper. This is extremely important when we think about the modernization of the Noh theater. It is at the Imperial Court Nohgakujo, where for the first time, Western-style benches were introduced to the auditorium and the Noh stage was brought to the interior in the building. In this paper, I describe the style of the new Noh theater. After the Imperial Court Nohgakujo was disassembled, it was later reconstructed on a site at Peers' Club. The theater was in continual use as an important Noh theater during royal visits. Using this example, I will illucidate the transfer from the Noh space to the Noh theater, the process of modernization of the Noh space.
This article compiles and analyzes the texts from late 9th to early 11th Century in the Christian Spain. The characteristics of these texts are studied by examining their common aspects and then the peculiarities of each document, which allow us to understand how they express the admiration toward a building by referring to its masonry. On the other hand, apart from the reconfirmed extraordinariness of Asturian Chronicles, it is also learned that the laconism of these texts vividly reflect the social reality in which there were no strong power structures exiting such as Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba or Cluny.
This study tries to reveal the role of the ornemanistes and the artistes industriels in the architectural decorations in nineteenth century France. Analysis of their function shows that they both had an important role as a creator of the models. While artistes industriels, however, worked for the manufacturers, ornemanistes collaborated with other artists and craftsmen. The works of the sculptor Jules Klagmann in nineteenth century, would be examined as a case study which specifically shows the role of the two professions in this periode.
The replacement of compound piers with round piers in the grand arcades of churches took place between the early 12th and early 13th centuries in the Ile-de-France. The purpose of this article is to verify the assertion that such pier replacements caused the elimination of the need for ressauts at the back of vaulting shafts, thinned the vaulting shafts themselves, and effected an over-all decrease in the total volume of elements projecting from the nave wall surfaces based upon research of a significant number of extant monuments. The resultant changes in the vaulting shaft areas advanced a linear quality that led to the formation of the gothic diaphanous nave wall.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate an philosophy of city planning by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), a famous architect, in the context of modem American city planning by specifically scrutinizing his discourses on 'The Living City' (1958) where the Broadacre City was proposed, and to identify philosophical influence of Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), a famous philosopher, on agrarian thought of Wright. After collecting exhaustively Wright's discourses on agriculture and the Broadacre City together with Emerson's discourses on agriculture, we categorized and compared them to clarify any similarity and difference. We concluded that the Wright's agrarian thoughts have strong influence from Emerson's agrarian thoughts in the context of transcendentalism, and Wright designed his ideal city where farmers have genuine lives in the form of Broadacre City.
This paper presents a study of Karuizawa house, designed in 1933 by Antonin Raymond for himself, his family and part of his office staff. The paper focuses on an analysis of the design from an architectural point of view. The intention is to emphasize the value of Raymond's design beyond its dept to Le Corbusier's unbuilt project for Errazuris house (1930) by replacing this contribution within the ensemble of various elements that pertained to its creation. The analysis brings forth the complexity and subtlety with which components of the Japanese traditional minka and sukiya architectural types were combined with forms belonging to Western modern architecture, through the application of a Japanese way of design embodied in the tatami based proportion system and the art of carpentry.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear how the "mobile equilibrium", which is essential concept in Louis Sullivan's architectural thought, is expressed in his building design. We analyzed his facades focusing on the vertical elements (pier, mullion, etc.) which have the most primitive meaning for Sullivan, from two points of view; the composition method of facade, and the ornamental motifs. As to the former, he gradually made the composition synthesized to visualize the "mobile equilibrium" of moving force in structure. As to the latter, he used botanical ornament accompanied with the vertical elements, to represent whole facade as one growing organism.
This paper is clarify on the transfer of the capital to Gaegyong and capitalization of the city, which was excuted during the era of the 1st king Tae-zo of Goryo Dynasty, focusing on analysis of the geographical condition, urban infrastructure, topological characteristics and Buddhist temple of Gaegyong. In conclusion, the geographical conditions, topological characteristics and urban infrastructure of Gaegyong not only showed the policy for the people of Goryo Dynasty but also served as a way to secure the appropriateness for the transfer of the capital and legitimacy of the government. In addition to the above, the city was successfully capitalized by applying the Feng-shui theory and building temples on naturally generated location of Gaegyong. This research can became one basis for understanding the positioning and characteristics of Gaegyong in the urban history of Korea.
As the local branch of Japanese national army has occupied largely the site of the castle and its surrounding district, local governmental offices could scarcely get their sites at former "Kako-machi" on the periphery of the town, which had the lots for the former lord's detached estate and the dock for ship building. The former was transformed to the sites for the prefectural office and the diet, and public hospital etc. The municipal office and the diet have been drawn nearby. The latter was then reclaimed for the school and other public institutions. Thus the former lots were inherited but divided and reused for the new institutions. The location of the new governmental district were so unstable in the urban structure that it was temporary and transformed according to the modern development of the urban structure, especially after the destruction of the town by the A-bomb.
Researched on Cultural Property Protection Method (Monument Topography) in Hesse, Germany from the following aspects. 1. History of Monument Topography (Establischment and Growth of Monument Topography in West Germany) 2. Design cost, design time-span and contents of Monument Topography "Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis II Altkreis Untertaunus" as an example. 3. Actual Utility of Monument Topography "Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis II Altkreis Untertaunus" in Cultural Property Protection (Citizen enlightenment, Increase in efficiency of Cultural Property Protection Management)
The purpose of this study is to clarify the value of Baisha housing cluster in the Old Town of Lijiang which includes Dayan, Baisha and Shuhe. There have been so far no detailed studies made on the housing cluster of Baisha as heritage. Therefore this research was carried out at Jiewei village, one of the historical areas in Baisha that retains old houses built more than 100 years ago. From the analysis of the survey results, this place can be defined as a mixed housing area with both modern and old buildings of Lijiang style courtyard houses. Traditional features are well conserved even today.