Along with continued graying of society, we have seen growing interest in residential facilities for the elderly and how these facilities can be upgraded and improved from a design standpoint. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how the quality of life can be supported by enhancing and improving the physical design of the rooms in which they reside. Because many elderly tenants are vulnerable and frail, they predictably find it hard to evaluate their own living environments. This led us to consider the possibility of assessing the quality of residential environments in a way that does not rely on subjective feedback of residents themselves. This can be done by determining whether a room satisfies a certain comfort level for the occupant based on the appearance of the room. We conducted impressionistic assessment trials by objective third-party observers of rooms actually occupied in residential facilities by elderly tenants. Next, we inventoried the number and variety of the furnishings and objects in rooms that serve as an index of a comfortable everyday life of the residents, and compared these findings with the results of the impressionistic assessment trials. The results suggest that it is indeed possible to predict to a degree what furnishing and objects have the greatest effect in creating a well-designed environment and should be incorporated in rooms to house the elderly.
Classrooms at open-plan schools in Japan are often lined up side by side. At one end of linear plan is entrance and the other side is wall and dead-end. This creates difference of positional relation in classrooms; entrance side, central, or back. The aim of this study is to analyze and find out the characteristics of classroom position through class activities and open-space utilization. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) At an entrance-side classroom, pupils and teachers tend to avoid traffic line toward entrance when they use open-space. 2) At classrooms in the center, when adjacent classrooms are used pupils tend to stay in their classroom especially when they do activities with noise such as group discussion. Some pupils come out and use open-space when adjacent classrooms are vacant. 3) At classroom in the back, pupils often use open-space for various activities. Teachers also utilize open-space actively with putting educational tools, or creating smaller spaces by furniture.
Both walking speed and streetscape attractiveness were influenced by form of street, so purpose of this study verify to anticipate a attractiveness of the streetscape by walking speed. We investigated the attractive strength of 67 streetscapes. Furthermore, we measured a walking speed from its 10 scenes. And the statistical analyses were conducted to find their relations. As a result, about the high attractiveness streetscape, a walking speed was slow. There was a high correlation between walking speed and streetscape attractiveness. And it proved that the walking speed was the evaluation index of the attractiveness of the streetscape.
In this research, we tried to clarify which kind of objects or situations are preventing adventitiously blinded people from smooth walking in daily walking environment. Ten adventitiously blinded people are asked to walk independently in environments which they are fully accustomed to and have little difficulty to walk. Their walking behavior are recorded by video camera and analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) Adventitiously blinded people tend to walk on ether side of street, where there are objects such as power poles and bicycles which could be serious obstacles. 2) When walking on sidewalks, sometimes adventitiously blinded people happen to wander into parking lots or open spaces. 3) Tactical tiles, which are basically guiding adventitiously blinded people's walking, are sometimes very difficult to follow, because surrounding ground's surface is very similar to tactical tiles.
This study aims to elucidate the anticipation factor in a street with uphill stairs. The maximal anticipation position and strength was defined by computer graphics animation. The results led to an equation for estimating anticipation. The maximal anticipation distance was directly proportional to the observer's view angle. The increase of this distance depended also on the increase of the stairs slope angle as well as the increase of their rise. The anticipation strength was directly proportional to the value of the stairs run and inversely proportional to the angle of the stairs slope.
The log cabin is a kind of traditional house in east area of Asia. In Japan, there are traditional temples represented by the Shosoin and are located in the mountain. By the other hand, in Korea, these temples are located in the mountains and the islands. In the case of China, there are some log cabins located near the Changbai Mountain, and where many people are still living. The purpose of this paper is to describe the construction and the production technology of log cabins through a survey conducted in the protected area of Jingjiang Village in China's Changbai Mountain. It will also aim to make a linkage between characteristics with local area's weather, forest, society and economic condition.
The purpose of this study is to consider characteristics of workings and a future direction of local partnership groups in Japan based on the Groundwork approach in the UK. Compared with Groundwork in the UK, characteristics of workings of local Groundwork groups in Japan are summarised as follows: 1) an approach to matters of natural environment in the local community; 2) simple programme contents; 3) a practical activity only by Groundwork group; 4) a vulnerable partnership with the private sector; 5) a support system by volunteer staff with high skill; 6) a low capacity of fund raising and a small fiscal scale; 7) a passive strategy toward government policies. In conclusion, the following four points are necessary for developing Groundwork movement in Japan: 1) a step-by-step approach to enhance social environment; 2) an intermediary to expand a local partnership; 3) an organisational structure composed of full-time staffs with a coordination skill and diversification of finance; 4) a consciousness of a holistic approach strategy.
The traditional community house named “Guol” is a unique architecture of Cotu minorities living upland area of central Vietnam. Two community houses in Nam Dong district, Thua Thien Hue province show the typical “Guol” and are surveyed for case studies of indigenous building technology. The building technology can be understood as their conventional design methodology and construction technique. The field research was conducted by interview and measurement to obtain the information relating to structural form, building materials and construction process. Meanwhile, the information of design methodology is collected in terms of body measuring system and its application to the buildings.
The purpose of this study is to define the variations of shop design within the local vernacular context in the present conservation area of Skopje's Old Bazaar, to facilitate preparation of guidelines for managing the alterations of units by rebuilding and renovations. To meet this purpose, field survey and typological analysis were carried out. We defined four subtype variations from the three authentic shop types and prepared a database of forms and design elements. We discussed the transformation of form and design elements in a vernacular context as an important aspect in managing the regeneration of the area. From our field observation, we note that current day renovation and rebuilding of shops are not in clear correlation with its vernacular context.
This paper aims to figure out the historical changes, the urban spatial composition and the transformation process of Samcheon-dong Area of Seoul City which is becoming the popular commercial area consisting of traditional and modernized buildings, and to clarify the current condition and issues of the area management. As the results, this study clarifies as follows; 1)The physical characters of the main street crossing the area from north to south with mixture of traditional and present buildings and the existing building control system. 2)The role of the Citizen Center as the coordinator of several management organizations such as local community organization, local government institution, and commercial association. 3)The issues to promote the area management activities.
The unity and continuity of the townscape have been lost up to date on the streets in local cities. The objective of this paper is to propose indices on evaluating those type of townscape and to confirm those application to a real townscape. Indices, scalar and vector vision indices, based on the concept of the scalar and vector illuminances to indicate diffuse and directional effects were derived. Each vision index is defined as the solid angle projection factor of content elements in the street. Chikara-machi-street which consisted of mixed landscape of modern and traditional buildings was selected to examine the indices and to evaluate the characteristics of the street. The ratio of vector to scalar vision was also defined as a combined index. It was confirmed that the scalar vision index corresponded to unconscious vision and the vector vision index did to conscious grazing, respectively.
This study deals with the rules on installation of windows (the Japanese Civil Code Article 235) and the regional customs about such windows (Art. 236), both of which lead to protection of privacy. The Article 236 demands that such customs shall prevail if they exist. This study reveals that, in the late 19th century, when the Japanese government first establshed the articles, the government did not clearly define or take into account such customs, even though it acknowledged that some regions had such customs. Lack of clear understanding of such customs by the government then and now is partly responsible for some lawsuits over protection of privacy. This study concludes that the articles must be revised based on clear understanding of regional customs on privacy protection.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the post-renovation conditions of residences and evaluate the street district and the shophouses along Minquan Street of Sanxia Township, Taipei City. We conducted a field investigation and a questionnaire survey targeting shophouses along this street. Post-questionnaire data revealed that users felt that shophouse renovations were contributive to the renewed business development. In addition, improvements in exterior environmental appearances mostly led to positive appraisals by shophouse users. However, the actual demands for pubic facilities of local users remained unsatisfactory. Regarding interior renovations of shophouse, the occupying land area of shophouse seemed to meet the basic demands for businesses. Additionally, installation of air conditioning systemis required.
This paper discussed the housing production and supply system in Lusaka, ZAMBIA based on field research. Through housing surveys and interview to relevant sectors, following findings emerged. 1. The residential differences between housing areas were understood by the ownership and improvement ways. 2. It was tried to show the housing production and supply structure using pattern diagram. 3. After democratization, the owner-managed housing construction which before then mainly supplied in unplanned areas became common to build in planned areas too. Both formal and informal entities participated rather randomly their construction process without systematic support system.
A Study on Architectural of Town Houses of Kasiwazaki and its Regulation in the late Edo era were analyzed on following 3 aspects. 1. Architectural application of Town Houses counted 33 by researching machi-kaisho-goyou-tome-chou. 2. Floor space of Town Houses was about 9.9 m2 (3tubo) to 257 m2(78tubo). Most Town Houses of Kasiwazaki were built below 33 m2 (10tubo) in the late Edo ear. 3. Details of interior in Town Houses were regulated by a ruler of the town. Its Design was same level as Town houses of Edo, Osaka, Kyoto and Kanazawa.
Banna-ji is well known as a temple associated with the Ashikaga clan that established Muromachi Shogunate. The first Main Hall was built in 1234, however it was damaged by a stroke of lightning in 1287. The existing Main Hall (Hondo) was reconstructed in 1299. After that, the major renovation was conducted from 1407 to 1432, then it has continued to exist until the present day. During repairs of the Hondo's roof from 2009 to 2010, we carried out research on form and detail of structure and did scientific research. We have almost clarified the change in the Hondo in the Medieval Period using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), which judges the age of wood element. In spite of the major renovation in the mid-Muromachi period, the Hondo keeps a late Kamakura-period style. Finally, we can ascertain that the Hondo of Banna-ji has historical evaluation as the oldest medieval Zen style architecture in Eastern Japan.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristic and origin of the techniques of "ARAI" by analyzing the tools. "ARAI" is a traditional purification cortex technique in Japanese wooden architecture, using wooden buckets and brooms of straw. To confirm the characteristic of the technique, we investigated the names, the uses, the shapes, and the making methods of the tools. Moreover, we considered the origin of "ARAI" from the three viewpoints of acquisition, technique, and symbols of the tools. These viewpoints shed light on different characteristics of tools and lead three origin theories that "ARAI" derives from a farmer, a plasterer, or a ritual.
Xinbian Luban Yingzao Zhengshi was written by craftsmen during the Yuan Dynasty (A.D1271-A.D 1368). The present study suggested that two “divination rulers” were used to design constructions, gates and doors. One was called the “Luban Ruler”, and another was the “Yabai Ruler”. This study clarified the relationship between the two rulers and measurements of the houses, gates and doors, which were written in this book.
Ancient Messene, Greece, was founded by Epameinondas in 369 B.C.. Kumamoto University Architectural Mission for Greek classical Architecture has surveyed, since 2007, the architectural remains of the theater including more than a hundred of blocks from walls, columns, etc., in order to reconstruct its form of 2nd century A.D. The authors analyzed each block in detail and tried to reconstruct the scene building which would have been built in 2nd century A.D. and reached the conclusion that the scene building was 12.2 m high and two-storied with rows of Corinthian, Lotus-Acanthus, and Ionic columns on the front.
The Piazzale Michelangelo designed by the architect Giuseppe Poggi was one of the largest projects of the enlargement in nineteenth century Florence. This Piazzale has been evaluated from the view point of landscape on studies in Italy. In this research, Poggi's consideration for the land condition after the unification of Italy and the transfer of the capital to Florence, the prevention of landslide of the Monte alle Croci and the hygienic situation in addition to the landscape construction will be clarified.
This study has clarified the followings. 1) Originally industrial buildings built after 1850 are converted to various facilities, while buildings built before 1850 in the central city are converted to commercial and cultural facilities. 2) The preserved exteriors and the interiors changed in scales give unexpected effects. 3) In the Holmen District conversion new elements are inserted without affecting the original structures of the naval base, and thus the nature as a naval base is preserved. 4) The different design methods used in the conversion of two silos in the canalside industrial district have made them landmark of the area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the taste of painter's residence in the suburbs in Kyoto at the late Edo period. There were about ninety painters, who lived in the suburbs by the directory published in Kyoto at the late Edo period. This study researched on the transition of address, activities of execution, etc., about the painters who proved at that time, Ikeno Taiga, Hara Zaityu, Ganku, Tanaka Totugen, Nakabayashi Tikudo, and Hine Taizan. The painter's residence in the suburbs was clarified. In short, it had the elements: (1) Lead a full work (2) Retirement's place (3) Health resort
A five-year “National Treasure Important Art Structure Emergency Repair Project” was undertaken from 1946 in the wake of World War II but at first made little progress. It was found necessary to establish a new “National Treasure” classification in order to justify the large number of historic buildings to be included under a limited national budget. The undeniable appeal to national sentiment shown in the new definition of “National Treasure” was seemingly related to the contemporary slogan “Build the Cultural Nation.” The Council of Cultural Properties appointed by the Ministry of Education finished designating most of these structures by 1955. The revised concept comprised three overlaid values: Scarcity in terms of age or uniqueness, Representativeness of style and each period's characteristic building types, and Aesthetic Value, whether in design or construction.