The purpose of this research is to grasp the order of difficulty of various barriers and existence of barriers encountered in daily going out and how to cope those barriers. Therefor 72 kinds of barrier are extracted from previous literature and each person classify them, and continuously reply to the quetionaires of daily going out (existence of barriers and how to cope those barriers). The main analysis items are as follows; 1. conciousness to barriers 2. the order of the barriers 3. presence of barriers in case of going out and the way of coping.
Recent years, the concern for familiar natural environment rises and the importance of "Waterside" is recognized again. Therefore, in the creation of the waterside environment in the future, gives priority to the 'Relations between person and water' and it is pointed out that the approach that catches an environmental component of the waterside in the large area is necessary. Then, it is thought that it will obtain a premeditated suggestion the water environment in the future is created because it understands the ideal way of the water environment through the village where the relation between this waterway and spring water is seen. In this research pays attention to the local populace centers on the canal and relations with water and clarified the form, the function for the water supply as the water environment, the water space, and the ideal way of construction, how to live, and the approval of the lifestyle. Result, in the future the lifestyle will change but, various restrictions received from water is influence the space composition of the array of arrangement of the existence of the riverside and the dwelling and the main rooms, the compositions, and the entire villages from local populace's life act.
This study analyzed the original plans of all houses and the process of renovation at an independent ward in a sanatorium for Hansen's disease patients, and clarified how differences of house plans affected the process of living environment improvement. The results are as bellows: 1) The house plans were classified into 6 types. Based on this classification, the features of house scale, construction process and room layout were clarified. 2) Layout of storage spaces affected the direction of house extension. 3) The kitchen and dining areas at houses constructed by the institution were smaller than ones constructed by residents themselves. 4) 90% of three-tatami-mat-rooms were extended, and on the other hand, only 20% of 4.5 tatami-mat-rooms were extended. 5) Because the houses constructed at the later stage were built at the fringe of the site, most of them were easily extended.
Qilou district is one of the historic environmental assets in Guangzhou city, China. The residential environment of Qilou district consists of two parts, one is interior of the house and the other exterior. This study aims to make clear the spatial composition of Qilou houses and districts. This study also grasps the actual conditions of resdents' life-style in the Qilou house and actual use of the exterior space in the different Qilou districts.
Questionares were sent to the general hospitals having SPD functions and 65 hospitals (77 nursing units in total) answered. In reviewing the answers, we found that only 8 nursing units (10.4%) were employing the material management system suited for the actual floor plans. Seven (7) nursing units with multiple sub-nursing stations were selected for interview. We asked the architects who designed the floor plans to attend the visits with us. Based on the answers to the questionares and on the further study from the visits, we worked out a guideline for the planning of the material management systems suited for the inpatient wards with multiple sub-nursing stations.
The purpose of this paper is to show the elements of school activities with residents for enhancing positive attitude of students, teachers and residents. Main results are as follows; 1) The important elements of school activities are Daily involvement, Maintenance, Creativity and Regionalism. 2) To level up school activities, it is important not only regional corporation but also school attitude which try to make advantage of its characteristic. 3) In addition, it is needed that schools have a mutual relation with key regional organization and get residents' corporation widely.
Kindergarten teachers make children learn the appropriate ways and manners of several basic life behaviors. At first, we grasp the following basic life behavior. These are changing shoes and clothes, going to the rest room, washing hands, preparing and putting away toys and tools, preparing and clearing the tables and chairs, and etc. But children behave according to the difference of learning methods of kindergartens. Secondly, these children' basic life behaviors take place on each environment for each kind of behavior, we explore the following places and design elements around classrooms. These are the layout of the building entrance and the arrangement and design of shoe shelves, rest room, wash basin and faucet, children's baggage shelves and private tools shelves. Thirdly, we show the characteristics of basic life behaviors corresponding to the difference of environmental design of each place.
A standard to certify secured condominiums was newly published by authorities related to Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) and National Police Agency (NPA) in April 2006. It needs an automatic lock door system and CCTVs on 3 parts of the condominium for the certification. This paper aims to evaluate the standard with the analysis of the residents' attitude such as fear of crime and needs. The following are main information got in this paper. ・Automatic lock door system and a CCTV on the common entrance significantly contribute to reduce fear of crime at many parts of the building. ・The 3 parts where the standard needs CCTVs are where they are likely to feel fear of crime and want to place them. CCTVs on the 3 parts and automatic lock door system especially contribute to residents' satisfaction. ・Many of the answerer have not taken any measure against burglary on windows face to the balcony, nor even perceived the necessity.
This study clarifies relationships between residential development and the transformation of wind environment in a residential area on seaside reclaimed land. We first investigate the effects of buildings surrounding the site on the wind environment within the site, with regard to southerly summer winds, using both field measurement and CFD analysis, in order to clarify how geographic and climatic factors affect wind system formation. Next, we investigate the transformation of the wind environment as the residential development by measuring wind direction and velocity at six points within the site for a period of one year and three months. We then clarify the influences of outdoor wind environment on the natural ventilation of a house, built on the developed area, in the summer.
This paper aims to verify the current situation of the place for community founded and operated voluntarily by residents, especially from the viewpoints of the space, the operation, and supporting system. The establishment and the operation of it are brand new movement beyond users' participation to the planning of public facilities in Japan. One hundred and thirty one places operated in Aichi, Mie, and Gifu prefecture were collected and analyzed with the questionnaire. The findings are as follows: 1. Most of the places are opened and operated by converting a vacant house or shop with trivial refurbishment. 2. The operators are generally welcome for all of community member to come there. But, most of them also have assumed main users to operate with their own intention, who are mainly elderly persons and children. 3. It is very important to have the supporting system from community to continue the operation. 4. Internal space is mainly refurbished. But there is few of effective refurbishment and use of external space, for example a garden and approaching path. 5. In addition, some of the operators recognized that the current location is not adequate for their purpose through the operation, and has considered opening in another location. It proves its location to be very inportant in order to operate effectively.
This research aims to investigate how visually handicapped persons use their white cane to orient themselves when walking, and analyze their characteristic of behavior related to spatial perception from the viewpoint of ecological psychology. By focusing on 5 totally blind persons, it was found that they have been developing their dexterity for oneself in daily life. Basically, they walks along the physical guide using by slide motions and touch techniques which were instructed in the walking training. However, they have been progressing the combination slide motions with touch techniques as complex skills. The diversity of active touches could be a clue to understand spatial perception of visually handicapped persons, and to consider the effective inventions of the universal design for them.
The aim of this study is to show the possibility of design support for site planning of low-rise housings by the simulated breeding with gene manipulation. The system supports users (architects) with various solutions which satisfy design constraints (building coverage, viable unit plans, accessibility to units, minimum exposure of sunlight, optimum ventilation and densely level). Users are allowed to operate and modify the given solutions if necessary. Through our interactive technique, users and the system could evolve site plan to a better one. Genetic algorithms with immune system form the mechanisms of the tools such as evolutionary calculating, and artificial operations including gene manipulation enables users to improve the breed of solutions. Furthermore, graphics user interface plays an important part in Computer-Human Interaction.
The purposes of this study were to consider about the way of living in scattered traditional house that specified cultural assets and to explore future directions. The object ground is Chungcheongbuk-Do located in the central part region in South Korea. As results by consider changing to the way of living, it is the following. First, the residents changed the applications of unneeded spaces by utilizing house type. Second, they carried out extension or rebuilding of their houses for convenience of life. Third, they have pride them as cultural assets and government is regularly carrying out restoration. However, there are problems of inheritance and maintain. In order to prevent the number of residents in cultural asset house from decreasing, it is necessary development of preservation system that the residents can continuously live there.
This study aims to clarify the actual conditions about dwelling unit combined with other use. By forcusing on process and distribution of non-dwelling function in Tama Newtown, we clarified the following things. 1. In Tama Newtown, non-dwelling function has been inserted to dwelling unit (we call 'dwelling unit combined with other use' on this paper) because there is a flexibility in respect of space and management inside of dwelling unit. 2. Generation of non-dwelling function needs the passage of time. 3. Residents who operate non-dwelling function feel the merit and demerit. Some of them want to transfer to the outside because of the need for wider space.
This study will track the change of the characteristics of residential space of residents moved in the Disaster Restoration Public Housing and clarify how the change has affected the social "isolation" of residents. We made a questionnaire survey on the residents in the Public Housing in Kobe City. Clarified points are as follows: 1. Isolation process corresponds to the situation which people lost familiar environments such as their old home, interaction with neighborhood and fun in their life. 2 It is remarkable that many people who reluctantly moved into the disaster restoration public housing have been isolated. Most of them have been still attached to the town and home which they used to live. 3. Single elderly households who live in the higher floor level of large scale housing estate tend to be isolated. 4. It is found the tendency of polarization between residents who isolated and who not isolated in the disaster restoration public housing located in suburban and waterfront areas. 5. In the case that residents have lived far away from the place people lived before the earthquake, isolated residents cannot regenerate social relations and its situation has been fixed.
Viterbo public fountains may be classified into three types: rectangular basin fountains (fontane a vasca rettangolare), cast fountains (fontane a fuso), and overlapping caps fountains (fontane a coppe sovrapposte). I measured multiple fountains structured in Viterbo during the 13th century to compare their shapes. The results of these measurements show that many apparent similarities exist in the basin and water pipe shapes used in rectangular basin fountains, cast fountains and overlapping caps fountains. The results from this research indicate that the fountain basins and water pipes structured in Viterbo in the 13th century were specifically designed to portray the important function of drawing water, even though the fountains were more commemorative than anything else.
It had been required for 7 months to build 48,300 emergency houses after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. During that hardperiod, most residents were forced to live with no privacy and they are not sound in mind and body. This paper reviewed the necessity of development of sectional compact emergency shelter which enables mass transport and its set up. Then we prepared the sample shelter and verified with our experiments in the disaster area of the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake.
The purpose of this paper is to review the documents of Townscape Advisory system in Ashiya to develop local townscape-control system in urbanized residential area, and the followings issues are revealed: 1) planning of space structure and inheritance of resources that characterize local townscape are important as well as design control to develop the local townscape, 2) effective control index to coordinate the development are varied under the site conditions, and 3) the advisory meeting and/or design-review are desirable to be held in early stage of planning.
This paper studies how different stakeholders in the Netherlands come to share spatial goals in process of urban development. The researcher carried out a questionnaire survey targeting municipal experts in the Netherlands. According to the survey results, many cities have urban design masterplans at district-scale that are generally called "Stedenbouwkundig Programma van Eisen". In most cases, these masterplans are prepared by municipal experts and then authorized by municipal executives. Such masterplans typically include spatial contents on land uses, sector plans, volume of architectures, sections of streets, etc. In addition to these masterplans, some municipalities have official documents which set guidelines for decision making process in urban development. "PLABERUM" in Amsterdam and "Het besluitvormingsmodel Projecten Rotterdam", for example, are municipal documents which provide such frameworks. These documents designate a decision making unit and a set of products of a given phase in order to make decision making process clear for different stakeholders. Such official framework seems to provide an invaluable aid to a municipality and external participants in reaching an agreement and in implementing official procedures for a legal land use plan (i.e., Bestemmingsplan). In conclusion, when an urban design masterplan has a clear and established position in negotiation process among stakeholders, it seems to play an important role in arriving at shared spatial goals and consequently in ensuring quality of space in the future realization.
This study examines method to evaluate scenic heritage elements for townscape planning in Kojirokuji preservation district for groups of historic buildings. The points of evaluation are based on the spatial and scenic characteristics. The investigation demonstrated that there are more than 500 elements to be conserved in Kojirokuji. It was also demonstrated method we practiced was effective for Kojirokuji, also it could be applicable to other sites. We have identified the fact that intangible elements have the role of conserving scenic characteristics of tangible elements.
This research is the analysis of the characteristics of changes in the awareness of regional linking around the prefecture borders by the municipal merger. The analysis is based on the changing patterns of municipal areas after the merger and the questionnaires. The followings are the findings of the study. 1) The awareness of regional linkage became weaker around the mountainous area when the prefecture border areas were expanded by the municipal merger. 2) There are hub cities born around the border areas by the municipal merger. These hub cities tend to connect to each other crossing the borders. 3) In case of the hub cities, there are some differences in the degree of awareness toward the regional linkage between the old central municipality, which is not by the border, and other old municipalities of the border area. 4) In case of Hamamatsu city, which is typical example of 3), the dwellers of the old municipalities near the border area tend to have the awareness of promoting the regional linking even after the merger. They expect to have the regional linking with hub cities over the border as their partners. In mountain areas, which are far from the central district, the dwellers expect the local ward office to perform the government works across the border.
This paper focuses on the Yamagataya department store in the city of Kagoshima, describing the characteristics of the location, the exterior of the building, and the background of the surrounding cityscape when the store first opened for business. Yamagataya succeeded in becoming central to Kagoshima's commercial life by inviting the streetcar company to run its tracks along the street adjacent to the store at the time of the switch to the department store format. By constructing a multistory ferroconcrete structure that was illuminated at night and featured large display windows, Yamagataya helped to create a modern cityscape.
This paper aims at making the performance-oriented bulk control system for securing the daylight access to the possible adjacent buildings. In the previous paper, we proposed the idea of the "Imaginary Walls" to assess the impact of newly developed building and other buildings on the skylight access to each adjacent building. In this study, we developed the quantitative evaluation method for the impact of combined disturbing of daylighting caused by each of the "Imaginary Walls" and generated building envelopes. Next, we verified which is more effective the "height-fixed Imaginary Walls"or "height-synchronized Imaginary Walls" as a method of consideration to the combined disturbing of daylighting caused by newly developed building envelops using developed evaluation method. As a result, we confirmed that the "height-synchronized Imaginary walls" is effective for evaluation method of the impact of newly developed buildings.
The word (la) residentialisation is a term often used in recent years, to describe the method of rehabilitation, among social housing specialists in France. However, we do not have an authorised definition of this word at present. This paper, therefore, tries to make clear what residentialisation is, illustrationg the common operations realised in the 11 rehabilitation projects which are said to have adopted residentialisation.
This study aims to clarify the practice in So-do of Gozan-Sorin at Nanbokucho Era. The research method used in this article is mainly to give a detailed study on Zen practice records in Gido Shushin's diary "Kuge Nichiyo Kufu Ryakushu." The So-do was an essential building in South Song styled Zen temples. It worked as a place for Zazen, Eat and Sleep during the early years. However, its functions in Zen practice changed later and this change gave an influential impact on the site placement of Zen temples. This research has four conclusions. 1. So-do was frequently uesd as Zen-do or Jiki-do. 2. Gido believed that Zen priests must eat together. 3. Gido insisted that Zanzen is necessarily significant in Zen practice but many priests neglected to do it. 4. Through Gido's master Muso's analects, it shows that some Zen temples' So-do didn't have a function as a sleeping place.
It became clear to be distributed 161 removed and reconstructed folk houses among 2,395 investigated folk houses in all over Japan and at least, that's at the rate of 7%. It was Toyama, Ishikawa, Miyazaki and Kagoshima prefecture that showed a high ratio. Above all, the ratio amounted to 30% in Toyama. The Bunttoho type in Miyazaki and Kagoshima, it was seen that one side was supplemented by that. A few ratios was Hokkaido, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Tochigi, Chiba, Nagano, Mie, Nara, Ohsaka, Ehime and Saga prefecture, elucidation of a reason is a future problem.
William M. Vories, born in the USA, 1880, came to Japan in 1905. He had performed architectural works not only in Japan, but also in East Asia, such as Korea and China actively. Also through a lot of his works in East Asia, He can be estimated as a special architect who worked beyond the border in East Asia. This Study aims to clarify his architectural works in East Asia Especially, this research is focused on the archives of his drawings in Korea. The number of those drawings is exactly 69. Through analysis of the archives, it became clear about the process of design that how to run his architectural office, what role to play the staffs and crews, how to proceed design works, how to express on the drawings and so forth.
Designing the Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve (BSG), H. Labrouste was inspired by the 13th century gothic architecture which was then renovated into the library of Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM). This paper reveals that the unique slender cast-iron columns of the BSG were influenced by the gothic columns of the CNAM. Right after the BSG, L.-A. Boileau also built the iron church copying the columns of the same gothic architecture. Therefore, it could be concluded that there was an influence of the gothic architecture on the birth of the "architecture" in iron, especially on its cast-iron columns.
A late ancient quarry near Adzba village in middle Egypt datable to the early Byzantine period provides important new evidence for extraction techniques. This paper has tried here to underline the necessity of a proper reconstruction of the process of extracting stone blocks. In general every single block was defined at the quarry face by cutting trenches along the back and sides with a pick following red lines, and split from the bedrock using wedges. The quarry shows the systematic methods used for the extraction of large number of stone blocks in a required size.
This paper describes the regional and historical trait of Built tombs with the aim of systematizing the Hellenistic tombs. In this paper the author categorizes the Hellenistic tombs into Built tomb, Rock-cut tomb, Tumulus, Mixed Construction and make a comparison among Built tombs. As a result from the viewpoint of use of the burial position and use of the podium the regional and historical trait of Built tombs was clarified. And it was clarified that the podium is often used together with the column in Built tomb of the Hellenistic age, too.
A number of Akutagawa's works during the Taisyo period were a reorganization of the ancient narrative literature during the Heian and Kamakura periods. This study aims to clarify the modern spatial perception in Akutagawa's works by comparing his works with the pre-reorganized works. We found out the following things. First, Akutagawa's works are semantically and spatially richer than the pre-reorganized works. Second, in the pre-reorganized works the style of spatial description is more perticular while in Akutagawa's works the description is more universal.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of the Shugakuin Imperial Villa as the place composed by Retired Emperor Gomizuno-o. Retired Emperor Reigen, who is the son of Gomizuno-o, wrote the itinerary about the experience he had in this villa. In the itinerary, he remembers his father frequently, and sometimes he relives and reproduces the playing his father did there. Through the analysis of the itinerary, the paper considers the intention of his visiting, and the meaning of the place where Gomizuno-o is relived.
Using the historical material of "Gu su fan hua tu"(a landscape painting around Suzhou of China painted in 1759), we could know the formation of its commercial space of the waterside, with the times of the waterborne traffic was made the base of an economic activity. It is characterized by the relation between shops and canals. The location of the waterside and the space composition of the shops are deeply related in the management. Especially, it was a location form that measured the content of the business and convenience in use in an important service industry that supported the brokerage who was the economic agent in the market.
This paper explains how streets and their facing buildings in the southern Chinese city of Amoy (Xiamen) were redesigned during a city improvement plan in the early 1930s. By using a map from the "Simingxilu and Shengpinglu Street Plan" and other planning documents, I show how the new street plan was superimposed atop the city's old urban district. In addition, I have also conducted onsite surveys of existing buildings, verified if the buildings were built to plan or not, investigated the process of land and building expropriation, and discuss the building of the city's characteristic covered-sidewalks (qilou or piaolou).
The paper traces some links of the merchants and the villagers via the market held in Kosuge village in the early modern. Sheds were temporarily arranged by the villagers and used by the merchants. The villagers owned the frames of the sheds and built up the sheds during the market days, while the merchants lodged and paid money to the villagers. The sheds for the market were the artifacts that were supplied for the merchants by the villagers. The market in the village were open to the public including the villagers and the merchants only during the market days.