The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the American style housings in Okinawa by looking at their reutilization to non-dwelling functions. As survey methods, observations of housings and interviews with residents were used. Some results are as follows: 1) The American style housings of off base were provided by private sectors under the regulation and specification of U.S. military base. 2) By the survey, 3,726 housings are still existing and 293 housings are reutilized to non-dwelling functions. 3) As the reutilization, 3 types of reutilize styles were observed and it shows the spatial diversity. 4) The reutilization process is divided by 3terms, releasing to the local resident at the beginning, increasing of local residents, and extension of reutilization. The utilization is greatly affected by the rectangle shape of the housing as the provision and the reutilized space assures the residents that they make the diverse and flexible life that is stemmed from their autonomous activities.
This study is focused on care of watching by family to reveal the relationship. Between elderly and family. The validity of consecutive space as an effective tool for elderly in need of care is substantiated. 1) The activity of both care for family and home care service is easily carried out when living room and bedroom was linked. 2) The separation eating area from sleeping area can be maintained when bedroom separate from the living room. The consecutive space that is linked unused room and bedroom is effective when family need to sleep near by elderly at night.
This research explored constituting factors, examining their reliability and validity, to develop a general residential environment assessment measure, recognizing the importance of the elderly's dwelling life. Residential environments were categorized into health, efficiency, safety and belonging. Factor analysis results indicated the following in each category: health -"peripheral environments," "temperature and humidity environments," "indoor environments," efficiency-"integrated composition centering around the living room," "bathing" "eating" "wash-up," "mobility," "toileting," safety - "indoor mobility" "indoor mobility with variations" "room lighting" "emergency" belonging - "ownership," "attachment," "privacy." This was found to be a useful assessment measure of residential environments, considering the examination of reliability and validity.
The purpose of this paper is to extract of the typical type of the welfare center for the elderly. First, we classified 146 centers from five viewpoints. They are the user-range, the complex facilities, the activity leader, the population and the leisure environment. Then, we clarified the characteristics of institutions for every viewpoint. As a result, we found out that there were the great different characteristics according to what activity leader is. Last, we extracted five typical types of the center based on the population scale, the degree of aging and the activity leader.
The purpose of this study is to examine the significance of day care centers for the elderly, which are like private houses, in terms of human behaviors in environments. On-site observations and supplementary interviews were carried out in 3 institutions organized in Tokyo. The findings are as follows. 1. The significance of them can be explained by applying 'behavior settings' as follows. 2. Some physical environments in house have possibilities to work as milieus that correspond to users' independent behaviors. 3. But whether this occurs depends on the situation. Each milieu doesn't always cause users' independent behaviors. 4. Another significance of them is that milieus have already recognized or they are easy to recognize. 5. Whether the milieu is meaningful or not depends on each individual.
This paper discusses the demolitions and demolition works of high-rise office buildings. What we found are as follows 1. 59 out of ever-built 604 high-rise office buildings have been demolished at New York City, and there have been built higher ones on their sites in most cases. 2. Demolition methods with conventional construction equipments are adapted in some high-rise buildings, because most of them stand over congested estates. 3. The big volume and long-lifetime of a high-rise office building make some problems on demolition. For instance, illegalizations of building materials that were legal on construction forces many careful treatments of them during demolition works in large quantities.
The purpose of this paper is clarifying space arrangement which less stressed to Lumbar vertebra. Therefore, the hand was attached and movement which rises from a chair, a sofa, a floor was analyzed. Joint moment of lumbar vertebra load was comparison and the result following was understood ・ Elderly people and a youth do not have the difference of load. ・ Load should be mitigated if a hand is attached. ・ A difference should be in mitigation of load in the position which attaches a hand. ・ Be greatly influenced rather than the difference in a seat in height and the position which attaches a hand.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference between spatial cognition from WASS (Wayfinding Active Simulation System) environment and Real Environment. Concretely, It made wayfinding experiment and sketchmap inquiry after the spatial learning trials. There are two groups with different information presentation. Group R is lerning space by walking through real environment. Group W is learning space with WASS. Group R can recognize space better than Group W. Finding of this study are as follows. 1) Spatial cognition is affected by physical activity and view. 2) Physical activity mainly influences orientation. 3) View mainly influences cognitive map.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between historical changes of 'Administrative Sphere (AS)' and local 'Facility / Service Sphere (FSS)' according to field works carried out in Kagoshima-Prefecture. This is a first step for reaching the Method of Sphere Establishment on the Local Facility Planning. This paper can be divided into two contents; 1) To research about historical conditions of AS, 2) To research about present'conditions of FSS; therefore, we show the coordination of them through their comparison. As a result of those analyses, we made it clear, that almost FSS in Kagoshima-Prefecture are greatly influenced by the Administrative Districts (the 'City-Country-Area' in particular) and the formation processes of them; while is more when are influenced within an old Administrative District.
This research aims to clarify the actual condition of Development Act, Building Act, and Land Use Change, and to verify those correlations. Main findings are as follows; (1) The time Zones demarcation system started, Ichinomiya-city had already had large-scale villages in the urbanization control area. (2) Farmland between adjoining colonies, and along the large-scale road going through the collected country zone are especially easy to be set as the object of development. (3) Disappearance of the small-scale farmland by building acts is remarkable at the circumferential edge of a colony.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear habitation characteristic of merchant family who work in the neighboring shopping district. In this paper, we cleared that the habitation characteristic is influenced by the local characteristic where shop exists, the age which shop is opened and the right of shop-ownership. But the desire to live in the neighborhood is not influenced by such things. So we have concluded that it can be said that it is necessary to consider about various types and systems of self-owned shop, and also consider about attractive place of residence in the neighborhood.
The author has investigated the damaged Chi-Chi area several times since the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, and conducted design surveys to grasp location and dimensions of all of the buildings on purpose to make a GIS database in the area. In this paper, the urban planning for reconstruction based on "The Essential City Planning for Reconstruction of Chi-Chi" is reported. Also it shows recovery and reconstruction progress curves with regards to public space using spatial reconstruction model that the author proposes to visualize complicated reconstructional process of damaged areas due to earthquakes.
The purpose of this research is grasping the present situation of the river management by the partnership between citizen and administrator, and grasping the problem and administrator's evaluation by difference of partnership situations in the project for waterfront schools for fan. Consequently, it turns out that the difference of partnership has drawn the difference of a problem. It turned out that supporting by participation bring about evaluation good for administrator. Because of it, Administrator has to build the system which can share information between a citizen and administration, and should carry out flexible support that correspond to management ability of citizen.
Making process of schemes for consensus building in participative planning is a spiral. People would receive information, understand schemes, discuss them, and make decision them. Process goes up spirally. Authors organized spiral workshop for local residents, and investigated factors which would determine subjective evaluation. As a result, we established clarity of the schemes, individual benefit, social norms, assumed term within which projects were completed, and possibility of realizing projects as the factors that determine the evaluation for an advanced understanding of community development schemes. And, we established individual benefit, social norms, embodiment of goals, and inclination to groups as the factors that determined the evaluation for decision making of the community development schemes.
This paper aims to clarify the location characteristic of works, the relation between works and dwelling-house and the reason for selecting location of works founded in recent years. Findings are as follows. 1. In Wajima-city, works are located in suburb in recent years. In Yamanaka-town, more works are located in suburb by construction of industrial complex.In Sabae-city, works are located in officially designated land. 2. There are much the works in which the house becomes one body in every city. 3. In Wajima-city, manager of works select the location by aiming at the improvement in the life.
This paper explores changes in the spatial structure of Khao San area, Bangkok as a case of backpacker place. Backpacker place is characterized by the concentration of low-cost hotels which provide not only domestic tourists but also foreign backpackers with rooms at a budget price. The expansion of global tourism has restructured the spatial structure of backpacker places. Through field surveys, the paper highlights the increased flexibility and diversity of building types, land use and commercial activities, and explores the characteristics of backpackers and service-providers such as hotel managers. As for future development of the area, there rises a tension between business communities which intend to promote a pro-growth development in the context of the wider economy, and local groups which put importance on the preservation of the indigenous context of the socio-economic and spatial structure.
This study analyzes the 50 years evolution in the expansion of the housing market areas and in their structure as areas of daily life, focusing on the relationship between working and residential area, which significantly influences the actual housing location. As a result, it has been clarified that: 1) The number of the housing market areas decreases progressively, while their internal structure becomes larger and more complex. 2) Changes in the commuters flow within a market area indicate changes in the communes function. 3) The nature of housing supply and demand can vary depending on different housing market areas, and its function on different parts within each area.
This paper shows the concept, method and assessing indexes to draw up a guideline for public facility management on a self-governing body. The method and assessing indexes, that the purposes are effective utilization of public buildings for having and reduction of life cycle costs, are required by analysis of life cycle costs on public free facilities for daily life in SETAGAYA-KU, Tokyo. The issues of public facility management and the method seizing the managing characteristics and position are clarified by analysis of life cycle costs, service costs and so on.
Hermit's cell (ANSITSU)is the facility which was an official name of Buddhist temple was not recognized before the Buddhist temple was formed. Regardless of the presence of temple name acquisition, when the Statue of Buddha was not granted, the picture images of Budbha were hung on the inner wall of the worship in the "ANSITSU". The Buddhist alter and the inner sanctum did not exist. In the space of worship in the hermit's cell (ANSITSU) of the Shin sect of Buddhism that had a temple name of Buddhist acquisition and where the Statue of Buddha was already granted, a Buddhist alter did not exist, but a space for the inner sanctum to enshrine Statue of Buddha existed, and it was divided with a space for a priest and a believer to worship it definitely. The constitution of hermit's cell (ANSITSU) was the form that a Buddhist facility and a residence facility for the life of a priest unified, and it was extremely ANSITSU(hermit's cell) with an extreme district characteristic by a style of "FUTAMUNE-ZUKURI" that was a traditional house of the Higo area.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the formation of a community and the compilation of "Shiban" over the "Henkaiichirantei" in "Zuisenji temple". A summary will be given as follows: 1, The community over the "Henkaiichirantei" in "Zuisenji temple" was able to form across time and space. 2, The "Shiban" work installed in the "Henkaiichirantei" was estimated by "Gido shushin" from a viewpoint of "Ninkyokenbi". 3, It was also recommended to request gatha from a high priest zen monk in another landscape, and to show gatha by high priest zen monk in "Shiban". 4, The occurrence in which a lot of gatha was produced involving "Henkaiichirantei" is also that the idea of "Ninkyogufudatsu" functioned well.
This paper shows that some characteristics were found in the design meanings of the Imperial Family's residences built in the Meiji Palace's private section in comparison with the Kyoto Palace. The residences were arranged conforming their new social rank established by the new government. They were designed basically following the former style on the module, planning method, and the proportion of its elevation, but much importance were attached to their daily life space, so the coved and coffered ceiling was applied, the fireplaces were set, and the tatami floors were covered with a carpet for their new life style.
In the traditional European towns, we often find a large square, which each town calls it "la grand-place ". It is an.open space surrounded by the town's great architectures. This paper attempts to clarify the historical transformation of la grand-place during the 18th century by basing this transformation on the event celebrating the birth of two crown princes, which were held in la grand place of Lille, northern France. In the early 18th century, la grand-place was an area used to held festivals, where citizens gathered to enjoy themselves and admire the central, monumental statue. By the later part of the 18th century, however, it became used more for political or public demonstrations in which the authorities tried to emphasize their power, and by doing so they contributed in forming our modem society.
This paper is an analysis of polychromatic religious architecture in Tuscany during the late medieval period. The purpose of the study is to reveal the types of strong bichromy in Pistoia by analyzing its patterns. The bichromy in Pistoia has three features. The first is that the patterns of bichromy on Pisa-Romanesque facades are different from one on the facade with Gothic elements; the latter has light, contrasting and intricate bands when compared to the deeper bands of the former. Secondly, they have complicated lozenge figures. The third feature is the coexistence of bands and complicated figures. Comparisons with polychromy in other Tuscan regions suggests that the strong bichromy in Pistoia has developed independently and has the specific characteristics of polychromy in Tuscany.
For the future conservation of the marble revetment in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, this paper aims at describing the present conditions of the marbles, and presenting new perspective on the material-architectural study of the church. By reviewing previous works on the restoration of Hagia Sophia, and through the preliminary investigation done by the team including the auther herself, this paper clarifies 1) the classification of the marbles, 2) characteristics in the setting and the placing of marble slabs on the wall, and 3) present situations with causes of decay. Through this research, it has also been proposed the necessity of multidisciplinary discussion about the systematic analysis for the marble revetment as a material of historic architecture.
In Korean villages there are some Jyeongs (a kind of pavilion architecture) with Kyeong (views) such as the Eight-views composed as poems of village landscapes. The purpose of this paper is initially to clarify the constitution of the village landscape as articulated by Kyeong through the analysis of the Eight-views of Sangujeong located in Andong Sosan, and to show the spatial characteristics of the domain border made by Kyeong. Furthermore the spatial characteristics concerning Jyeong will be shown, by considering that composing and reading poems, as Kyeong at Jyeong, articulates village landscapes creatively.
Through this research, "Ecologicalscape" for creating an excellent landscape matching the passage of time is being proposed. For this purpose, we disclose the following three points with regard to the required concept of "Ecologicalscape" and specific methods for realizing the proposed scenery creation. 1. Based on the changes of the seashore space in the course of marine coast improvement projects, the requirement for an "Ecologicalscape" was verified. 2. With the "Rainbow Pine Grove" in the city of Karatsu, Saga Prefecture, studied as a research case, the process of seashore scenery formation was determined. 3. Through the examination of the seashore scenery formation process in the Rainbow Pine Grove, factors for scenery experience (scenery evaluation) were determined, and specific methods for realizing an "Ecologicalscape" were formulated.