This paper aims to identify the problems with Chinese “Dilapidated Urban Housing Renewal” system, from the perspective of operation mode. A typical case of Jinshou Project is studied using analysis of project records, questionnaires, and interviews. It is concluded that, DUHR is a top-down system between government and homeowners; homeowners’ decision is still largely inﬂuenced by local government’s preference, their original will could be overwhelmed by local government’s compensation policy towards relocation; the decision-making procedure is time-wise and organization-wise insufﬁcient for homeowners; and the currently limited negotiation is a one way information transfer from local government to homeowners.
Japan is entering an era of super-aging and population decline. Among the various efforts aimed at mitigating their effects is the miniaturization of living units at special nursing homes for seniors and the elderly. Such measures are undergoing establishment for a Japanese society of the near future in which quality of life is guaranteed, even for those who are older, sicker, or even disabled.
In this research, we focus on both supporting the reduction of the care burden for caretakers and supporting the quality of living for residents according to space composition and environmental concerns in elderly living facilities. Then, while considering facility type and scale, care target attributes, and staff assignment, we clarify the relationship between the space composition of the life unit and the care burden feeling.
Considering the possibility that there are differences between facility ages, plan types, care burden feeling due to regional differences, we sent a survey form to facilities in Tokyo, Tokyo, which is the urban area, and facilities in Tochigi prefecture located in Kita Kanto. The total number of destinations was 690, of which 47 effective facilities were obtained (6.8%).
Focusing on the relationship between the common space and the bedroom, we categorized the combination of the features of the plan such as the number of rooms facing the shared space or the number of beds. We analyzed the relationship between these plan types and the care burden feeling. As for the care burden feeling, factors such as the size (capacity) of nursing care units, ease of watching from nursing care bases, and resident familiarity with flow lines from nursing care bases are thought to be affected. Therefore, in order to read these elements from the floor plan and evaluate them, the ratio of the room or bed facing the hall, the area of the shared space, and the area of the shared space/corridor (area excluding the room in the unit) Ratio were calculated. We examined the influence of these numerical values and their combinations on the care burden feeling.
Among them, there was a relationship between the combination of "Type of care unit size" and "Type of percentage of rooms facing a shared space" and care burden feeling. And, as the result, the tendency that the plan type of [corridor type] in which the ratio of the bedroom facing a shared space is low is advantageous in caregivers’ burden feeling and residents’ QOL evaluation was obtained. This is contrary to the fact that the guidance from the administration in many cases stipulates that the bedrooms face a shared space, as this is what the design guidelines call for in elderly facilities with private rooms and unit care.
According to the analysis of this paper, it is suggested that the caregiver’s emotional expenditure on elderly facilities is not influenced by only one factor but multiple factors that affect the burden feeling differently depending on the composition of each nursing care facility. From this, it is considered necessary to account for plan indicators for each unit size when first examining a facility’s floor plan. Further examination is necessary from the viewpoint of the caregivers’ burden feeling as it is planned that future facility development will be advanced based on individual room unit care.
This paper aims to organize the sufficiency evaluation of the day care facility for the elderly by the municipalities before the municipal merger in Heisei period by based on estimation of the number of the care-need certificated persons in Yamaguchi prefecture which is prominent in aging and encompasses urban and rural areas. In addition, this paper examines the effect in profitability of facility management by nursing-care insurance revision in 2015 by based on the management revenue and expenditure before and after the insurance revision.
The facility supply was advanced all municipalities before the municipal merger in Heisei period, and they function as a base for home care services. In old cities, the facility supply is advanced in the municipality with large number of the care-need certificated person, and the number of the users of the facility increases. So, the facility demand is high. On the other hand, in old towns and villages, even if the sufficiency evaluation of the facility is same, there are the municipalities with many users of the facility and the municipalities with few users. So, there is a disparity of facility demand. And, utilization rate is low in the municipalities where the number of care-need certificated persons is few and there are multiple facilities. In addition, this paper calculates the management revenue and expenditure, and it is clarified that if facility management continues in the same way as in 2009, the management of the facility slides into deficit in more than half number of the facilities in 2015.
In the facility with other facilities, it is possible to compensate for the management with the revenue of the other facilities. However, many small-scale facility using a vacant house is managed independently, so management of these facility will be difficult in the future. In old towns and villages, 9 municipalities have only one facility with a special nursing home. The number of care-need certificated persons will decrease in the future, so they should consider the method to maintain the welfare service for the elderly in the area, such as positioning each day care facility as a base of a community general support system and introducing “the Care Prevention and Daily Life Support Project”.
Residences for people with disabilities are currently in flux in Japan, tending more toward small homes in their familiar, residential areas and away from institutions in remote areas. Group homes were required by the act of the Diet entitled “Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act.” of 2006. Individuals with any kind of disability could reside in such homes. However, it appears that people with physical disabilities occupy such homes at a lower rate than people with intellectual and other disabilities. Information on the architectural planning of group homes for people with physical disabilities is very scarce.
Here, we study wheelchair accessible group homes (WAGHs) in Japan, to contribute to the construction of a place of residence in the area of severely disabled people. We conducted a questionnaire survey for WAGHs nationwide, field survey and interview survey for 11 WAGHs selected which take care of severely disabled people who use wheelchair.
According to the questionnaire survey, it was revealed that resident in the WAGHs were not only physically disabled people but also people with multiple disabilities, such as intellectual and physical disabilities. As for the degree of the disabilities, residents in the WAGHs were more likely to have more severe disabilities than those in the general group homes for people with disabilities. In addition, in spite of the fact that a large number of residents needs assistance when they bathe, most of the WAGHs had no special bathing facilities such as mechanical baths. Regarding the land and buildings, managing corporations tended to own the land and buildings by themselves, and use newly built buildings instead of the existing buildings. In addition, the capacity and total floor area of the WAGHs tended to be larger than the general GHs. Also, as a result of the analysis of floor plans, it turned out that the WAGHs tended to have larger bathrooms and dressing rooms than general group homes for people with disabilities.
In the field and interview surveys in 11 WAGHs, it was revealed that the majority of the people who wanted to establish the WAGHs were the parents of the people with disabilities. In terms of the difficulties in establishing the WAGHs, the most frequently suggested point was to find and acquire the land with necessary conditions, such as sufficient area. In many cases, the capacity of the WAGHs was firstly decides. After the capacity had been decided, land which could accommodate the capacity was searched. As a characteristic of the operation of the WAGHs, the same number of the caregivers as residents were arranged at dinner time in 6 WAGHs. If these caregivers were not the staff of the WAGHs, basically these caregivers were dispatched from care worker dispatch centers operated the same corporation. Most of the residents in the WAGHs are using day-care centers operated the same corporation as the WAGHs.
These survey results show that WAGH requires a large area in bathrooms and dressing rooms, so it is difficult to open it unless it is newly constructed. This fact suggests, at the same time, that it is difficult to rent and use existing buildings, which means the managing corporation need to prepare large amount of money in order to acquire the land and buildings. This is considered to be one major reason why the number of the WAGHs is scarce. In order to facilitate to establish WAGHs, it is necessary to create an assistant system to acquire land and buildings.
Some nursing homes for the elderly provide a high level of nursing care for residents, and they are taking increased responsibilities as the places for end-of-life care. However, the actual state of facilities as the places for end-of-life care is not fully understood, and in particular, it has not been thoroughly discussed or analyzed from a spatial perspective. In this study, it is aimed to clarify the state of nursing homes for the elderly as ‘one’s final abode’ and problems in facility development plans. It is also aimed to further develop the concept of nursing homes for the elderly, which has presently changed from a simple ‘place of nursing care’ to a ‘place of living’ and to clarify the optimal state of nursing homes for the elderly when perceived as ‘one’s final abode’ from the viewpoint of architectural planning. The survey was performed by twice questionnaire survys at all nursing homes for the elderly in the Tohoku, Kanto, and Chugoku regions. Additionally, on-site interviews and supplementary questionnaires regarding facility room usage were conducted.
The main results are as follows:
(1) It is clarified the state of nursing homes for the elderly as the places for end-of-life care. Furthermore, we found differences in the approach to end-of-life care among the facilities and regional characteristics.
(2) It is found differences in responding to end-of-life care as well as room usage during the process between conventional-type nursing homes with two- or four-bed rooms and unit-type nursing homes with private rooms.
(3) Total average of the percentage of death in the facility was about 56%, an increase of about over 10% compared to 20 years ago own survey. The difference between the prefectures is also large, nearly 25%. In the conventional type and the unit type, the conventional type had about 57% death in the facility and the unit type about 52%. In other words, the percentage of died in facilities was high in conventional multi-bed type facilities.
(4) In addition to the fact that individual private rooms contribute to the protection of everyday privacy and improved lifestyle, they enable end-of-life care to take place as an extension of one’s life. In other words, there is no need to change rooms when end-of-life is approaching, and one can live in their own room until the end.
(5) The actual conditions of use of the rest room and the mortuary varied depending on the facilities. Also, it became clear that the residential private room also plays the role of a rest room and a morgue.
(6) It became clear that each facility is performing various devices and considerations on the environmental aspect in end-of-life care. There was a need to arrange space or room that could accommodate the family's attendants and staying.
(7) It became clear that active cooperation of a general medical doctor, awareness sharing of staff including nurses, and experience are very important in practice of end-of life care in a facility.
(8) It is clarified the optimal state of nursing homes for the elderly and the approach in preparing facility spaces based on their roles as the places for end-of-life care.
When people observe a landscape from the inside of a building through its openings, the shapes and the states of those openings bring different visual stimulations to them. Understanding how landscapes can be seen through openings of buildings and evaluation of them give us valuable insights for planning and designing of architecture and landscapes. As a part of a series of researches on landscape-architecture, this study focuses on landscapes observed through openings of buildings, aiming at obtaining useful knowledge through comparison and analysis of gardens in the East Asia region.
In this paper, we selected the Chinese Suzhou gardens as a research object and took the inside of the buildings as a view point, and defined the integrated sceneries of the inside and outside the buildings viewed through their openings as a "Landscape-Architecture View". We paid special attention to the integrated space of the inside and outside of the buildings and L-A, and conducted a psychological evaluation analysis by using the SD method, a spatial composition analysis by the Indication method, and a multiple regression analysis for the compositions of landscape-architecture(L-A) views by using the grid line-surface method, then obtained the following results:
1) The Suzhou gardens have a psychological tendency of <Clear boundary>, <Richness of greenery> and <Horizontal>, and the almost equal indication rates of [Nature] and [Artifact] shows that spatial compositions tend to be created with the same levels of natural and artificial impressions.
2) There are correlations between [Architecture] and <Concentrated sightline>, [Nature] and <Ambiguous boundary>, [Ground] and <Open>, and the higher the indication rate of the above elements, the grater its psychological evaluation becomes.
3) [Nature] has both positive and negative effects on <Memory factor>. For example, tree trunks, grasses and shrubs have a tendency of being <Forgettable>, while wide distributed stone sceneries and tree groups show a tendency of being <Memorable>. A wide range of surface elements such as trees, shrubs and walls of buildings tend to have a <No change> effect, while concentrated distributions of trees, pavilions and other elements have a tendency of representing <Change>. Middle range of water surfaces have a great influence on <Clear boundary>, while landscape elements such as trees, stones and concentrated distribution of artificial objects, wide range of water surfaces are found to have <Ambiguous boundary>. The grasses and shrubs in the lower part of sceneries tend to give an impression of <Less greenery>, while buildings in the distance and roofs behind trees tend to give an impression of <Richness of greenery>, etc. The correlation between spatial composition and psychological evaluation was explained quantitatively.
Thus, we conducted the psychological evaluations of Chinese Suzhou gardens and analysis of their spatial compositions, and clarified the correlation and some of the characteristics between them.
In this paper, we propose a new morphological analysis method to evaluate architectural space. Specifically, we focus on the inner convex spaces as a partial inner space and enumerate all possible patterns. Since people can recognize each other in a convex space, they share five senses such as seeing each face, talking without being distracted by any obstacles. It means that a convex space is appropriate as one unit in the architectural space.
Recently, some real architectural buildings have complicated and amorphous shapes with seamless special connections. In such buildings, the convex space could be a useful tool to comprehend the spatial composition. Therefore, we regard the building as concave polygons and enumerate all possible patterns of maximal inner convex space.
The maximal convex spaces are enumerated in the following procedure. First, the possible candidates for the endpoints of the maximal convex spaces are enumerated as much as possible. The candidate points can be obtained by rotating lines around each reentrant angle of the objective concave polygon. Next, by confirming visibility, half-plane, and tangent line conditions, we create an adjacency matrix for candidate points. Finally, based on this adjacency matrix, we enumerate all possible maximal cliques, which correspond the maximal convex spaces for the analysis.
Derived inner convex spaces can be applied to various architectural planning issues. For example, we can clarify the characteristics of inner spaces such as area, circularity. These results indicate the diversity of usage in objective architectural space. Furthermore, the distributions of inner spaces correspond to the openness of space. If space is overlapped by various convex space, it is for public usage and vice versa. We also analyze the connectivity of each inner convex space by connecting centroids by a minimum spanning tree (MST) based on the similarity. This structure would be the backbone of architectural space.
Since we enumerated all possible patterns of inner spaces, it enables us to find the optimal inner spaces subject to various conditions. The optimal inner space which maximizes area, circularity, and so on, helps to understand the abilities of buildings. We believe that these new analyses expand the potential of quantitative researches for architectural planning.
This study can be regarded as a critical extension of Isovist theory which has been used in numerous earlier studies because a scanning vector which constructs the Isovist is a proper subset of some maximal convex spaces. All of the above computational procedure can be completed within a realistic time, and we believe that this study proposes a new possibility of morphological analysis for architectural space. Future prospects include developing methods applicable to more complex buildings, extending the method to three dimensions, and establishing useful search methods.
This study is intended to clarify the Evaluation Criteria of Visual Comfort on architecture by architectural pictures. At first, we collect examples of architectural pictures that 57 students in architectural department feel visual comfort and the answers why they feel so. We have gotten 171 pictures and 381 answers as verbal data described simply by free terms. 450 keywords are extracted from the answers, and they are classified according to similarity by Affinity Diagram. As the result of classification, 27 groups have been defined as the Evaluation Criteria of Visual Comfort. “Colorful” is the most number of keywords, “Nature” is the second, “Contrast of Light and Dark” is the third, and after the forth is “Expression of Emphasis", "Forceful", "Harmony", “Depth, Perspective", "Homogeneous, Complex". The average of the number of the answers per picture is 2.23. But we can find others of the Evaluation Criteria of Visual Comfort in the same picture. So, we have confirmed all pictures whether each keywords applies. As the result, the average increases to 8.53.
Next, we have conducted the impression evaluation experiment using the Semantic Differential method (5 degrees) on the 27 groups of the Evaluation Criteria of Visual Comfort to 58 students in architectural department. As the experimental result, the average of the number of the Evaluation Criteria that Visual Comfort is felt per picture is 5.42. This average is more than the former average. And we applied factor analysis on the experimental results. 7 factors following have been derived from the relationship between 27 groups of the Evaluation Criteria of Visual Comfort. Factor1: Distinguishing form, Factor2: Homogeneous – Complex & Static – Dynamic, Factor3: Nature – Artifact & Texture, Factor4: Emphasis by contrast & Forceful, Factor5: New – Aged-old, Factor6: Cleanliness & Clarity, Factor7: Repetition, Symmetry & Harmony.
Furthermore, to confirm the generality of the evaluation structure, we have conducted the impression evaluation experiment with the 7 factors to architectural students and common people. The results are following: (1) The tendency for the evaluation of visual comfort is similar between architectural students and general questionee, however it suggested that architectural education might affect the Evaluation Criteria of Visual Comfort about Factor3, Factor6 and sensitivity of beauty. (2) The correlation of Visual Comfort Factors indicates that the relationship between visual comfort factors contained contradictory, as Factor1 is correlated with Factor7 and “New” by intermediating factor but Factor7 is correlated with "Aged-old". (3) The correlation of Visual Comfort Factors indicates that the evaluation structure of Visual Comfort Factors is a circuit system. It is linked by Factor4 that intermediates between Factor1 and Factor7 though it includes contradictory elements in Factor2 and Factor5. The contradictory elements in Factor2 and Factor5 are “Complex, Dynamic, New” and “Homogeneous, Static, Aged-old". These may be related to image of “Life” and I call the former “Live movement” and the latter “Dignity of Death". (4) The correlation between Factor3, Factor5, Factor6 and Factor7 is only indicated by common people. This tendency may be influenced by not only the architectural education but also age and generation.
Education decentralization in Nepal was initiated by naming all government schools as ‘community school’ which encouraged community participation in management and funding. However, integration of school facilities with communities for informal learning has been less practiced. Therefore, this study on 45-community schools analyses decentralization patterns of education system constructed from the history of transformation seen in each school. Furthermore, school facility types were analysed based on their assignment of functions within the integration approach. Four transformation patterns and three integration approaches were identified and compared to clarify the prospects of integrated approach.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the positions of Jizo in Kyoto through analyzing the newspaper articles and photos especially about Jizo and Jizo-bon festival from early modern period to today. In this paper, we clarified the transformation of the social position of Jizo that had been emerged by the social problems through Jizo.
The results of this study are as follows.
After the order in 1871 to remove Jizo on the street, there were 4 periods the number of articles of Jizo increases as follows. ①The first period from 1887 to 1892 that the revival of Jizo-bon festival was paid attention as the curious affair. After this period Jizo and Jizo-bon festival became to be general as the usual situation before the order. ②The second period from 1929 to 1941 that Jizo and Jizo-bon festival had been the object of deeper and various interests, and after the outbreak of the Shino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, had been influenced strongly and utilized enhancing national prestige. ③The third period from 1952 to 1958 that Jizo-bon festival was appealed for the purpose of the democratic education after the war as the festival mainly for and by the children. ④The fourth period from 1971 to 1984 that the most interest was drawn, and the Jizo-bon festival was recognized to be necessary for the community work or the community formation, and such the recognition became established.
The revival of Jizo-bon festival was reported from 1881, and it became established again as the urban festival in Kyoto city in around 1899. And the changes of the road environment influenced to remove the location of the Jizo-bon festival in the 30’s of Showa period.
Through this study the process of the Jizo’s re-position facing to the street has been clarified that the position of the Jizo in usual situation was seen in some of Cho in around 1892, and they began to be positioned under the eaves of the shop house facing to the street in around 1900. Before early Showa period such the positions became general.
Analyzing through the newspaper photos, the outside location of Jizo-bon festival had been changed from the road into the other outside space like the alley, the rooftop, the temple, the park or the primary school, or into the inside space of the house or the temple. And the elements of the festival became to be composed from the long-term setting materials into the short-term ones. These changing terms were from the 30’s to the 50’s centering the 40’s of Showa period, and these periods overlap with the changing periods of the road environment.
This paper investigates the actual Residents Perceived Image (RPI) of Odaiba through a Foreigner - Japanese psychological Semantic Differential survey. Five image dimensions were discovered “Place Location, Milieu, Human Activities, Built environment, and Context”. Results show that Odaiba has multiple images through extracting six RPI patterns; (Unique, Reachable, and Walkable), (Assorted and Global), (Homogenous and Accessible), (Peaceful and Calm), (Disturbing and Inconvenient), and (Festive and Crowded). Odaiba’s perceived elements were studied in relation to these patterns. Japanese residents tend to care more about the situation, livability, and place’s style, while Foreigners care about its location, accessibility, diversity, and performance.
Many of the victims who lost their houses in the Great East Japan Earthquake relocated and moved into temporary houses from the shelter in the process of the recovery. However, the intentions regarding the recovery of their houses are said to have changed as time passes. This study, therefore, aims to clarify how the victims’ intentions changed concerning the method and place of their housing recovery in Ofunato city. Regarding the recovery method, the results of the survey are summarized in the following four points; 1) although “No-Answer” accounted for approximately half in the initial stage, victims gradually decided their intentions. 2) Various changes of the intentions were observed from “Housing reconstruction on their own” to “Collective relocation for disaster prevention” or from “Private rental housing” to “Disaster restoration public housing”, for example, until they were finalized. 3) Not a few households decided their intentions just before the closing of the temporary housing. Regarding the recovery place, the results are summarized as follows; 1) the rate of decline in the number of households was low in “City center” where was highly convenient. 2) Although the victims temporarily resided away from the district where they used to live due to the disaster, many of them returned to the original areas. 3) The number of households relocated inland areas was approximately half of the total number of those affected.
The transition of such intentions can be divided into the following three phases. The first phase is the “intention decision phase”, which generally corresponds to the post-disaster period until 2013. At this time, the contents of the recovery projects and victim support were finalized, and information on that was provided to the victims through the briefing sessions held many times. The second phase is the “intention change phase”, which corresponds to 2012-2015, partly overlapping with the first phase. In this time period, the intention determined initially was change due to changes in social conditions and in implementation status of reconstruction projects. In particular, the changes in intention occurred such as from "Housing reconstruction on their own" to "Collective relocation for disaster prevention", which were considered to be caused by soaring land prices, from "Collective relocation for disaster prevention" to "Housing reconstruction on their own", which were considered to be caused by project delays, and from "Inland area" to "City area", which were considered to be due to convenience and high habitability. The third phase is the “final decision phase”, when the household delayed the decision-making made the final decision with the closure of the temporary housing. Such households were mainly those who had been waiting for the land prices and construction costs to stop rising those who changed their intention from “No-Answer” to “Housing reconstruction on their own", and those who had been staying in temporary houses because of the burden of public housing rent who changed their intention from “No-Answer” to “Disaster restoration public housing”.
From the above, the authors suggested the following four points to the policy sector; 1) importance of the step-by-step grasp of the victims’ intentions, 2) importance of early determination of the recovery project and victim support framework, 3) importance of the presentation of realistic construction schedules, 4) importance of prompting decision making to undecided temporary housing residents.
In this paper, data on the current situation and subsidy system of historical buildings in Kanazawa City has been collected. The data has been compared to other municipalities and their subsidy systems through surveys and the results analyzed. Opinions of professionals in renovation planning and refurbishing of historical buildings were also surveyed and analyzed. Furthermore, owners of historical buildings who renovated and utilize them have been interviewed in order to investigate their situation and point out possible problems of the financial aid system.
Although the support system of historical buildings of Kanazawa City has certain effects, it has various problems as well.
A big issue of the financial aid system is the time constraint. In Kanazawa, planning, negotiation and applications have to be done until the end of a fiscal year in September, but the construction can only start in the following fiscal year, which is in April. Furthermore, the duration of the construction must not exceed that fiscal year. From September to April, construction work cannot be done, and when it starts in April, specialized construction workers are hard to find. As a possible solution, the system in Kyoto City can be referred as an example, where it is possible to do start the subsidized construction works right after the approval of the subsidy in October, which furthermore may be done over the span of 2 whole fiscal years.
Another problem is that current criteria in order to receive financial aid for refurbishing projects is too strict, resulting in high refurbishing costs. By relaxing the current criteria or adding new support projects with looser criteria, it is possible to start renovation projects more easily, furthermore the city will be able to support a larger number of projects.
According to owners and utilizers of historical buildings, the distribution of proper information is a problem as well. There is a need in a useful system, that provides proper information and consultation. Public data on succeeded projects, help with concrete planning of preservation and utilization of historical buildings, as well as calculating the approximate costs of refurbishing projects are just a few of many necessities.
1. Purpose of research
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the regulatory effect of the Chinese government’s Examination System for Store Renovation on the conversions of stores and the problems existing in landscape preservation. Wudadao Historical District in Tianjin City was selected because Tianjin has a consummate examination system on renovation of stores and historical architecture.
We grasped the structure of this examination system, and the actual work accomplished, through interviews with the relevant government departments. During November and December 2017, we grasped the impact on landscape conservation by doing a field survey of the current status of the renovation of stores. We tested the effectiveness of the system by comparing the compliance status of the stores in 2013 and 2017 on four examination items. For stores that were out of compliance in 2017, we distributed questionnaires to the operators to explore the causes of the anti-regulation renovation. Their replies confirmed the reasons for installing conversions such as vertical signboards, lanterns, and temporary advertisements that the government prohibited.
3. Results and Discussion
The effects of the examination system are as follows: compared with 2013, the pass ratio for signboards and renovation of exterior walls saw an increase, and renovation greatly hindering landscape conservation were not found. As a result, the examination system is believed to be effective to some extent. However, on the setting of criteria and actual operation of the system, some problems relating to landscape preservation still exist.
The system, focusing on the downtown area, neglects the Western style and the protected architecture in Wudadao district, thus leading to disorder of the landscape and discordance of styles. Current standards alone are insufficient. Depending on the characteristics of the district’s landscape, such as Western style, setting of a district-specific standard is necessary.
The examination of renovation of protected architecture is limited to physically conserving the designated range; as a result, the architecture is transformed by signboards, gates, walls, and additions on exterior walls. In the future, a mechanism is needed to review not only the main architecture renovation but also the acts of renovation on the entire site.
Numerous store operators expressed great dissatisfaction with the prohibition of temporary signboard-setting and promotion of unified signage through government coercion, which triggered the negative effect of setting up temporary signboards. How to mesh standards with the will of the people is another important project of the examination system.
The Tianjin case is representative because, like all of the examination systems, it is based on the units of stores; the mechanism to coordinate disparate stores in the same architecture has not yet been incorporated in the regulations. In the future, it is necessary for a method to review and evaluate the renovation on an architecture basis at the same time.
This paper aims to clarify the architectural characteristics of the Third howitzer platform in the remains of the Chiyogasaki Battery, the Tokyo Bay Fortress based on the results of the measurement survey using the three-dimensional laser scanning.
The Chiyogasaki Battery (completed in 1895) is a Coastal Battery in the Meiji era set up against the invasion of enemy ships to Uraga Channel, the entrance of the Tokyo Bay and to support the southern side of the Kannonzaki Battery, the core of the Tokyo Bay Fortress. The Chiyogasaki Battery was composed of three platforms: Howitzer platform for the sea front defense, Cannon and Mortar platform for the land front defense of Kurihama beach. After the Second World War the abandon battery was transformed into a pig farm. Thereafter the site was purchased by Japan-Self Defense Force and it was reused as the Naval transmission station (1960-2010). The platforms were filled up but JSDF reclaimed the second gun platform at the time of withdrawal (2013). The Chiyogasaki battery was designated as the National Historic Site in 2015 and Yokosuka city, the site administrator unearthed the Third gun platform (2018). At that moment there was no academic research on the Third howitzer platform and the author’s survey became the first one.
The Chiyogasaki Battery remains the original design and structure: the retaining walls built of cut Tuff stones (Bosyu－ishi) using an Bluff bond, the brick wall in English bond, the use of clinker bricks for open-air part and the barrel vaults in concrete. These are valuable examples of the progress of the modern fortification in Japan and also these have the important values in the history of Japanese architecture and civil engineering.
In this paper, I clarified the historical background and the outline of the Tokyo Bay Fortress and the Chiyogasaki battery. Then I verified the feature of the Third howitzer platform referring the precise drawings and the cross section perspectives made from the Point cloud of 3D scan data. These drawings clearly visualize the total composition of the underground structure of the Chiyogasaki Battery. With these drawings I verified the architectural characteristics such as the plan of the third platform, the configuration of the two howitzer emplacements, shell rooms on the retaining wall built in Bluff bond and the connection with the upper corridor and the munitions depot for the Third howitzer platform. The cross section perspectives also explains the shell transportation system of the shells at the Third howitzer platform through two lift holes and the carriage rails on both side of upper corridor.
Especially I examined the unearthed structure of the second gun emplacement: the round pit (diameter 5.89m) on the concrete slab and the octagon basement made of the cut Andesite blocks. I superimposed the plan of the base plate of howitzer on the basement and I found the deviation (208mm) between the center of the howitzer’s basement and the round pit. The deviation and the size of the round pit allow the gun the very limited rotatable range (83.24°, Azimuth 151.51° - 234.75°) to the direction sight. Showing the firing range of the 28 cm howitzer on the second gun emplacement, I clarified the firing system of the Third howitzer platform and I considered the role of the howitzer platforms for sea front shooting.
The Nihon-Doboku-Gaisha was the civil engineering and construction company authorized on March 17, 1887, the company was established with a capital of 2 million yen.
The background was not written even in "Syashi" about the establishment of a company. Also, one day in November 1892, the company president Okura Kihachiro declared the company dissolution to all employees. The dissolution of the company was mainly attributed to the "Kaisya-hou" in "Syashi". The establishment and dissolution of the company has been conducted several studies from the perspective of economic history etc. from the viewpoint of the rise of construction companies in the early days of modern times. However, in any case, the reason for the company's dissolution followed the "Kaisya-hou" theory described in "Syashi".
Therefore, this article examines the establishment and dissolution of the Nihon-Doboku-Gaisha, using the same age newspaper as well as the traditional "Syashi". And it aims at clarifying what kind of background the company is established and it has been dissolved.
The following points have become clear.
Before the Nihon-Doboku-Gaisha merged, both Okura-Gumi and Fujita-gumi were overly competitive and suffered damage, therefore, the two groups made preparations for the merger, and then asked Eiichi Shibusawa to join, and in 1887, established the company. It is assumed that 56 civil engineering engineers and staff members of Fujita-gumi were assigned to the Nihon-Doboku-Gaisha in "Syashi", but according to "Cyoya-Shimbun", they were 74 civil engineering staff and 46 internal technicians. As the business that promoted collaboration between Okura-Gumi and Fujita-gumi before the merger, "Syashi", mentions the Osaka-Boseki-Gaisha in 1881, however, regarding this, the Okura-Gumi was limited to participation as a shareholder. Rather, it is thought that the Dobokuyoutashi-gumi in Tokyo, where Okura Kihachiro,
and Hisahara Shozaburo have participated since 1881, have become the path of merger between Okura and Fujita.
After the merger, in 1889 Fujita-gumi withdrew from the management of the Nihon-Doboku-Gaisha, which has been considered as a provision policy in order to focus on mining management. However, in fact, because the Okura-Gumi of Tokyo and the Fujita-gumi of Osaka were inconvenient within the company, discussions on administrative divisions and future sales were held in July 1889. Therefore, it can be thought that this discussion has taken the opportunity of Fujita-gumi leaving the management of the Japanese engineering company.
The company's dissolution in 1892 was attributed to the "Kaikei-ho". However, looking closely at the company's performance, in 1889 the company was already reported about poor business results and organizational problems in newspaper, and the company saved expenses and reduced wages in 1891. In addition, the dividend which recorded 22% in 1889 finally falls to 7%, and the loss by construction is also reported. In other words, it was true that the company had been downsized due to the recession before the dissolution, and it was true that the company was in a trend of declining performance, and it could be considered that the accounting law put an end to it and broke up.
This paper aims to examine the formation of Friedrich Silaban’s notion of the “open veranda” (“emper terbuka”). Using descriptions extracted from Silaban’s reports of his journeys to Japan (1954), India (1954), and the United States of America (1957), unpublished and published articles (1950s-1960s, 1982), we analyzed the formation of this “open veranda” into three periods: 1954-1957, 1950s-1960s, and 1970s-1980s. Silaban’s notion of the "open veranda" is the reorganization of the subject in Indonesian traditional houses and modern architecture. At the final stage, this notion has a dual character that reflects the unique subject of Indonesia and the universality simultaneously.
Mount Wutai is located in the northeast of Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province. And Zhenhai Temple is located in about 5 kilometers away from the central area called Taihuai of Mount Wutai. The temple was founded before 1465, when it was a Zen temple. In the Yuan Dynasty, Tibetan Buddhism was introduced from Tibet to Mount Wutai. In the Qing Dynasty, the Royal Family strongly believed in Tibetan Buddhism. Due to the respect of the royal family, Tibetan Buddhism experienced prosperity in Mount Wutai, and many temples in the mountain had been well repaired.
Zhenhai Temple was famous for its abbot Changkya Khutukhtu's religious status. In the Qing Dynasty, there were 6 temples belonging to Changkya Khutukhtu in Mount Wutai, and Zhenhai Temple was the central temple among them. Now Zhenhai Temple consists of five parts: Qian Yuan, Bei Yuan, Hou Yuan, Nan Yuan and Nanxi Yuan. The scale of all the buildings in the temple are more than 100 Ken wide frontage in total.
In 1711, Tibetan Buddhist monks entered Zhenhai Temple, which changed the temple into a Tibetan Buddhism. From the Ming Dynasty to Kangxi Period, the buildings of the temple were arranged in order from the Mountain Gate.
In the early Qianlong Period, the buildings of Zhenhai Temple was surrounded by forests, and the buildings were depend on the mountain landform. There were several red buildings in the temple, and more than 10 Tibetan Buddhist monks lived there. In addition, there was a building for the Emperor to rest, which called Jing She in the following of the text it was called Yuzuo Fang.
In the later Qianlong Period, according to historical data, it can be confirmed that buildings such as Mountain Gate, Bell Tower, Drum Tower, Front Hall, Main Hall and so on were built in Zhenhai Temple. In 1785, there was still a Jing She in the temple, and the scale of it was 3 Ken. In 1786, the Tibetan Buddhist monk Changkya Khutukhtu died in Mount Wutai. A Tibetan Pagoda was built for Changkya Khutukhtu in the center of the Ling Yuan in Zhenhai Temple. The scale of the Zhenhai Temple was enlarged during the Jiaqing Period. It was composed of three parts, Qian Yuan of the Chinese Style Arrangement, Ta Yuan of the Tibetan style and Zuoluo Yuan of the Emperor. In addition, the roof of the temple's buildings, the doors and windows are all constructed according to the Chinese Style. The only building belonging to the Tibetan Style was the Changkya Khutukhtu Pagoda.
Behind the architectural space of Zhenhai Temple, there are three major factors of Chinese Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Emperor Power. Among the three major factors, Tibetan Buddhism and Emperor Power had a greater influence on Zhenhai Temple. It can be seen that the Tibetan Buddhism in the Qing Dynasty entered the Zhenhai Temple through Changkya Khutukhtu of the Gelug school, and the establishment of Ta Yuan in the Zhenhai Temple in the Qianlong period was directly related to it. Also, the construction of the Ta Yuan was strongly influenced by the power of the Emperor.
From 1950s to 1980s, in the modern history of China, a significant movement once happened in the ordinary rural areas throughout the whole country, that is People’s Commune. As the precious legacy of the practice of Marxism, it has been researched in a broad range of fields like History, Sociology, Economics and so on. However, in the field of architectural history, the research on the People's Commune still remains a state of blank.
The Weixing Commune is known as the first funded People's Commune in 1958 in which a group of architectural professionals from South China University of Technology, which is one of the early-funded architecture school in China whose main staff completed their studies from the western world once took part in the planning and design of it. This paper tries to figure out how they planed the People's Commune, where was their design concept from in the period of social transformation overlapped between Communism and Modernism in 1950s.
Through the analysis of the proposal, this study made it clear that facing the new design topic under the ideology of Communism which somehow acted as a political task, the design group tried to use the idea of Neighborhood Unit put forward by an American planner named Clarence Arthur Perry, which is one of the most important concept of modern town planning in 20th century and adjusted it in some way fit to the rural villages to accomplish the spatialization of institution.
In conclusion, under the prevailing idea of Modernism in Architecture(1950s), the architects of this case did tried to put forward their proposals in the Commune planning. In the movement of People’s Commune proposed by the Chinese government at that period, most of the Chinese architectural professionals just like the design group from South China University of Technology, did tried to use their knowledge of architecture to change the traditional villages, which somehow acted as a great chance for China to accept the idea of Urban Planning and Moderism architecture from the western world.
In this paper, we seek the possibility of Modulor in the digital era by demonstrating computational methods to solve “The Panel Exercises” that Le Corbusier presented and confirming their “combinatorial explosions.”
The first Panel Exercise proposed by Le Corbusier is a game of dividing an initial square (2260 * 2260) recursively under Modulor (Fig. 1). According to the characteristics of the golden ratio, the method can be formulated such that one of the four division rules is applied in the case of red series, and one of the five rules is applied in the case of blue series, about either the horizontal (x) or vertical (y) direction of the intended rectangle. Fig. 2 illustrates the schematic diagram of these rules. Based on this analysis, a Python program was prepared in which four classes (BB, BR, RB, RR) are defined to represent these rectangle types. Each class has a method of bisection rules. The set of N panel combinations can be made from the set of N-1 panel combinations. Fig. 4 shows combinations generated by this program and selected at random. Eventually, an accurate total number of combinations can be counted as shown in Table2.
Le Corbusier proposed another Panel Exercise, dividing the initial square by means of the specified panels measured in Modulor. More specifically, the first batches of sixteen combinations were given with respect to a) 12 pieces of six different panels, b) six pieces of four different panels, and c) nine pieces of three different panels (Fig. 5). There is no known method of easily counting the total number of solutions for this kind of packing puzzle. The algorithm for this procedure is called a “depth-first search,” and the practical steps for solving this Panel Exercise are as shown in Fig. 6. However, it is noted that this kind of search tree sets off a “combinatorial explosion” according to an increase in the number of pieces. Efficient pruning of the search tree is required to avoid unnecessary calculations. The pruning of the search tree can be illustrated as shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 8 illustrates five combinations for each pattern, selected from all solutions explored by this program. The total number of solutions and calculation time are as shown in Table3.
Additionally, four panel exercises were presented in Modulor. The third panel exercise is evolved from the first exercise by changing the aspect ratio of the initial rectangle according to the Modulor order. Therefore, the total numbers of combinations for each initial rectangle can be calculated using the same Python program from the first exercise. The fourth through sixth panel exercises are evolved from the second exercise by augmenting series of five initial rectangles (A), as shown in Fig. 10. The difference is that the allocating pieces are not fixed and are collected, allowing duplication from five panels, two band widths (flexible length panels), and dotted panels for doors (B). Before enumerating, the two bandwidths (flexible length panels) have to be restricted to the lengths presented in other five panels, since these exercises have literally infinite combinations under permission of using bandwidths of any length. Then, the tentative collections in which the sum of the pieces’ area is equal to the initial rectangle’s area should be listed, whereas many of them have no solutions in the end of the depth-first search. According to Fig. 10, if the two bandwidths should be less than six and the door panels should be less than three, then the total number of collections and total number of combinations without residues are as shown in Table5.