Historically, the slums increased in the developed countries with recent modernization and today it becomes the serious problem to be improved. Toward the problem, governments implemented various improvement projects which prepared the legal restrictions on housing and construction to improve the living environment of the slums. But the slums are still existing with illegal construction practices by residents. This paper aims to clarify the reason why people take the illegal way of construction to make their living by analyzing alley space in 70 rai community, Klongtoey, Bangkok, Thailand. The primary data were collected by intensive field work including the drawing of the map of the community, façade and plan of alleys and houses, activity in the alleys, detailed information on residents’ everyday life by interview.
First, the government’s legal restrictions on housing and construction in 70 rai community which was implemented in Site and Service Project at 1985 is described. Building in 70 rai community observed the legal restriction on construction at 1985. In this paper, the houses which were built observing the legal restriction on construction is defined as “Legal extension on provided building model”.
Second, currently living space in 70 rai community will be analyzed to understand general model. This paper analyzes area of site, the number of the floors of each house, and structure. As a result, in 70 rai community, area of site is classified into 4 types and second story with the structure of reinforced concrete and wood are popular. In the area called Ban karun, where the poorest citizens lived, area of site is 2 type and one story with structure of reinforced concrete are popular.
Third, this paper analyzes the ways how to use alley by focusing Soi 12, Soi 13, and Soi 28. Various things are overflowing to outside and people tend to stay under the roof over the alley. It is common that people are talking, resting, eating under the roof and so on. Overflowing things and roofs over the alley work as spatial device and cause people’s specific activity in the alley.
Finally, this paper clarifies illegal construction practices. There are few “Legal extension on provided building model” in Soi 12 and Soi 13 and also in Soi 28. The illegal construction practices can be seen in almost all houses. Moreover, there are 2 types both in Soi 12 and Soi 13. In addition, there are 3 types only in Soi 28. In this paper, illegal construction practices are clarified as overflowing things, the roof over the alley and extending forward, backward and second floor. Following the factors, illegal construction practices are considered based on interview for residents. As a result, illegal construction practices is limited only within the acceptable or allowable level among people. On the contrary residents see whether or not are prevailing among people, “anyone” had already done those illegal practices. It cases the illegal practices.
Townscape of central area in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is formulated by two– or three–storied shophouses which were built after 1960’s. Vacant flat rooftop of those shophouses is currently occupied by residents as their living space. One of the common cases of such occupation is to extend the highest floor to possess rooftop floors for their own use, which is commonly overserved in one–span shophouses. On the other hand, large and planar rooftop space on “apartment type” shophouses is utilized as living space for multiple households whose communities are independent from main body of shophouses. Such a style of living itself, living with shpohouses and/or city, seems to be quite unique.
Historical background of rooftop settlements is considered to back to the civil war from 1970 to 1993, especially confusing period after demise of Pol–Pot regime; however, actual situation of rooftop settlements during the period is not apparent.
This study focused on dwelling place formulated on rooftop floors of shophouses, which have not been paid attentions, to clarify its actual situation from architectural points of views, those are, spatial composition of rooftop dwellings, utilization of space and their communities, especially taking notice of cooperativity among dwellers.
As reported in the previous study, living rooms in main body of shophouses are commonly placed over against balconies toward roadside, keeping a certain amount of distance from entrances of each room and share space, where share space is usually composed of corridors and star cases. Dissociation between living space and common space as well as monofunctionalized common space derives disuse of common space by dwellers. On the other hand, wealth of cooperativity were observed in rooftop settlements which is caused by some contrastive factors compared to main body of shophouses, that is, living–access, existence of large external space, possession and/or sharing external space, living activities on external space and sharing public service.
We concluded those characteristics into four portions:
Small–scale houses are built adjacently on rooftop floors. Though formulation process of rooftop settlements could not be clarified, it is clarified that it became dense incrementally after demise of Pol–Pot regime. New construction of houses is prohibited currently; however, minor repair and reconstruction, sublease, sales and purchase of houses are still possible. Most of housing plan is dominated by “living–access” type which enables dwellers easily access external space from inside their houses.
Layout of houses itself on rooftop floors is classified into four types, which ensures certain amount of external space not to densely built up rooftop floors. External space is utilized for cooking, association among dwellers, washing, religious activities and planting. Twenty to thirty percent of residents take close relation with others for mutual assistance. Remaining dwellers also take daily conversation in external space.
External space is not owned by dwellers explicitly; however, dwellers keep spatial common–sense of how to possess and/or share external space in common. In principle, the space from front face of each house until center line of alleyways can be utilized by each dweller unless it does not prevent passages by others.
Public services as water, electronic and toilet are formerly shared with lower floors and/or other houses on rooftop floors. Currently, most of houses subscribe those services to public sectors led by administrative direction. Toilet is still shared among residents.
It has been more or less than 50 years since condominium complexes were completed during a nation’s high economic growth. A renewal period is given as aging of building become evident. During this period, turnover of owners hardly happens simultaneously. As owners and buildings age, certain problems occur like declination of community due to insufficient management. Because of this, it is essential to establish a study structure as soon as possible and select revitalization methods based on character of the owners and living awareness.
The feature of this paper is aged housing for mixed type, mid-rise and terrace building condominium complexes. The realities of living awareness against housing units and revitalization of complexes by owners shall be focused. This paper aims to propose effective guide for suburban aged mix type housing complexes to challenge future renewal.
This research’s results and challenges are as follows:
(1) Owner acquires ownership after returning long-term loan. Owners have aged when maintenance association was formed. Challenges were faced during discussion of the future of the housing complexes with owners
(2) Even though housing building types are different, low birth rate and longevity were pronounced in both housing buildings. A solution is necessary as most owners prefer their housing complexes due to its location and convenience.
(3) It was found that there is a difference on how repairs were conducted by owners. There is an interest to maintain and upgrade.
(4) Rebuilding of midrise buildings are high due to the limited floor area and remodeling is limited to the interior compared to terrace housing. Overall, terrace buildings have a higher remodeling percentage due to many units have a demand for changes in living needs.
Introduction: Pupils need to be prepared to be resilient and adaptable as society undergoes various changes over their lifetime. The Revisions of the Courses of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools were enacted in 2017, and they call for improvement of teaching methods through the use of active learning methodologies. In addition to that, having more pupils using portable computers brings changes in the ways of learning and space implications. The choice of furniture and its arrangement is a critical factor in the success of the space. This paper aims to grasp characteristics of furniture and furniture layout for active learning.
Methods: Three comprehensive schools in Sweden were chosen as the basis for this study because they provide their own specialized education and cater for learning environments with a variety of furniture. The principals were interviewed about their pedagogical methods and how they use the learning spaces. Furniture and its arrangement in the open spaces were studied. Specs of the furniture including shape and dimension were measured and the furniture layouts were drawn. 98 samples of furniture were drawn from these investigation schools. Each piece of furniture was represented as a combination of these 4 factors, face direction, height of work surface, wall numbers and the existence or non-existence of a circulation route behind the seat. The samples of furniture were classified into four types. The furniture layouts composed of furniture types and circulations were divided into two patterns.
Results: The four types of furniture are Individual Work, Group Territory, Free Layout and Social Furniture. Individual Work Furniture indicates desks or chairs which pupils sit at or on a line, which suits individual work. Individual Work with no circulation route behind the seat can ensure more privacy because PC screens cannot been seen. Group Territory Furniture represents tables where people sit down or stand facing each other with two or more walls around the tables. Groups can feel that they have their own territories. Free Layout Furniture shows tables without or with just one wall. Tables and chairs of this type can easily been moved so that pupils can arrange their own spaces. Social Furniture has a circulation route behind the seat and is furniture without specifying a face direction such as rugs or stages or a high table that people can get together with no chair.
The furniture layout patterns are divided into ‘Social Furniture at an Intersection’ and ‘Social Furniture Centered Layout’. In the former, Social Furniture is set on the intersection of circulation routes and other types of furniture are set alongside the circulation routes. Social Furniture is where students are taught by teachers away from the individual working area. It is suitable for individual learning. In the latter, Social Furniture is set in the middle of open space and surrounded by other types of furniture. Social Furniture offers a place where a number of pupils can gather and have discussions or presentations. It supports a range of activities.
Discussion: Pupils work individually, in small groups or as a whole group in active learning. Learning environments must change to enable them to take on a variety of learning experiences, whether different teachers, different co-learners, different places or different styles of learning. Open spaces with furniture will contribute to active learning which is often difficult to achieve if all learners are taught through lecture-style teaching in an institutional classroom. The location of Social Furniture is a key factor as well as the provision of different types of furniture. Social Furniture in the center of an open space can connect a range of activities.
In the 2000s, Children’s Home have seen a transition from a large unit system that entails living together as a large group to a small unit system that focuses on a family-oriented living environment with a small group of people. The small unit system is beneficial for a child’s peace of mind and a stable relationship to be built with staff members; however, many issues with the management and operation of such institutions have been raised. As such, though originally, the ideal of the small unit system was that each home would be able to offer a lifestyle that allowed for independence in food, clothing, and shelter, recently, there have been efforts to reduce the ill effects of small unit systems by developing lifestyle behaviors in common spaces outside the homes. It can be said that the function of the common space has diversified.
This research has extracted the cases of three institutions, and it aims to capture the management direction and use of the common space as well as the actual state of awareness of the space, and from this, examine the function of the common space. The following was made clear from this research.
The commonality among these three institutions is that mandatory behaviors like sleeping and eating are done in the residential space. As for the behavior of the children, restrictive behavior like studying and chores, as well as free behavior like playing and hobbies are done in the residential space, but because the multi-purpose area and specialized area of the common space can be used after approval is given by staff members, it can be said that the common space is supplementary to the residential space. Regarding the behavior of the staff members, those at C preferred to do their work such as recording things and meeting with others in the residential space, whereas those at A and B preferred to use the common space as the base.
After investigating the awareness of the children and staff members about the atmosphere in the institution, in A and B, it was found that the management and specialized areas were more acknowledged than the home area as a place to engage in communication between the children and the staff members. In contrast, at C, the home was strongly acknowledged as the place for communication.
From the group discussions conducted by the staff members about the function of the common space, it was found that the staff at A affirmatively accepted the establishment and use of the current common space. B focused on the function of the common space as being somewhere for the child to go to aside from individual support or residential space. As with the other two institutions, C understood that issues included the management method of children using the multi-purpose area and managing both the work done in the area and responding to the children.
From the investigation above, it was pointed out that the function of the common space involved the following seven points: 1) complementing the lifestyle of living space 2) individual support 3) group work 4) retreat from Home area 5) guarantee of options in living 6) support of the staff members’ team approach 7) staff’s break. For these points, 2) 3) 4) 6) 7) are considered to be included in the original purpose of the common space. Meanwhile, 1) 5) are considered to be the functions particular to the small unit system.
The purpose of this research was to verify the results and the effects of the previous studies, under a different experimental setting, based on various ages and each gender; an elderly-male, a young-male, and a young-female group. This research also experimentally investigates the impact on physiological and psychological status under two scenarios; one is receiving the notice information before the 15 seconds of the seismic ground motion, and the other is receiving the Earthquake Early Waning, coincident with the seismic ground waves.
The main results, compared with the previous research, are summarized as follows:
1) An elderly-male is not likely to hold a scare to an earthquake, nor hold a necessary awareness of daily countermeasure for an earthquake. However, the actual seismic motion affects them physiologically, therefore their consciousness level toward the necessity of daily countermeasure as well as the prevention against an earthquake disaster tends to be slightly improved.
2) A young-female is likely to hold a scare to an earthquake psychologically, especially tends to become hopeless and feel a deep anxiety at the time of an earthquake, while they do not get affected physiologically by the seismic ground motion.
The clear impact, based on the difference of the grace time with a notice information, was found under only one category out of nine categories in total.
3) In an elderly-male group, a signiﬁcant difference was found under the STAI, in the case that the notice information is distributed either before 15 seconds or 0 seconds. The result has made clear that their state of anxiety tends to be relieved by the notice information with a grace time.
Regional climate is an important element in architectural design. In particular, passive design that uses natural energy effectively by architectural methods is getting its importance from the viewpoint of environmental problems and energy conservation. Window is one of fundamental elements for passive design methods such as daylighting and cross ventilation. However, the slender sites with narrow frontage and deep depth exist as a typical housing lot in contemporary urban area in Japan. These conditions might restrict the design direction of these houses, especially for window, because the locational factors cause limitations for their arrangements while various necessities for the urban house, such as keeping privacy, safety and view, are required. Hence, it is necessary for their design to respond to both requirements, one is from the passive design solutions and the other is from each site’s specific conditions. It could be considered that various characteristics of practices for passive design in contemporary houses emerge throughout their investigations. Particularly, ambivalent characteristics between light and thermal environment near the large window in winter which has advantage to get much sunlight but disadvantage for keeping warm could be found. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify characteristics of spatial composition, light environment and thermal environment near the window of contemporary Japanese houses in the slender site during winter.
First, spatial composition of near the window is examined besides the overview about climatic condition. Then, characteristics of the main space and its windows are analyzed as seen from the way to open to surroundings.
Second, light and thermal environments of the main space in a winter day are analyzed by simulations. Light environment is examined by illuminance near the window and the center while thermal environment near the window is examined by operative temperature with considering variations in a day.
Third, relationships of spatial composition, light and thermal environments are analyzed.
1) In both the long north-south site and the long east-west site, the main space and near the window tend to be located on the upper floor and opened to the outside site.
2) The illuminance near the window is highest mostly in the daytime while the center place tends to be highest also in the evening. The unevenness of illuminance between these places also increases mostly in the daytime. In the analysis of thermal environment near the window, the degree-hour (DH) is used to indicate fluctuation of operative temperature. Many cases show the highest amount of DH in the evening while the Comfort DH and the High DH rarely appear.
3) The composite analysis of space and environment shows correlative characteristics among the cases which get much the light and heat of the sun. It indicates that the main window facing south with outdoor space inside site is superior. Further investigation regarding improvement of thermal insulation performance of the window indicates a tendency of a trade-off between brightness and warmth. The DH generally increases and thermal environment is improved in most cases though it differs depending on the size of window and the structural property.
This is a study on neighbors’ interaction observed in aggregation of spilling outs in common passages. First of all, we assume that neighbors’ interaction will make some aggregation in a series of spilling-outs. Based on this assumption, we check aggregation as a sign for neighbor’s interaction. First, we draw histograms for frequency of spilling-outs by common passage and find some deviation compared with a histogram at random situation.
Second, we propose a new index, neighborhood correlation, to check aggregation in a certain area. This index is a modification of Moran’s I which can allow us to check correlation not only in one event, but also between two different events. We use adjacency-matrix to calculate this index which defines a boundary of neighborhood and check the range where we can recognize aggregation. With this index, we validate four types of aggregation; aggregation in spilling-outs area, aggregation in each category of spilling-outs, aggregation between spilling-outs area and each category, and aggregation over each category.
As for the spilling-outs area, we find the highest aggregation in the center part of the passages where residents pass every day and it might be bothering if something is placed in that area. This result suggests us that residents are likely to follow what others do when they think it may bother someone. As for the category of spilling-outs, “bicycle& vehicle” has no aggregation in itself nor with other categories or spilling-outs area, and this means that residents put “bicycle& vehicle” in common passages without thinking about other. On the other hand, “decoration” “barrier” and “cupboard” have clear aggregation in themselves but don’t have with other categories or spilling-outs area, while “green& gardening” “laundry” and “food& pot” has aggregation both in themselves and with other categories. This result implies that there are two types of spilling-outs’ aggregation, one of which is the type some residents imitate what others do, and other is that residents put what they want to put in common passages when they find neighbors do the same thing. In addition, “green& gardening” “laundry” and “food& pot” have aggregation among themselves. Regarding that these three are all have relationships with residents’ daily life and most people put them in their own balconies or gardens, the aggregation among these spilling-outs suggest that the situation they use a common passage as if it were their private area is transmitted and settled down to neighbors.
Therefore, we find some aggregation in a series of spilling-outs and also that some categories and pairs of categories of spilling-outs have stronger aggregation than others. This shows us the prospect for neighbors’ interaction and its character in common passages. It is true that this is the result from only one example, but this is a good example of the common passages with cooperative scenery created by their residents, and shows us a possibility of an indirect communication mediated by spilling-outs.
In Japan, the aging rate is expected to increase up to 33.4% and the rate of one-person households up to 37.2% in 2035. Since it is deemed that the current social system cannot afford such circumstances, interest is growing on local communities and resident welfare activities, both from local and political points of view. Local interest is also growing on the utilization of increasing vacant houses. According to the Housing and Land Survey 2013, the total number of vacant houses in Japan is 8.2 million which accounts for 13.5% of total houses in Japan. Among the vacant houses, besides holiday houses and houses for rent or sale, the rate of “other houses” including the problematic vacant houses is rapidly increasing from 32.1% in 2003 to 35.4% in 2008 and to 38.8% in 2013. Many are individually owned houses inherited from deceased parents to children who already owns their houses and left unsold or unoccupied due to the owners’ affection to their family homes or to matters of demolition costs. Therefore, such owners are assumed to hold the vacant houses until any compelling reasons occur to sell them.
The problem of the difficulty in securing community activity bases may be reduced if vacant houses can be rented free or at low cost. This is a beneficial way for both the local area and the community activity because utilizing vacant houses as community activity bases may solve vacant house problems, community activities may proceed smoothly assimilating into local communities by using pre-existing houses and the expected free or low rent is suitable to financially fragile community activities.
To define the conditions of vacant houses suitable for activity bases, we made a survey on the District Volunteer Center, an institution of the District Council of Social Welfare of Chigasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture which is a precedent example of using vacant houses for activity bases. The results showed that the ideal conditions of vacant houses for community activity bases were to have “independent office space”, “volunteer lounge space” and “space for multi-purpose use”. Many of the vacant houses were second-hand housings. The merit of using a second-hand vacant house is that the rent may be free or low, however, on the other hand, there is a demerit of a possibility of moving out due to request for evacuation from the owner. If this demerit is taken merely as a risk, utilizing vacant houses may not proceed. It is therefore essential to develop an environment where information on vacant houses is accessible, making smooth relocation to better housings at any time. Information on vacant houses is hard to obtain, however, if opportunities are provided to meet owners suffering from handling their vacant houses and willing to rent to someone who can take care of such houses, there may be a chance to use such houses as community activity bases at free of charge or at low rent. Measures for approaching owners of vacant houses should be discussed in the future. Information on vacant houses are currently obtained through networks of the members of community activities or through real estate agents. Developing further measures may solve the problems of insufficient information and the members’ anxiety of relocation that may become a blockade of discussing the utilization of vacant houses. It is required to recognize where the information on vacant houses is accumulated and to structure a system of obtaining and providing information that may organically connect various accumulation points.
In recent years, we faced the issue of shrinking population and super aging society. While it is worried about disappearing local municipalities, the number of migrants in rural areas and practitioner of exchange visits between cities and rural areas has been increasing. It is said that dual-habitation, research object in this study, is much in latent demand. This lifestyle is expected to have possibilities for regional revitalization and re-use of vacant houses. But it has been pointed out that dual-habitation has some barrier to start and continue this lifestyle. On this issue, we focusing on the base place to stay for dual-habitation without own a home. As the effect of base place, we clarified that base place remove some barriers prohibit the progress of dual-habitation. In addition, we clarified that characteristics of base place at Kanto and neighboring prefectures.
Incidentally, the action of regional revitalization need to be viable as a business enterprise. Therefore, we focusing on aspect of business. And so, the purpose of this study is to clarify business characteristics of base place to stay for dual-habitation without own a home, through understanding the real condition of operation, actual usage and background to the establishment of base place.
There are some previous studies on dual-habitation such as clarify ulterior motive of person who has the intention to migration and dual-habitation, explain preference pattern about life image of migration and dual-habitation. However, there is no studies about actual place of dual-habitation. Furthermore, this study is unique in analysis of several types of base places within the framework of dual-habitation.
In this study, through documents and web search, it was gathered information about 95 places. In addition, we selected research object from located in resort area as to be considered having advantages in business. Dual-habitation business had not yet led to actualize needs. So, these approaches are considered most suitable for this study focusing on aspect of business, where it is possible to obtain useful knowledge of actual condition and characteristics for each study subject.
The findings from this study are listed below.
1) Base place operators generate revenue by having multiple business location and managing multiple business. Managing multiple business in base place is effective way for operator to seek risk reduction and business solution. In addition, by operating without limiting users who want to own or lease property, base place able to secure multiple revenue.
2) Unobtainable real property information is flowing in base place operated by local residents. The needs of own or lease real property is changed into new business or new work in base place operated by expert or experiencer concerned in construction, real estate business and community development.
3) Base places type of KG, established by public sector and operated by private sector, cannot ensure a successful use of buildings by law stipulates.
4) At the base place advertised as farming place, business opened up by individuals and firms grow at a slow pace with involving local residents, and relationship of share in benefits are building slowly. It could be said that these business pattern is one of the most ideal case for achieving regional revitalization.
Research object on this study are 8 places only, but there are useful knowledge obtained by this study to progress of dual-habitation outside area of resort.
With the rapid development of tourism, the possibility of habitability and traditional culture and life of most traditional villages in China are rapidly disappearing. In this paper, we selected 11 villages located in Guanzhong Area of Shaanxi Province as research subjects, which had been registered into “Chinese Traditional villages” list until 2015. These villages have a long history and are developing into tourism destination recently. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainable way of preservation by comparing the characteristics and issues between Present Situation and Future Plan/Concept of each village.
In the Chapter two, we classified the village into four types as I [Living-oriented], II [Living (main) & tourism], III [Tourism (main) & living] and IV [Excessive tourism] based on classification variables(Actual Situation) which are 1) the relationship between the old village and the new village, 2) the number of yearly tourists, 3) the occupation involvement, 4) the time/distance to the city, 5) the value of cultural heritage of village. After the classification, they are figured out based on the characteristics and issues of each type. We found that nine villages developed the old village based on tourism function except for two villages of type I, and the present situation of tourism development was influenced greatly by the time/distance to the city and the value of cultural heritage of the village.
In the Chapter three, we classified four types as I.' [Living-oriented], II.' [Living (main) & tourism], III.' [Tourism (main) & living] and IV.' [Excessive tourism] based on classification variables (Future Plan/Concept), and analyzed the transition types from <Present situation> to <future plan>, then figured out characteristics and issues of each type. Regarding the habitation in the future plan, it can be seen that these villages not only have the advantage on the convenience of commuting to school and city but also reconstruct traditional industry and create employment opportunities by attracting companies. On the other hand, regarding the tourism in the future plan, there are many specific contents about the relationship between the old village and the new village which are the migration plan from the old village to the new village, and development of lodging facilities both in old village and new village.
In addition, we found that there are three villages that kept the present type, seven villages had trend to develop tourism-oriented, and one village returned to the main habitability from the tourism-oriented. Villages which focus on strengthening tourism, the tourism development consciousness of acceptance for administrative and local residents are strong, but it does mean that these villages have a high value of cultural heritage. Moreover, the villages which focused on sustainable habitation for the future plan have definitely taken into consideration the convenience of commuting to school and city, the individual system of repairing and landscaping historic buildings, and investment promotion and job creation. It indicates that these villages have characteristics of high self-governing capabilities compared with other villages which are led relatively by the local government.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the history of the development in Chiba Newtown and the process of the generation of non-dwelling facilities through the interviews on the developers and analysis of the physical change of living environment. Through the research, followings were identified:
1）The transition in Chiba NT development for 45 years
ChibaNT has been developed for 45 years, and the plan was changed several times. At first, the project aimed to supply housings and it registered as the “new housing and urban development project”. Thus, residential area occupied a large proportion of area in masterplan. However, the plan and its concept changed and the development area were shrunk, and it had decisive influence on forming today’s living environment. Especially, the number of commercial and business facility estates has increased based on the change of plan which introduces specific business facilities and multiple land use. And also the developers actively attracted private enterprises by introducing “Limited-term land rent right.” In addition, the change was influenced from rapid change of housing demands and the attack of expropriation committee in Chiba by citizens who are protesting against Narita Airport construction.
2）Emergence process and accumulation of non-dwelling facilities
Huge part of the area for residential estate change to the area for the commercial and business facilities, under the influences of the change of the plan including the shrinking of the development area, extension of planning period, and introducing of the estate of specific business facilities and multiple land use. Especially, the ratio of commercial and business facility estates in Chuou district and Makinohara district became large, and a lot of non-dwelling facilities were built between 1995 and 2015. And this change overlaps with the change on the masterplan. In 1995, small commercial facilities located near ChibaNT-Chuou Sta. and at neighborhood centers and a business concentration area were being formed on the north side of ChibaNT-Chuou Sta. On the other hand, in 2015, large commercial facilities located near ChibaNT-Chuou Sta. and along the main road, and the new residential areas are constructing. Laboratories and offices accumulated in "business mall", and logistics facilities were being formed in the northeastern part of the Chuou district.
As described above, there are two types of accumulation trend in the commercial and business facility estate, which was changed from residential estate. One is the accumulation of large commercial facilities, another one is that of logistics and business facilities.
In order to realize a sustainable urban structure, the Location Normalization Plan system was established as an advanced version of the urban planning master plan. Among them, many cities plan to designate “District centers " as a center to support the daily lives of citizens and to build a compact city by intensive urban structures where centers are networked by public transport.
Such a plan has been made influenced by the concept of Compact City proposed in Western Europe, but the shape of the intensive urban structure unique to Japan and its planning theory are needed.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the designation policy of the district centers from the designation of the central facilities of the district centers and the area to be covered in the location normalization plan by comparison with the urban planning master plan, and to clarify the features of the intensive urban structure that each city aims.
Of the cities that formulate the Location Normalization Plan by December 31 2017, the target city to be surveyed in this research, targeted 24 cities in the regional cities with a population of 100,000 to 500,000.
The conclusions obtained are as follows.
1) The number of district centers to be set differs from city to city, but in many cases the functions of transportation, administration and commerce are set as the center of district centers, in particular the stations with traffic functions are the most frequently designated, accounting for 40% of the total . Administrative functions are designated in local cities with many branch offices, so many are located in urbanization control area and outside city planning area because it is the old office before the merger. Commercial function is not a single commercial facility, it is designated only in the use area and commercial concentration area..
2) In the Location Normalization Plan, only 5 cities designate the district centers without changing those of the urban planning master plan.Cities within metropolitan areas tend to reduce district centers, local cities tend to add district centers, and some cities have added a number of district centers by introducing a new positioning policy.
3) Most of the district centers are designated as urban function guidance zones, and urban structures aiming to consolidate urban functions at district centers are aimed. On the other hand, in local cities, many district centers are set in places where urban function guidance areas can not be set.
4) Many cities do not designate areas covered by district centers, but on the other hand, more than half of the cities designate covered by them, many of which are set in the former administrative division.
5) When we summarize the characteristics of urban structure for each city classification, in a city within a metropolitan area, the station is the central facility and the area covered is not often set, whereas in the local cities, the covered area is designated doubly and there is a tendency that it is set as a base of a community that is more familiar all over the city.
District centers have diverse roles and are planning the placement of the centers by the policy of each local government.
The aim of this study is to clarify the transition of townscape in the historic area in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia through the continuous surveys of the rehabilitation process of 2009 Sumatra Earthquake. Padang is a provincial capital of West Sumatra which faces to the Indian Ocean and has a history as the Dutch East India Company's trading port. The historic area in Padang is formed along the Batang Arau river which is connected to the port. Historic buildings and townscape suffered severe damage by the earthquake occurred on September 30th in 2009.
This survey shows that the historic urban landscape of Padang could be divided into four areas: Batan Arau street along the river where warehouse and offices are located; Chinese Klenteng area around the Buddhist temple and its related facilities; Niaga street, a commercial street that developed after the end of the 19th century; and Pasar Batipuh, Pasar Hilir and Pasar Mudik street, another commercial streets that existed since the early days of the Dutch colonial period.
Building activities such as demolishing, rebuilding and repairing, were completed almost in two years after the earthquake in historic area in Padang. The restoration of large-scale warehouses and historic buildings along Batan Arau street were completed within two years. Otherwise, there are no new buildings because of the difficulty in using such large pieces of land. On the other hand, the demolition of buildings and construction of new buildings proceeded rapidly within two years in the area around Klenteng. Small- scale historic buildings along the old commercial streets were abandoned at least five years after the disaster and are now in the process of demolition or restoration.
There is the local code of the city of Padang to preserve the façade of historic buildings, but it only requires the façade to be physically preserved without considering building volume or building use.
Seventy percent of affected small buildings were restored urgently using temporary repair methods. This means that the restoration was not effective and did not correspond to the condition of each building. The utilization of space changed after the earthquake at least second-third surveyed buildings. There are five types of changes: function coexistence, function replacement, space sharing, space division, and addition of function and space. Function replacement and space division were seen most frequently in the historic area of Padang, and showed how people continue to use historic buildings corresponding to their changes in circumstance.
Japan, which has entered the era of population decline, is at the turning point of urban planning. When shifting from the urban expansion society to the urban shrinking society, it is important not to develop a new urban area by new construction, but to make renovation town using the building stock in the existing urban area. In recent years, renovation community development is being practiced in many local cities, but there are many cases where renovation buildings are scattered in point, and there are not many cases where renovation is practically implemented in plan.
In this research, we aim to clarify town renovation focusing on the type and the appearance of building. Specifically, 1) changes in buildings by new construction and renovation focusing on the type of building, 2) difference in landscape from the continuity of the elevation pattern of the building, 3) obvious renovation method concerning the appearance of the building.
As a method of research, firstly, in order to clarify the transition of buildings by new construction and renovation, we conducted a hearing survey on Mr. Isono of the administrator Isono Shokai and Mr. Watanabe, the architect and gathered related materials. Secondly, in order to clarify the difference of the landscape from the continuity of the elevation pattern of the building, by drawing a continuous elevation view as seen from the street in Johnson Town, we analyzed the difference in townscape from the viewpoint of the elevation pattern of the building. Thirdly, in order to clarify the renovation method related to the appearance of the building, the renovation method concerning the appearance of each building was arranged based on the data for each property.
The following three points were clarified.
First, there are nearly the same proportion of newly constructed properties and renovated properties. Construction was carried out in newly built properties in a block that was settled in a few years, while renovation properties have been decentralized over a long period of time. There are many US military houses in the renovation property, and intentionally trying to create residential areas that make good use of the old US military houses. Regarding the use of buildings, the use of houses was the majority in 2002, but the use of shops gradually increased. In Johnson Town there is no clear zoning, and in the newly constructed Heisei House it is designed to be available in both the residential and shops.
Secondly, in the block area on the park side, the elevation pattern of the building is aligned, whereas in the block area on the national highway side the building's elevation pattern is not aligned. It is conceivable that buildings of the same kind were built at the same time in the same block as a factor which is complete. Factors that are not aligned include the unevenness of the types of buildings and the existence of buildings outside.
Third, as a renovation technique related to the appearance of the building, there are four methods concerning the outer wall, one method concerning the extension, and two methods concerning the deconstruction. These can be said to be a renovation method tailored to the appearance of the US military house. While the elevation pattern varied according to the streets, it is thought that a townscape with unity was formed by performing renovation related to the appearance toward one direction.
In many developed countries including Japan, it has been pointed out that the conventional intermediate group that stabilized society has been dismantled, and isolated individuals are exposed. On the other hand, in recent years, the group of young people who tend to build a strong human relationship locally and to complete the living area there has been drawing attention as one of the typologies of behavior that characterize the youth near the city center. They have been discussed mainly in the field of marketing in terms of their consumption behavior. Moreover, it has been pointed out that this group of youth tends to participate in regional events actively, such as local festivals and to have an orientation for local settlement. It is thought that their orientation for local settlement is based on local-oriented mind, which is formed with friends of elementary and junior high school days.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process that the group of young people, as an intermediate group based on the experiences of elementary and junior high school days, forming local-oriented mind from group discussion and life story survey. There were three investigations and following was obtained:
1) The target youth’s sense of belonging to local area
The local memories shared by the group were collected by group discussion under daily circumstances and classified into seven topics. Also, by analyzing the transition of conversation, it became clear that the topic related to the comparison with the city center is the important one linked with many topics. Based on the result, this paper analyzed how the target young people form a sense of belonging to the localities from the viewpoint of the distinction of behaviors in between city center and their local area. As a result, the target young people formed a sense of belonging to the localities by we-feeling; They do not pay attention to interpersonal attitudes, conversation contents, and clothes except for superior people in their local area. They try to be associate with someone carefully in the local are because they think the rumors spread very quickly. And unlike in the city, they can enjoy entertainment activities without considering trends.
2) The target youth’s formation process of Local-oriented mind
Through interview of life story, it became obvious that the range of activities in junior high school days influences the formation of intermediate group by analyzing the local scope affecting the formation of intermediate group from the psychological local scope and places spoken as activity places by developmental stages of youth. Also, by analyzing the temporal and spatial changes of young activities that form local-oriented and its factors from contents of narratives, it became found that from the late infancy to the late adolescence, while receiving the influence of a friend relationship during junior high school, activities forming local-oriented mind is changing.
3) Consciousness for the living in the future and its background factors
From the results of the survey on the consciousness for the living in the future, it became clear that the intermediate group itself is mediating the local-oriented mind and influences the intention of settlement and the positive participation of local events.
Housing recovery after large-scale a disaster requires huge resources and is difficult to be achieved solely by government. It requires multi-stakeholder (MS) collaboration, including private sector, NGOs, international organization, and foreign government. However, there has been limited knowledge on how government and MS are involved in housing recovery especially regarding the fund distribution and project implementation.
As case studies, we selected three large-scale disasters with different MS participation modality: the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) (Japan), Hurricane Katrina (U.S.), and Indian Ocean Tsunami (Indonesia). This paper 1) develops the fund-flow of MS and government to implement the housing programs, 2) categorizes MS by its function in the recovery, and 3) identifies the characteristics of MS project implementation by examining their project distribution and progress by time. The research draws on data from government documents and key informant interviews.
First, we develop the “fund-flow diagram” to visualize how the governments and MS distribute the funds for implementing the housing programs. We list housing programs by government documents and identify the path of funds. The diagram draws how funds with different funding schemes flows between relevant stakeholders and programs. In GEJE, the central government is directing the funds and designing the programs with very limited room for MS involvement. In Hurricane Katrina, the governments of all three levels are allocating and implementing programs, as well as providing incentives to MS for construction of affordable houses. In Indian Ocean Tsunami, multiple channels are developed to facilitate donors to give flexibility to reflect their own preference on execution.
Second, we categorize MS by how they function in the recovery process, whether: 1) they spend their own funds for program implementation; 2) the funds they provided are included in official recovery budget; 3) or they use money from the recovery budget. We gained four types of MS: “Finance Parties”, “Autonomous Parties 1”, “Autonomous Parties 2”, and “Consigned Parties”. Among others, “Autonomous Parties” is considered as important in terms of being an implementer of the projects and a partner for governments to supplement gaps of their programs.
Third, we assess the spatial and temporal distribution of projects implemented by MS and government in Louisiana and Aceh. In both cases, implementation of MS is found in heavily damaged coastal area and contributing early phase reconstruction. In Louisiana, projects of MS are also concentrated in almost no damage area with high housing market value. In Aceh, government constructed in municipalities with less damage with slower construction pace compared to MS. These results tell us that Louisiana utilized MS to provide houses based on market needs with tolerance of uneven distribution, and Aceh prioritized utilization of external resources from MS, and government took a role of following up on the gaps left by MS.
In conclusion, we draw the character of each housing recovery approaches: “Market incentive utilization approach”, represented by hurricane Katrina, “Aid utilization approach”, represented by Indian Ocean Tsunami, and “Government-centered approach”, represented by GEJE. The study suggests that the keys in utilizing MS is tolerance to uncertainty and imbalance of MS assistance. Government needs to design multi-layer policy, which takes features and disadvantages of MS into account.
Contemporary open space planning is required both approach of science and function. As one of the functions of the green, there is a temperature mitigation function of green spaces to solve the heat island problems. So in the new development, planners should consider to effective greening in there. In the case of planning the open space with temperature mitigation, it is significant to analyze based on the output index as green space in quantitative and the outcome index as temperature mitigation effect of them. This study aims, from the view point of easy adapting for open space planning in future development, to estimate how much effect of urban thermal environment mitigation in subtropical climatic conditions by ratio of ground coverage.
We studied in Naha Shintoshin area in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture. Naha Shintoshin area was returned land from USA base and had been developed by land readjustment project finished in 2003. The LR project area was 214 ha. But because of the limitation of lack of measurement tools and man power, we had to choose a part of area, 5508 m2, as our case study site in there.
The case study site is almost flat in topographical condition and planned in modern urban planning theory which has block parks, neighborhood park, comprehensive park, and greening residential district. Because of this site is an example of entirely new development in Okinawa and it is planned in neighborhood planning theory, this site was suitable as case study site.
Temperature measurements by hour was done at 39 spots where are in different environment such as in bank of a river, in park, on greenery street, and in residential parcels. The amount of measurements was 2846 hours. We set the finite difference between measurement temperature and temperature published Okinawa meteorological observatory as an explained variable and set land coverage ratio of the site as explanatory variables. The land coverage ratio was estimated by google aerial photos and was divided to tree, grass, water, bare, building and pavement.
Analysis methods are followings. At first, we examined the ratio of ground coverage which is superior effect of the temperature mitigation for each temperature range, time zone, mesh grid size in subtropical climatic conditions. (Sec. 3) Next, we analyzed the influence of the temperature distribution from the relation with the ground covering condition in quantitatively. (Sec. 4) And then this study considers the findings of temperature mitigation of open space as a green space planning theory. (Sec. 6)
And the consequences are followings. 1, It was confirmed that factors such as season, time zone, mesh grid size, affect the relationship between temperature mitigation and ground coverage. 2, It was confirmed from the single regression analysis result that the adjusted R2 becomes high in mesh grid size of 10m and 90m. This result means the natural land coverage has both effect of temperature mitigation in spot and wide area. 3, By principal component analysis, it was possible to obtain a multivariate regression analysis result avoiding Multiple correlations. 4, From the estimated temperature distribution of the target area, it was confirmed that the site that ration of green coverage is 20% or more, forms a low temperature zone.
Considering of these result with real green planning, 10m mesh effect should be able to use in planning of house scale, and 90m mesh effect should be able to adapt as a greening regulation in special district plan.
This study remains future subjects such as the multiple elements analysis and the continuity consideration to next meshes in wide-spread greenery land use.
This article studied the deliberation process of the building standard law enforcement order upon enactment of the building standard law.
A deliberation of a building standard law enforcement order was necessary as a result of the enactment of the building standard law, and the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) came to play a role of deliberating such an enforcement order pursuant to the custom accepted from before the previous war. A deliberation committee was established, and in this deliberation committee, members who had been involved in building law systems, technologies and practical work since prewar era were chosen to take part freely in some of the subcommittees of the various fields to control related items for deliberation. On the other hand, researchers, architects and engineers from various related fields were encouraged to take part in the deliberation subcommittee from the universities, private sectors and governmental agencies. In addition, committees were provided at local branches, so that the nationwide deliberation could be executed.
In the deliberations carried out by the subcommittees in an attempt to prepare new building standards, the operation of the new standards after the previous war was clarified in the field of structure, and the related provisions were made more stringent and the specific standards were attempted to be prepared in the field of fire prevention, too. On the other hand, in the field of urban planning, the opportunity was given to deliberate the use district which had not been deliberated sufficiently in preparation of the building standard law. In the field of building equipment and hazard prevention at construction sites, everything necessary to cover the nationally united technical standards was deliberated. Thus, the subcommittees were allowed to deliberate individually the different issues. The certain time was spared for modification work to meet the requests based on the opinions from the local branches.
In relation to the field of building equipment, the AIJ had not much time to prepare replies to all the drafts presented, and their replies were reflected only to part of the standards that really required their replies, while their replies to the drafts in the fields of hazard prevention at construction sites were put off. As a result, the preparation of the new standards was restricted to the passive level. In particular, in relation to the standards and the details of the guidance that could not be generalized so as to follow the spirit of the building standard law, the AIJ could not replay to them, and the related descriptions were deleted in the modification work carried out in the construction ministry. Thus, the building standard law and its enforcement order were enacted while the problems described above were not resolved.
The purpose of this research is to grasp the conditions and effects of staying activities through the development of outside community space on bicycle and pedestrian roads by civic activities.
We found that; 1. There are both types of stayers who want to communicate and who want to be relaxed personally, 2. in order to develop the outside community public space, we should consider the gap between the demand of stayers about the community activity place and the goal which supporters seek, it is important to develop the system which can keep the supporters’ motivations.
The Housing Policy Researching Committee of Dojunkai (HPRCD) researched the housing policies of Western countries from 1939 through 1940. It is important to show the process of its activities and the details of its research because Japanese wartime housing policy was drafted on the basis of the results of its activity. This paper’s originality derives from its focus not only on the HPRCD but also on preceding activity in Dojunkai.
The research division was founded in 1930 and “Research into the building and maintenance of small houses” began in 1934. Activities during the initial period did not focus on housing policy because Dojunkai was established to construct houses for survivors of the Great Kanto Earthquake. However, this improvement in the researching system was an underlying cause in the development of research regarding housing policy in Dojunkai.
“Research into the housing policies of Western countries” began as part of the “Research into the building and maintenance of small houses” in 1937. Research into Dojunkai systematically collected books about housing policies through embassies and translated them. By this time, S. Inui (Chief of the research division) was insisting that emergency measures should be drafted to deal with wartime conditions and that permanent measures should be drafted to establish the housing policies looking toward the postwar period. This was reflected in subsequent research.
In 1939, officials from the Department of Social Affairs of the Ministry of Health and Welfare started to draft measures to solve housing problems. The HPRCD was established in Dojunkai because the government did not have an organization capable of researching precedents in Western countries. Y. Kato, an official from the Department of Social Affairs, tried to draft a Rent Control Ordinance. He used the report from the HPRCD as a reference.
At the end of 1939, the Division of Housing was established in the Department of Social Affairs to form a comprehensive housing policy. The HPRCD researched and drafted the Housing Act to realize it. In this way, the HPRCD contributed to legislation regarding housing in wartime.
This study aims to identify social and political factors, which induced different types of Catholic churches in Hong Kong, by using the criteria of accompanied use, existence of exclusive religious space, owner, and permanency as a church. It was found population pressure and the interdependent Church and government relations induced “church and school complex,” which was a permanent parish church embedded within a school building, constructed by the Church with a government subsidy. Interdependent Church and government relations also enabled the Church to use public housing estates as informal churches. Population growth also induced churches established in existing private buildings.
In Byzantine architecture, diverged from Roman architecture and acquiring its own distinctive characteristics, the so-called ʻcross-in-squareʼ churches offer characteristic examples. This church type was distributed both within and beyond the Byzantine Empire, while the geographical architectural configuration for most studies in this field are based on the current national and even regional borders, and do not discuss the architectural characteristics of areas based on the similarity of churches constructed during Byzantine times. Moreover, while several previous studies have discussed construction methods, they have overlooked their chronological and geographical differences. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the locality of two lineages of the cross-in-square during the Middle Byzantine period (9th–12th centuries), using as many churches as possible whose three-dimensional information is available (82 churches; Fig. 2; Table 1).
First, the churches have been categorised into 10 types based on the wall part: according to the arrangement of arches and the number of the highest arches (Fig. 4), the shape (horizontal section) of the supports (Fig. 5), the number of the bays in the churches and the methods by which the arches and supports are connected (Fig. 6). Then, the churches were categorized into 5 types based on the ceiling part: according to the way the arches were arranged and the number of the highest arches, the number of ceilings and the number of transverse arches at the western and the eastern corner bays (Fig. 7). In total, 15 categories emerged from a combination of the wall and ceiling elements, referred to as architectural configurations.
Then Byzantine world has been divided into 17 areas based on the distribution of the churches and Byzantine administrative divisions (Themata). The prototypes of each lineage of cross-in-square churches have the largest number of the churches of each lineage and are distributed into most many areas (Aα-type: six areas; Gδ-type: eight areas). These are only categories that were constructed through the Middle Byzantine. The other categories of cross-in-square churches were distributed into one to six areas, as Table 2 shows. From the perspective of locality, there is only one architectural configuration in each of nine areas (Constantinople, Opsikion, Thraksēon, Kappadokia, Thrakē, Paristrion, Makedonia, Thessaloniki and Sicily). On the other hand, eight areas (Cyprus, Aegaios Palagos, Crete, Boulgaria, Ellas, Nikopolis, Peloponnēsos and South Italy) have three or more architectural configurations. It is notable that Ellas has six architectural configurations.
As Figure 8 shows, each lineage is derived of Aα-type and Gδ-type; the former lineage can be identified as having arches on the supports and ceilings on the corner bays with the other bays constructed separately, while the latter lineage can be identified as originally arches penetrate the walls, and ceilings on the corner bays are under the those on the other bays, then arches are on the supports and ceilings on the corner bays and the other bays are constructed separately. The churches of the former lineage mainly are distributed in the central area of the Byzantine world, as in the capital, Constantinople, or Thessaloniki, the second largest city of the empire. The original and derivative architectural configurations are located on the different area, while the configuration of this lineage gradually distributed from the centre part of Byzantine world to its surrounding regions, or periphery. The churches of the latter lineages are mainly distributed around the periphery of the Byzantine world. In this lineage, the original and derivative configurations are often located on the same area and theconfiguration of this lineage seems to migrate from the periphery to the periphery. It is also noted that Ellas is an area in which the two lineages are mixed.
Kazuo Shinohara (1925-2006) is arguably the most influential architect in recent Japanese architecture. Shinohara stated that “a house is a work of art” and his career was almost entirely devoted to designing houses. Besides, he accounted of his residential works as a sequence of “styles”, grouping together works that share certain traits and which belong to a specific period. Shinohara identified very early that his architectural reflections revolve the concept that he calls “urban chaos”. So it is important to analysis how the concept “chaos” be used to design so that we can realize the architectural theory of Shinohara.
Chaos is the science of dynamical, of the nonlinear and the unpredictable. Shinohara said that the term “complexity” could respect the aspect of chaos. So analyze the complexity performed in real works will know how Shinohara integrate his chaos theory into his works.
This paper will focus on both floor plan and elevation of Shinohara’s 38 residential works and discusses the complexity performed in the main floor plan and the facade by using the fractal analysis.
In section 2, use the box-counting method that is one kind of fractal analysis to calculate the box-counting dimension of the main floor plan and the facade of all the house works. The box-counting dimension can describe the complexity of each work.
In section 3, analyze the data collected in the section 2 based on the four “styles”. In addition, clarify the characteristics of each residential styles and analysis Shinohara’s design theory.
The results were as follows:
1. What we can know from the main floor plan is that, most of works belong to the first are performed to be simple. In contrast, most of works belong to the second style are feature to be more complex. The works belong to the third style are featured to be slightly complex and the works belong to the forth style are featured to be the most complicated.
2. What we can know from the facade is that, most works belong to the first style are featured to be complex. Conversely, most of works belong to the second style are featured to be simple. The works belong to the third style are featured to be complex again. The works belong to the forth style are featured to be more complex.
By analyzing the complexity, we can found that there is a clear difference between each style. Besides, there is also a certain transition between styles.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the state of the disposition of building evacuation sites in Sendai and its process and background while paying attention to business environments surrounding the disposition of building evacuation sites such as the central government’s policy for the disposition and the progress of the war-damage reconstruction urban planning in Sendai.
Home Ministry, which had been responsible for building evacuation during the wartime period, has consistently promoted diversion of evacuation sites to urban planning immediately after the end of WWII. Ministry of Transport and War-Damage Reconstruction Institute also planned to divert evacuation sites to urban planning sites and railway land. It is thought that the street plan of Rembokoji-Minamisomeshimachi west and east Line in Sendai was strongly influenced by such a policy of Ministry of Transport and War-Damage Reconstruction Institute.
The disposition of building evacuation sites in Sendai was schemed from two aspects of urban planning and agricultural policy, from the war-damage reconstruction plan immediately after Sendai air raid. Among them, the diversion of evacuation sites to streets in the context of urban planning was followed by the plan after the war, and it was succeeded from the initial plan by Miyagi prefecture to the final plan of Sendai city. In the process of formulating the war-damage reconstruction plan, other diversion was also planned. Rembokoji-Minamisomeshimachi west and east Line was planned as part of the war-damage reconstruction urban planning project in the building evacuation site along the railway tracks of Tohoku Line. Nagamachi-Hachihommatsu Line was also planned as “Sokaiatochishori-Renrakugairo-zigyo” project. However, only the latter was completed. There are three reasons why all the streets were not completed. First of all, the number of evacuated houses was different, and accordingly there was a difference in construction costs. Second of all, regional characteristics were different. Many old houses stood near the railway, but Nagamachi-Hachihommatsu was a new industrial area with factories and leased houses. Third of all, the environment and characteristics of the disposition of building evacuation sites differed. Rembokoji-Minamisomeshimachi west and east Line was one of the war-damage reconstruction urban planning project affected by the progress of business in the center of Sendai city, but Nagamachi-Hachihommatsu Line was a single project and was not affected by surrounding conditions.
Considering the relationship between war-damage reconstruction and prewar urban planning and building evacuation, three streets coincided with preceding plans, and the prewar urban planning streets were succeeded to war-damage reconstruction through building evacuation. As described above, you can see the continuity of urban planning through building evacuation.
This paper aims to clarify traditional techniques and local knowledge on hïdmo construction; a type of traditional house in Tigray, Ethiopia, by illuminating building construction processes consisting of stone quarry, shaping each piece, foundation work, wall masonry, ceiling and roofing construction, and plastering. Specific focus is on the tools and applied materials as well as relevant devisal. The results show that various existing tools were introduced from abroad and preceding building techniques and knowledge were more closely related with agriculture.
This paper clarifies the advantages and disadvantages of creating 3D views by maintenance managers to support building operation and maintenance (O&M) using 3D models.
Building information management (BIM) has pervaded rapidly, and CAFM's research and development efforts utilizing BIM in the facility management field have intensified. We have already studied O&M support using BIM, and developed a Building Information Management System (BIMS) that can operate a 3D model on the web browser to input and view information. In particular, smooth consensus between entities engaged in O&M is expected by utilizing the visual effect characteristic of 3D-views. We aim to contribute to the sophistication and efficiency improvement of O&M by BIMS.
In order to utilize the 3D model to share the O&M information, it is necessary to have good operation techniques and judgement to create and share a 3D-view of information. However, as it is difficult for maintenance managers to operate 3D models, they cannot create satisfactory 3D-views. As a result, the usefulness of the information utilizing the 3D model is difficult to ascertain. For that reason, it is important to analyze the information using the 3D model from the perspective of creating and transmitting O&M information, and to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of creating maintenance management information using 3D-views.
Therefore, in this research, we introduced BIMS experimentally to O&M of actual office buildings and analyzed the created 3D-view, and then systematically organized the 3D model to share the information. Furthermore, we tested how these 3D-views were created through 3D manipulation using BIMS, and derived the advantages and disadvantages of creating O&M information using the 3D model through opinion exchange with research participants.
Maintenance managers in various fields obtain the visual effects of 3D-views, which enables them to understand the position of building components and O&M statuses. In addition, they can simulate the process using the 3D model in advance, thus enabling efficient work processes on site. One advantage, therefore, is that maintenance managers can provide high quality O&M works to the building owner. However, creating a 3D-view that is satisfactory is difficult when maintenance managers want to convey a specific component position, because the 3D-view is often concealed by other building components. Moreover, maintenance managers struggle to create a 3D-view that anyone can understand, because 3D-views can be expressed in various ways. Due to these disadvantages, and despite the opinion that it is convenient to utilize the 3D-views for O&M, it is difficult for maintenance managers to do so.
This research revealed that creating a 3D-view was difficult for maintenance managers because of the 3D feature. However, the utilization of maintenance management information using 3D-views is a suitable method to support multiple building maintenance with a small number of people. O&M work using the 3D model is very effective in situations where a shortage of human resources is a concern due to the ongoing birthrate decline.