The purpose of this study is to grasp the elementary materials for planning and designing the facade design in super-high-rise apartment houses. Super-High-rise apartment houses over 100m height in the center area of Tokyo were selected as samples. Simple indexes which explain the characteristics of facade design on samples were extracted as 7 physical variables. The characteristics of facade design were ascertained by analyzing these 7 physical variables, using multi dimensional scaling and regression analysis.
Current critics about the seismic assessment of the earthquake damage by the public sectors tends to be over-all information of a city but it should be not only more user-friendly, but also should provide more detailed information around its inhabitants. This paper would like to assess the effect on the anti-earthquake reinforcement on the ex-ex-regulation condominium buildings based upon the damage assessment of the individual units. As the result, we can conclude that about a half of buildings located in assessed places of Tokyo are recomended to be renovated rationally. The difference of the cost by public sectors before and after the renovation can be thought as the preventional public expenditures. In addition, this result could be the starting point of further discussions. Focusing on the human damage, the assessed number of deaths or people gravely injured is rather small. However, it is obvious that once a condominium has been physically damaged it would take apporoximately three to four years to recover with a substatial cost of money. Therefore people had better spend for the preventional renovation issues.
This study aims to clarify the periodical change of planning on the detached house. The data were collected three times at the 1980's, the 2000's and the 2008's by fliers of newspaper. Conclusions are four points described below. 1) Standardization in the combination of the number of rooms and enlargement of common room. 2) Popularization of the “Center-Living Room” plan-type. 3) Remarkable decrease of Zashiki and the change of role of Tatami-room. 4) Standardization to the plan-type of kitchen separated. As a result, the planning of detached house in Japan tends to be standardized in the term of diversification.
The aim of this study is to clarify the damages and the Business Continuity caused by The Great East Japan Earthquake about facilities for the elderly through visiting and interview survey. The results are as follows; 1) Residents in community-based facilities evacuated from tsunami were using cars. Those in large-scale facilities evacuated to the upper floors using the staircases being carried by care staff. 2) Residents in facilities, their rooms' windows or sprinklers were broken caused by the earthquake, were forced to evacuate to another floors or buildings. 3) Even in the facilities with no or less damaged, the care system had to be changed and the residents were forced to move to another room in the same facilities for a certain period of time. This was caused for providing accommodation for refugees in the area, lifeline cutoff and staff shortages.
This research analyzed daily students' behaviour during recess between classes in middle school with subject centre system. The purpose of this research is to explore better school design for students. The study found unique behaviours that students formed 3 to 4 groups and each group went in and out of their homebases because of adjustment to congestion of the homebases. In addition, these students' behaviour between classes were influenced by other grades. The study clarified that students tend to form their comfortable environments being conscious of the relations with other students using a time-lag and movement-lag.
Research considered that the recollections in which accumulated memories of scenes at school might contribute to forming one's view of schools and attitude and attachment to learning. Based on Previous studies, this paper aims to clarify the elements constituting memories of school buildings and scenes at school recalled by adults when thinking back to their school days. The classification and analysis of evaluation structures of scenes in memory and of contents of accumulated memories described by adults resulted as follows: 1) "Playing" scenes are the majority of memorable scenes. It shows that the “playing” plays a very important role in school life. Scenes relating to “leaning,” the main purpose of school, account for approximately 10.9 percent of all the memorable scenes. In addition, scenes relating to other school lives such as lunch time scenes account for few numbers. 2) "places" as an element which remains in memory. And "Natural element" is important which remains in memory 3) "What was in the classroom", and "Light and the scenery from a window" built the impression about a classroom.
This is a case study research about urban mixed-use complexes in Japan and South Korea, with two subjects selected in each country, respectively: “Roppongi Hills” and “Tokyo Midtown” in Japan, “COEX” and “Times Square” in South Korea. The purpose is to evaluate the usage of “combined facilities” in each establishment in order to obtain useful knowledge to improve the organization of existing developments and make better ones in the future. The conclusions are summarized as follows: 1) Urban mixed-use complexes in South Korea do not combine residential services. 2) It was found that the spatial linkage between combined services is often based on a retail anchor drawing customers over other retails pattern. 3) When analyzed regarding the effect in the surrounding areas, the two Japanese samples were considered “partial” while the two South Korean samples were considered “self-contained”. As definition, it was considered whether the life in the surrounding environment is highly dependent of the complex or not.
In this paper different cases of Machiya and modified Machiya are being analyzed. In the previous part a survey of semantic parameters is used in order to understand Machiya dwelling typology; now individual cases are analyzed with the same method, compared with the Machiya typology and complemented with syntactic analysis to see how they are related to Machiya. We found that we can distinguish different ways of conserving correlation with Machiya: some cases conserving more semantic qualities and others conserving more syntactic qualities; the semantic qualities define the identity and context, while the syntactic qualities define particularities. We could differentiate the impact of physical modifications and the impact of the interpretation of the inhabitant, showing both to be relevant in defining a building.
As shopping streets have a variety of characteristics, it would be difficult to uniformly incorporate the concept of “barrier-free” access and universal design. In order to make shopping streets (which are city center environments) into spaces that facilitate their use by anyone, it is extremely important to determine the unique characteristics of each streets from the user's perspective, and to be aware of the trends in barriers as perceived by users. This study examined four shopping streets to determine the barriers that were perceived by users, from the perspective of both building environments and city center environments to gain a basic understanding of problems and issues at shopping streets.
The purpose of the study was to reveal the fundamental structure from multiplex cultural landscapes in mountain settlements with terraced rice fields, called Tanada in Japan.The nucleus approach was used in comparing two different settlement patterns; Tsuzura and Bunda. Tsuzura have complicated irrigation water network in vast Tanada with farmhouses clustered together beside the fields, while for Bunda the irrigation system is ordered in a rigid pattern along the valley Tanada with the farmhouses scattered within the fields. The irrigation system allows farmhouses to be located to avoid contamination of irrigation water. Thus farmhouse location is influenced by agricultural water system.
The purpose of this study is clarified the peculiar residential environment program from the result of the improvement projects and the self-renewing residents in densely-up areas. Wakaba-sugamati, Sanshi-shikenjo, Taishido2,3-chome, Kyojima2,3-chome and Sekibara1-chome are chosen for study areas. As a result, I clarified the following. 1) Making of the figure of space improvement in five study areas, 2) Extraction of the twelve improvement characteristics, 3) Extraction of five peculiar improvement programs in crowded urban areas with wooden houses.
Residents look at preservation district as part of the process of urban development. The authors examine variations in residents' awareness of a preservation district in relation to neighborhood associations. The main findings are as following; (1) the variations of residents' awareness are depending on two factors; (a) distance between a selected area and a central city area. (b) Living environment. Residents live near to a selected area are aware of preservation unfortunately, due to a previous experience with tourism such as throwing away trashes not in the particular place so, they do not prefer many tourists visit their area; (2) residents live near to the area have known about the establishment of the preservation district so, they usually join the preservation activities, but there are remarkable difficulties for elderly people to continue joining. Thus, it is necessary to investigate resident' awareness in relation to neighborhood associations more carefully and propose varying measures to each neighborhood association.
The results of this research are as follows. 1) Home buyers are divided into the following three types：(1) people who consider only existing housing and buy it because they cannot afford to purchase new housing; (2) people who consider both existing and new housing and have the financial flexibility to choose between both types; (3) people who have the financial means to consider only new housing 2) Obstructive factors of the circulation of existing housing are：the peculiarity of housing as a good, the asymmetric information in the housing market, and cleanliness-oriented values of Japanese. 3) Although they only account for a small share of the housing market, there also exist people who think of existing housing positively and purchase it with the intention of remodeling.
This paper focuses on interactive services and aims to clarify the differences between the current status of housing support services and clients' awareness of these by investigating private and administrative undertakings and conducting an attitude survey on clients. It was found that: a majority of the clients with low awareness of housing expect simple consultation and introduction to reliable builders. However, most of the interactive services are for the minority. This can be remedied by making telephone consultation easier and providing easier access to the web site by the administration and industry group, so that a majority can access it.
Even as various failures and troubles about architecture and equipment which occurs on a daily basis have been recorded by the maintenances staffs, they have never released and analyzed the data. Therefore, it has never been utilized for any maintenance plans. In this study, 5 hospitals were researched and the total 43281 pieces of information were collected. The purpose of this study, from the view point of practical value, is to give the fundamental information about air-conditioning and sanitary installation that contributes to rationalization of the maintenance plan. As the result of analysis, each air-conditioning and sanitary installation in hospital has more basic unit of failures and troubles significantly than that in office building. The time to Repair of air-conditioning installation is about 2 hour in large scale hospital, but less than 1hour in small scale. The time to Repair of sanitary installation is less than 1 hour.
Lodgings such as Ota-ya, Oyado and Honjin were used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han and Toyama-Han during Edo-Era. Through the examination of several historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1)These Lodgings were classified into 2 types by site and plan. 2)These Lodgings were classified into 2 types by whether aid existed by Han or not. 3)In some cases existence of aid by Han changed during Edo-Era.
Nagato Sumiyoshi is one of important shrines in the history of Japanese architecture. It is said that it was built in 1370, in the registration of the Agency for Cultural Affairs. But, as a result of considering the old documents and ornamental details, especially flog legs, I guess that it was rebuilt in 1578. And it has a lot of unique design, for example uchinori-nageshi which is used on pillars of eave.
Sambor Prei Kuk, identified by the original name Isanapura, was considered a city within the Chenla kingdom. It has been mentioned frequently in ancient Khmer inscriptions as well as Chinese records during early 7th century. The main city complex existed in an area surrounded by 2 x 2km moat located at the west bank of the O-Krou-Ke River. There are many archeological remains in the area such as brick temples, ponds, and scattered ceramics. Within this context, a research design and case study based on a new found site and its surrounding remains was developed. This paper will discuss the city structure by analyzing on temples, ponds and ceramics to more thoroughly understand the relationship among these features. Moreover, the focus emphasized identifying human habitation and spam time of occupation in this area. As a result, it was found that a complex which surrounded by a 163 x 139m brick wall (Named as M78/M79 complex site by authors), is the biggest group of temples inside the city compound. From architectural evidence, M78/M79 complex was built in at least into two different periods. They were first built in the Pre-Angkor period, and rebuilt in Angkor period.
This paper discusses the city construction in Hong Kong from the 26th of January, 1841 to the 26th of June, 1843. By analyzing land policy, the result of the first land auction, and the disposition and the use of the lands, the following findings are clarified; •The settlers constructed the city according to economic efficiency and without a comprehensive governmental plan. •The elements that determined the shape and the disposition of the settlements were the height of the tide, the slope of the hill, the availability of water and sunlight, and the ventilation.