The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fire safety measures on evacuation safety in care facilities for the elderly. Fire safety measures include fire protection provisions and management profiles. In order to accomplish this goal, the authers developed an evacuation simulation model, which could simulate rescuers' behavior to assist non-ambulatory occupants. The model can set conditions concerning each occupant's egress ability and track the movements of individual occupants or rescuers. Several case studies are conducted for two types of care facilities. In the case studies, the effect of several fire safety measures are evaluated from two points of view: building safety features in relation to the spread of smoke and the evacuation risk. From the results of case studies, the effectiveness of fire safety measures is discussed.
In this study, we prepared a stage sound field using virtual sound source distribution and conducted examinations of the acoustic effects of initial reflected sound on the stage, from the side walls, ceiling and the audience area on subjective evaluations by solo performers under conditions of simulated stage sound field in which the direction, energy and arrival time of the initial reflected sound group surrounding the performer were systematically varied. As a result, we found that lateral reflected sound has the role of returning the primary sound to the performer on the stage and that reflected sound from the ceiling, which arrives slightly later than the lateral reflected sound, is linked to the quality of the response and is also a factor in "ease of performance". In addition, we also realized that the forward reflected sound from the audience area gives the performer the impression that the sounds of the performance are reaching the audience and that this impression is not only influenced by the volume of the reflected sound from the audience area but also the arrival time of the reflected sound.
Variability of acoustic indexes due to the slight differences of the location of an observation point in a sound field were studied. The result is as follows: 1). The greater Variability due to slight differences in the location of an observation point were detected in the following order : First the indexes using the correlation technique (IACC); second, the indexes concerning energy rations (D, Lf, LE); third, the indexes concerning temporal characteristics (Ts, EDT, RT). 2). The Variability in octave band analysis were greater than those in the all-pass analysis. 3). The Variability of indexes concerning directional information were more numerous than those of the omni-directional indexes. 4). The measurement using a dummy head microphone has a unexpected instability due to slight angle in the turning of a dummy head. 5). These Variability of acoustic indexes depend upon the size of the space, the density of the reflections, and the spatial distribution of the reflections. Even if there are not perceptible differences of a sound field, the measurement at one point has a unexpected instability due to small changes in an observation point. The instability could be reduced by spatially averaging four responses at the peak of a regular tetrahedron. By measuring virtual sound source distribution once, the responses at both ears for every angle in the turning of a dummy head can be calculated using the database of the HRTFs. If the virtual sound source distribution is used, the directional characteristics of IACC can be obtained by only one measurement.
Focusing on "walking" "standing" and "sitting", the basic actions of people in their homes, we examined comfort in this study, centered in the "sensation of hardness" of floors during these actions for various floor finish structures based on the results of sensation evaluation tests using the SD method and paired-comparison method. In addition, we also examined correspondence to various physical values relevant to the "sensation of hardness" and the "desirability" of floors, conducted multiple regression analyses and investigated methods for estimating these quantitatively.
This paper presents some discussion of applications of simulation technique for the floor impact sound based on both FEM floor vibration analysis and BEM sound field Analysis. On experimental site tests by using multi-stories residential building, vibrating characteristics of floor structure and normal acoustic impedance of sound absorbing boundaries are studied to model boundary conditions of FEM and BEM procedures. The accuracy and appropriateness of the simulation is discussed by comparing with experimental results. As another application, improving effects on the floor impact sound by floor vibration damping and sound absorbing capacity are studied through parametric computation.
This paper presents some experimental results concerning with vibration characteristics of reinforced concrete floor slabs in the actual building construction. An experimental modal analysis is applied to analyse the problem. This research develops experimental equipments and a measuring method. Through experiment, some values of the reciprocity of FRF, coherence function and modal parameters are observed at several points on the slab. This research proposes how from an analysis of those values the optimal location of vibration driving point can be determined. Some results are summarized as follows: (1) The values of modal parameters obtained from this experiments are nearly equal to ones shown in past researches, (2) For the determination of floor slab vibration characteristics, modal participation of lower modes (e.g. 1st and 2nd mode) are relatively more significant than that of higher modes, (3) It is shown that both W-type and S-type mode shape clearly appear at the floor slab near the separation wall and (4) The optimal location of driving point determined is some point on the floor slab away from the beams.
The use of airflow to improve summer hot-humid conditions is regarded as effective method from a standpoint of the saving energy. However, excessive addition of airflow contains danger to let thermal dissatisfaction rate increase. This paper describes consideration that made much of thermal comfort about adjustment of the summer environment by the use of airflow through an experiment. The following results were obtained. 1) Increase of airflow of 0.27m/s was demanded by every difference of air temperature 1℃ from 24℃ in order to turn thermal sensation into neutral. 2) Even if gave suitable airflow, as room air temperature became high, thermal comfort improved took a low value. 3) The limit of Room air temperature that comfortable range was provided by assistance of airflow was 29℃.
Measurement of turbulent flow properties on natural convection in a model fire room was conducted using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and a fine thermocouple of 12μm diameter. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain data for validating the numerical simulation of a turbulent flow field where significant density variation caused by a large temperature variation is expected. This experiment quantitatively clarifies the turbulence characteristics of velocity and temperature which have hardly been measured by previous studies related to this problem. The results of this experiment provide valuable data for verifying 3-D numerical simulations with density variation. In this report, the experimental results on turbulence quantities are described.
In the previous paper, the formulation of the 3-D CFD code with the staggered grid system based on generalized curvilinear coordinates was developed and tested for LES of channel flow. This paper investigates a numerical method for interpolation of variables at discrete points and geometrical definitions of control volumes of the pressure based on the staggered end system. There are two types of definition of the control volumes of the pressure. First type defines that the pressure definition points may not be located at the centers of the control volumes and boundary surfaces of them are located at the midpoints between two adjacent pressure definition points. Second type defines that the pressure definition points are located at the centers of the control volumes and boundary surfaces of them may not be located at the midpoints between two adjacent pressure definition points. Four types of discrete scheme are composed and investigated by applying them to LES of flow around a cube. A scheme based on the first type definition of the control volumes is recommended by reason that the generation of wiggle is reduced to a very weak level and agreement of the pressure distributions with the experimental data is confirmed to be good, as well as those of the turbulence kinetic energy.
In the first report, the thermal system of a single building is presented. In this paper, the following two thermal systems have been added to the building system into a united model. One is the radiant environment formed by a group of buildings, and another is the atmospheric heat transportation from the building surface to the outside of the urban canopy. Then numerical studies were carried out with this united model named urban canopy model. The results are as follows: 1) Increase in temperature at daytime is mainly the result of missing evaporative surface, and that at night is the result of decrease in radiant cooling. 2) Increase in temperature caused by the heat exhaust from the building leads to increased cooling load of the building. Namely, the building produces the load in itself.
Basic sector classification input/output table were applied to analyze the construction cost of three types of district piping in DHC in order to obtain the energy consumption and CO_2 emission. The analyzed three types of district piping are a) open-cut method, b) jacking method and c) directly-buried method. The values of final energy consumption are 6.5〜11.2 GJ/m・m^2 for a) and b) method, and 3.1 GJ/m・m^2 for c) method. The amount of CO_2 emission are 0.60〜0.96 t/m・m^2 for a) and b) method, and 0.27 t/m・m^2 for c) method.
The authors surveyed used colors in principal baseball stadiums in Japan. The colors were measured based on the comparison and matching of a surface with the JIS color standards. Ten baseball stadiums were divided into five types by their seat color patterns; 1) Single color (R〜Y dominant type), 2) Single color (GY〜G dominant type), 3) Single color (BG〜PB dominant type), 4) Three-color type, 5) Plural type. Used colors of elements such as fences, walls, seats, were similar 'tone' (a kind of scale shown with Value and Chroma).
Newly constructed residential houses in Japan are better insulated and more airtight than their predecessors to increase energy conservation. Although reduced energy consumption was expected, the energy performance of these buildings has not yet been measured. Therefore, the indoor environment and energy consumption in fifty-one well-insulated and airtight houses newly constructed in the Nagano City Area, were investigated through a questionnaire survey and a field measurement. The information was extracted from the database on indoor environment of residential houses in Nagano Prefecture, which has been built by authors from 1980's. This paper reveals the characteristics of indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in the investigated houses. Also, the relationship between energy consumption for space heating and the influencing factors on energy consumption is discussed.
In this study, we tried to clarify characteristic of the consciousness of inhabitants regarding their privacy of both when being seen and seeing, basing the evaluation on the following criteria: 1. when they stay in the room /2, when they close the curtain. To make clear this relation, we conducted a survey on the residents of the rebuilding cases of both old public housing and apartments of wood construction for rent. Results indicate inhabitants' consciousness often occurs in such situations that (being seen from other houses: the latter cases) in the daytime on weekend even when they close lace curtain.
This paper aimes to clear the residence conditions and life style of the aged in Å rhus from the viewpoit; of the relation between parents and children. Firstly to choose areas for examination we got and analyzed some statistics about population and housing, then we chose two areas as typical places of residence in Å rhus. In this two areas we made questionnaire survey in 1997, and we collected about 500 households samples and about 700 inhabitants samples. So we examined following indexes; (1) family style, (2) sex distinction, (3) age, (4) health condition, (5) location of parents, (6) location of children, (7) frequency of visit from children to parents, (8) frequency of visit from parents to children. And we analyzed mutual relations of these indexes.
The purpose of this study is to get knowledge about the business condition and function of the pharmacies and try to divide. So, we examined them at four wards in Kobe city with questionnaire survey. As a result, we understood their business condition and function. About the business condition, we got four classified axes with quantification theory type III, and about the function, three components with principal component analysis. And they could be divided into two groups about basic attribute and two groups about function with cluster analysis. At last, they could be divided into four groups crossing that groups.
In this study, 15 primary and secondary schools were investigated as the case of composite welfare facilities for the aged. Trying to clarify the planning condition, We grasped some merits and demerits of the composite, and intercommunication activities between the aged and pupils. Conclusions are as follows; (1) According to a shape of site and schoolhouse, size of the welfare facilities for the aged are limited. (2) Intercommunication activities are influenced by school year, time, place, and health condition of the aged. (3) Total reorganizing plan is needed in order to make sure of compatibility. (4) Space for intercommunication activities between the elderly people and pupils must be equipped. (5) Adjustment meeting among the facilities interest is expected for the facilities management.
Library Systems have been developed so that the users can borrow or return books to any libraries. In the planning process of public libraries, we have to discuss the effectiveness of Library Systems. In this paper we construct a model which describes library-choice behavior of users, and propose a method for measuring the travel cost to libraries. Our model is based on a logit model whose utility function consists of facilities' attractions and travel cost in the term of utility. Through the mathematical consideration, it is shown that the travel cost can be measured by using the data of library-choice behavior of users. The numerical examples on Yokohama-City Libraries show that the travel cost increases according to not only the distance to libraries but also the geographical features around.
We surveyed 12 sites of erection with glued laminated timber. In this study we grasped the basic man-hour of erection and analyzed what items related to erection are suited to estimate the standard work time. On this report we introduce the idea of ZIGUMI-frame and classify the work of erection. Also we point out the suitable items and their standard work time in order to plan the schedule and man-hour of erection ahead of time.
Many kinds of components, materials and building systems used in buildings are developed according to the changes of building systems by several reasons. However, popular materials are rarely recorded in its detail of transition. In this study, we grasped the outline of development of plastic floor materials and carpets. Linoleums were manufactured for the first time at Taisho era in Japan, and they were popularized for buildings. After World War II, PVC floor materials were widely used for buildings. But cushion floor, carpet and so on were on the market in the 40th of Showa, and then the floor materials diversified. At present, tile carpet is one of the main stream of office use.
This study examined the development of spatial knowledge in a house from the model of a child's own house, using the model house kit. The experiments involved 41 children (6-14 years old). The results were as follows: 1) Examining both models' features and making procedure, children comprehend house space with interior elements such as furniture in their early developmental stage. 2) Comparing the model and the house plan, children first understand how the space is used. And children understand house space only from an inside view. In the last stage, children acquired the knowledge of a house structure by its walls. 3) Children paid attention more to plane location than to the difference of the level in a house.
This paper describes safety issues of stairs. Questionnaires have been sent to 90 male and females of 10 to 89 year old to investigate how they think about stairs regarding insecurity feeling. Relationships between stairs dimensions and human movements were clarified through video recording analysis during ascending and descending five different types of stairs actually in use. The following conclusions have been drawn as the causes of accidents: 1) users adapt themselves by conscious efforts to the size of steps, 2) slight inattention might cause thrumming down stairs, 3) need to verify if the tread and riser are acceptable.
An aim of this study is to define roles and structures of inspections about a security of building performance. We have researched different 3 systems, by public service, or private service with insurance, or both existing together. We understand that inspection has two steps: to discover blind information about performance by plan check, and checking or observations under construction and occupancy, and to judge of performance by referring codes. And we can explain when materials or equipment are inspected, by difference of secular change of reliability of them. And each community secures the independence of inspectors from owners or building constructor, to judge fairly by its own system.
The objective of this paper is to consider the space formation of the village settlement of Konghinglie (Singdyam City) which is a typical traditional village in Taipei Basin. The study is based on the analysis of the interrelations between the religious sevice area of Jibyo (Buddhist and Confucian temples) and village organization. The target village of the study was the frontier settlement in the period of migration from mainland China that still preserve a traditional way of life. The several buidling types can be observed in the space formation of village of Hang tribe in Taipei Basin. The paper firstly clearify, the distribution of building types in the village and compare the community organization with the religious service areas of Jibyou. It was found that there are twe types of Jibyous, that is, Indigenous type and Outside origin type. The service area of Indigenous type is formed on the traditional community organization but the Outside origin type has no such organization in the village. Finally this paper points out the process of the destruction of traditinoal community organization which is a key to understand the urbanization process of Taiwan.
This paper derives a precise form of the relationship between facility density and population density from the general assumption that facilities locations are determined in such a way as to minimize the travel distance of users. Models generally lead to an exponential function with an exponent, and especially, the 'minisum' standard derives that facility density is proportional to population density raised to the two-thirds power. After the application of this theoretical relationship to empirical relations, it is found that some public facilities confirm the result. The exponent of public facilities tends to be smaller than that of retail stores.
This report is a series of study that we pay attention to gain the planning standard of land use covered with green district for human environment-friendly in an urban area. So, we investigated the secular change of temperature-humidity to compare not only the regression coefficient with the difference between the two peaks of temperature, relative humidity and vapour pressure in the period of populated urbanization, but also the moving average for 5 years with 10 years. And, we examined the characteristics of temperature-humidity change and the relationship between this change and the change of population density in 8 weather types of cities that 135 weather points were classified according to the principal component scores of 4 axes which were represented 19 meteorological indices.
The goal of this research is to acquire concrete and useful knowledge about the construction and management of Japanese gardens overseas. This research focuses on the successful example of Japanese-style gardens in Washington Park in the city of Portland, Oregon (built by Tono Takuma in 1963) and examines the finer details concerning the completion of the garden and the process of establishing it as a locus for Japanese cultural exchange. As a result various special features were identified. These include: 1) the existence of cultural groups which worked for and supported the construction of such garden; 2) progressive leadership which helped strengthen the organization and foresaw clearly the future image of the garden; 3) development of a garden design that could be appreciated by local populace; 4) the time and patience that went into the constructing of the garden; 5) the system entrusting young Japanese directors with more influence over the construction and the training of local staff; 6) the holding of events to celebrate Japanese culture; and 7) the volunteer garden guide program.
Since the conditions in which mentally retarded persons live in community are not yet sufficient in Japan, their livings are attended with much difficulties at present. Therefore, it seems urgently necessary to prepare many facilities with special roles which allow to support their social independence. This study focused on the roles and the problems of group homes for social independence and participation as a member of society of mentally retarded persons and a case study on group homes was made in two regions of Tokyo. In addition, a questionnaire survey on a group home was made with the residents to clarify the present status and its desirable conditions in future. This report describes the characteristics of group homes and the problems to improve them based on the data as to the time use patterns of the residents' daily living and the residential environments.
This paper focuses upon the selection of the site for the Chosen Shrine, a shinto shrine built by the Government-general of Chosen in 1925. Althogh the northern foot of Nam-san hill was once selected and designs for the precincts were completed by the end of 1915, the government engaged prof. Chuta Ito to make him conduct the second investigation in 1918 and the western part of Nam-san hill was finally selected. This paper discusses the backgrounds of the difference of these two conclusions from the viewpoint of the development of Japanese Settlement and the early Urban Improvement in Keijo.
The purpose of this study is to consider the principles of urban formation of the Walled City of Lahore, Pakistan. This paper discusses the spacial pattern of urban houses and their group form. There are variety of plans of houses corresponding to the size and the form of the site. By taking notice of courtyard, they can be classified three basic types. These are (A) typical courtyard house (B) house with courtyard-like terrace on the upper floor (C) house with no courtyard space. Mansions called haveli are considered as a prototype of the urban house of Lahore. Most of the site of houses are under 100m^2. Many entrances of houses are situated along the cul-de-sac, so the privacy of the residential space is well kept. The projected platform called tarra functions as semi-public space which connect the street and the house.
In this paper, facilities location model based on Spatial Interaction Models (SIM) is concerned. Initially outlines of SIM and location problem based on SIM are described. Secondly, a new model of SIM which is developed from Non-constraint type of SIM is proposed. In this model a new concept Maximum Realized Demand is applied. Next a location problem to maximize the sum of realized demand is proposed which is based on developed SIM. A method of solution based on Stochastic Descent Method and Stochastic Approximation Method is presented, and the effectiveness of presented method is confirmed through numerical analyses. Finally, 3 simulations of optimal location analyses are shown, and characteristics of presented location model are examined.
This is a part of a strategic study for Japan Institute of Architects (JIA) about the relationship between architects and their clients. In this paper, four research results are presented. First is a structural modeling between clients' satisfaction on architects' services and the quality/quantity of them supplied actually. Second is an analysis of architects classified into two groups, that is, design oriented architects and management oriented architects, according to their actual services and new direction of them. Third is the review of the JIA's services standard. And final is a proposal of the real state of art for new architects' services and clients' satisfaction on them.
This paper aims to analyze the time series change in characteristics of housing relocation in Tokyo metropolitan area by using 1983, 1988 and 1993 Housing Census data. Change in structure of housing relocation markets in Tokyo metropolitan area between 1978 and 1993 are explained by following 5 main factors. 1) Ageing of the primary baby boom generation and appearance of the second baby boom generation to housing markets. 2) Decline of housing relocation ratio itself. 3) Decline of relative importance of Tokyo 23 wards in housing relocation market. 4) Decline of ratio to select the ownership housing as a new housing. 5) Increase of ratio to select suburban areas as a new address. After all, the qualitative change in structure of housing relocation markets in Tokyo metropolitan area are largely controled by demographic factors and the guantity of housing relocation has been decreasing.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the problems of the new housing supply policy by analyzing the enforcement condition of the housing system reform which enforced from 1978 in urban area of China. The results are as follows: 1) Because the new housing system was attached importance to the citizen who can acquire the public housing, and the acquiring possibility was decided by the enterprise, the unfairness appeared on the citizen's housing acquisition. 2) It is very important to build up a fair housing supply system by dividing the enterprise from the housing supply system.
This research is a part of study on the characteristics of the English modern movement in architecture through the activities of the MARS Group from its forming in 1933 to the disbanding in 1957. It shall be focused on the role of the MARS Group and the arguments on the CIAM activities in the post-war period, especially in the CIAM 6 Cogress held in England in 1947 through analysing the discourses on the congress.
This paper interprets Kamo-Shintoism documents of the 17th century in order to analyze topos in the process of altered consciousness of the priests during the 'Miare-shinji' Shinto ceremony, dedicated to the main Shinto deity of the Kamigamo shrine: Wake-Ikazuchi-no-Kami. In the first stage, the priests serving Wake-Ikazuchi-no-Kami's deities transmigrate into those deities; in the second stage, the priests, transformed into deities, will serve Wake-Ikazuchi-no-Kami. During this process of altered consciousness, the priests hope that Wake-Ikazuchi-no-Kami's forces will appear. In conclusion, while considering Wake-Ikazuchi-no-Kami to be both a deity and a force of Nature (Zoka), it is suggested that this process is a demonstration of Nature (Zoka) itself.
This paper is an investigation of the spatial composition of Richard Neutra's residential buildings focusing on the material and the modular system. The analysis contains, structure, exterior and interior finishing materials, modular system on both plan and section, and composition of elevation. As a result of this analysis, following points are derived: Neutra mainly adopted horizontal window, and gradually used together curtain wall and wall for the composition of elevation. As for the materials, Neutra mainly adopted both plaster and wood, and gradually used with stone or brick. Neutra clearly defined these components of composition which to be succeeded and changed, and transformed his way of composition every 5 year.
This paper throws light upon the expansion and reformation process of precinct of Taiwan Shrine founded in 1901 on Mt. Chientan in colonized Tapei. The precincts of the shrine has experienced 3 times of expansion : 1) 1909, 2) 1913-1914 and 3) 1935-45. We can see, until the second expansion, a continuous process as a complement of founded precincts, but we have to indicate that the third expansion sharply enlarged the shrine area and drastically converted the conditons of location and spatial characteristics of precincts under the social and political backgrounds of wartime structure.
Face-to-face design meeting is essential to collaboration in any stage of design process. Although personal design environment is well computerized, meeting environment is not fully supported by information technologies. For this purpose, in this study, we observed the information treated at the meetings in a design competition. Based on this observation, we made clear the several problems in dealing with information in design meeting. In order to solve these problems, we developed a design meeting environment which includes hardware and software. Pinup walls, meeting table, white board are metaphors on the proposed system. Members could concentrate on discussing design issues without interruptions caused by looking for some lost information, preparing design models or documents at their desks.
Facilities location problem to minimize the power sum of distances between demand points and any facility is concerned. First, studies in literature are reviewed. Second, a new heuristic method for mini-power-sum problem, which is based on stochastic descent method and stochastic approximation method, is presented. Next, comparisons of algorithmic performance with famed methods: comparison with Cooper's Alternate method at power exponent r = 1.0, comparison with k-means algorithm as cluster analysis tool at r = 2.0, and comparison with Drezner's heuristic method for multi-source Mini-max problem at r = 50.0, are shown. Consequently the effectiveness and the priority of presented method are confirmed.