In this study, we have surveyed the spatial configuration and distribution of Jizo (stone statue of Buddhist god) found within the limits of public housing in Kyoto city, and analyzed them in order to consider the transformation of common space by manners brought in by the residents. Jizo in urban areas is common mainly in the Kansai district. In the case of central Kyoto, citizens have traditionally formed religious urban spaces for the local community by enshrining Jizo on the streets. Kyoto suffered a serious housing shortage caused by the rapid population flow during the post WW2 era and the high economic growth period. Major suburban housing developments were accelerated to solve this issue. This led to many residents living in a whole new modern urban space. On the occasion of developing their own community, they have brought in their religious customs, including Jizo. Danchi-nai-Jizo (Jizo inside public housing) is still largely unexplored; a field research was conducted in order to clarify the present condition of every Danchi-nai-Jizo. This research includes recording their locations and orientations among the site. The total number of surveyed Danchi is 148 including three different housing categories; municipal housing, prefectural housing and rental apartments built by Japan Housing Corporation (JHC). As a result, 55 of these Danchi included Danchi-nai-Jizo. Our analysis of geographical distribution shows that Danchi-nai-Jizo can be found in every ward of Kyoto except Kamigyo-ward and more in suburban Danchi than ones in the central area. Some specific areas were found where many Danchi-nai-Jizo gather densely. Our analysis of chronological distribution of Danchi-nai-Jizo linked with construction year of each development, clarified that Danchi-nai-Jizo exists widely from the old Danchi to the new. They were both found in larger Danchi, most built in the 60's and early 70's, and smaller ones built after the 80's. Focusing on Danchi-nai-Jizo within common spaces, three pattern types, “Apartment type”, “Danchi type” and “Neighborhood type”, were derived through analysis of space configuration. This corresponds to three different scales of community space. The “Apartment type” is the configuration of Danchi-nai-Jizo that is placed close to the residents nearby the apartment building, at the center of a small unit of community space. Danchi-nai-Jizo for “Danchi type” is usually located inside or around the square facing towards the empty space. In this case, the Danchi-nai-Jizo is at the center of community space for the entire Danchi. “Neighborhood type” describes the Danchi-nai-Jizo on the border of the housing development. This configuration looks similar to Jizo seen on the streets in central Kyoto, but this Danchi-nai-Jizo has less relation to the Danchi it self. Danchi-nai-Jizo is an informal act by the residents, but it has been accommodated in the Danchi space for decades. The “Apartment type” Danchi-nai-Jizo has fit in a small excess space around the resident access path and more accommodation is found in these common spaces. In the case of “Danchi type”, it is about how Danchi-nai-Jizo was accepted and how it replaced the original function of the open space. “Neighborhood type” showed how Danchi space accommodates to the surrounding neighborhood. In conclusion, it is safe to say that Danchi-nai-Jizo has existed despite the transformation of Danchi space, and flexible and accommodating nature in Danchi was clarified through the existence of Danchi-nai-Jizo seen in various types of common spaces.
This article focus on how common space area in Japanese intensive care home for elderly is changed in the past 35 years, aims to quantitatively summarize the transition of common space area size from 1978 up to today, so as to provide a reference for common space dimensioning in modern Japanese nursing home including Japanese version of CCRC(Continue care retirement community). The analysis is done on 79 nursing homes which are selected from Japanese architecture publications. The selection is divided into two groups: the classic nursing home group where the living room is shared by multi beds and nursing care is done in large scale, and the unit care nursing homes group where several private living rooms share a common living space and care service is performed in this unit. The floor plan of each selected nursing home is scanned and imported into AutoCAD by which the AutoCAD area calculation tool is applied to compute the size of each common space area. Further, based on the location and the main function, the common space is divided into three outdoor and six indoor categories, the average area size of each category in per 5 year interval is calculated and grouped into classical care and unit care nursing homes to provide the transition of common space area size of each category in detail in the past 35 years and the comparisons between the two nursing home groups. The analysis shows that 1. The outdoor common space area was in the uptrend since the year of 2000~2004, and this increase in common space area was mainly contributed by the invest of the roof garden, deck, and balcony, etc. 2. For indoor common space, both the average per resident and the ratio of common space area to total floor area were in the uptrend as well in the past 35 years, they were from 3.2 m2 in the 1980s to 8.1 m2 in the year of 2010~2015, and 9.8% to 16.6% respectively. 3. The expansion of restaurant area and physical training facilities, service facilities such as hair salon, coffee shop, and community space were the main factors which contribute to indoor common space area increase. And, compared with the classical care nursing homes, the common space area of the restaurant and physical training room per resident was increased from 4.6 m2 in classical care nursing home to 6.1 m2 in unit care nursing home, the community space has also increased from 0.8 m2 to 1.2 m2. Especially the transition in community space area size reveals the trend to secure more community space in today's nursing home design. 4. On the other hand, the space of entrance hall and lobby, classroom, and entertaining room, etc. hobby facilities was in downtrend.
Through data collection, house mapping and interviews, this paper takes Shengli Village of Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County in Liaoning Province as an example to study the process of changes and the causes of traditional Manchu residence in modern times. The results are as follows: 1) In order to securing privacy and pursue the comfort and convenience, the vestibule and Livingroom are appeared which the traditional Manchu residence don't have. The vestibule has the effect of blocking external cold air and lampblack from kitchen into the bedroom, but because it is very cold in winter so it is limited to the function of the passage between the entrance, kitchen and bedroom. Although the Livingroom (in bedroom) is an attempt that the young household divide the bedroom's privacy and functional differentiation, but there is no heating equipment so the number of the Livingroom (in bedroom) is not many. Instead of it, the Livingroom that formed by the enlargement of the vestibule has been popular since 1990s under the influence of urban housing. Setting up radiator in the Livingroom and the glass entrance at the gate is a mainstream, if introduce electric heating equipment such as air conditioners and electric heaters into village in the future, there is high possibility that the Livingroom will replace the Wanzi Kang to become the center of the new rural housing. 2) The characteristics of the spatial composition of traditional Manchu residence are disappearing as the modernization. In Northeast China where the cold season lasts for 5 months, the heating is the most important necessary factor of building in winter, Wanzi Kang in bedroom of traditional Manchu residence is the most typical heating facility and the public and private life activities such as hospitality, togetherness, meal, sleep, etc. are all on it. But since the 1980s, the private space has been trended to reduce and the public space has been trended to expand, in order to expand the area of Livingroom and kitchen and the number of bedrooms, the spacious bedroom with Wanzi Kang is reduced, this is the method that “一” type Kang also can ensure the heat preservation effect. The most of people who still use Wanzi kang are elderly and the yang people prefer to sleep with “一” type Kang and bed. 3) In recent years, the human feces has not been used as fertilizer, the Pit toilet are gradually removed, especially since 2000, water supply and sewage facilities have been partially developed and in order to improve the sanitary and convenient, there are 12/20 cases have been equipped with indoor toilets and the shower is also advanced. It is estimated that it will be popular in the future and presumed that there is a high possibility that the plane composition “bedroom + Livingroom + kitchen + toilet/shower” will be mainstream.
This research focuses on the processes of relocation of public schools after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident in 2011.12 towns were forced to evacuate from their original towns by the accident. All of the towns decided to close the schools after the accident, and the towns were the one to decide how to reopen the schools since there was no policy from Fukushima Prefecture or national government. This research is to understand the mechanism of reopening and continuing public schools in evacuation area, and to clarify the roles of those schools. We conducted the survey to 9 towns; Futaba, Okuma, Naraha, Tomioka, Katsurao, Iitate, Minamisoma, Tamura and Hirono. We interviewed directors of education, government officers and school teachers about the process of school relocation and the situation of schools. The survey was conducted since 2015 to 2016. There is a correlation between time of reopening schools and evacuation distance. Schools which evacuated shorter distance were likely to reopen faster. Those schools used the closed school buildings or used the space from existing schools. On the other hand, the schools which reopened later built prefabricated/LGS-structure schools or used the non-school buildings with renovation if it was needed. The schools which used non-school building had difficulty in setting all the facilities needed for schools such as playground, swimming pools and special classrooms. In this case, the schools used the facilities in surrounding area including public swimming pools and neighborhood school facilities. Also the usage of school building has been changed as the number of students decreased. The number of students also correlate with the time of reopening schools. The schools which started faster had more students. On the other hand, as time passed, the number of students in most of the schools has been dramatically decreased. However there were some cases that the schools accepted students from different towns who didn't fit to the environment of big schools. It can be said that those small schools played a far more role in evacuation area. The relocated schools are facing the challenge to attract students as evacuation period is becoming longer and longer. There were trials that some of the schools has started such as collaborating with private organization and neighborhood towns, which will be more important to attract the students to choose those schools. It is also important to remain those networks even after they go back to their original towns since the schools would probably remain as small schools.
Public Observatories in the Tokyo Area were mostly established in the 1990s for the first time in history. There are currently 9 such observatories, and they are the subjects of this paper. Some of the profit-making observatories are also called public observatories, but they are actually not. They are established for business purposes in high-rise buildings to provide panoramic scenery. The total volume of free space in the public observatories is small, considering the huge Tokyo area. It was found in this study that while the number of such observatories are limited, they provide precious public space and valuable scenic views to the public. We carried out this study on public observatories and panoramic scenery using the following three perspectives. 1. Its location in an urban setting, 2. Spatial design within the building, 3. Panoramic scenery seen from the observatories 1. Public observatories were established on the top floor of the high-rise complex building situated in the areas with high potential within the city, as status symbols of many high-rise buildings. Once established, they become the highlight of the area. Public observatories provide panoramic views of the city, and the public can follow the transformation of the city's scenery from these vantage points. The creation of public observatories however, has never been the main objective in construction projects. For almost all projects, the main focus was the outside appearance of the architecture. This became clear from the official minutes of the various assembly meetings. 2. Free and open public observatories are valuable spaces and provide great scenic views. The total amount of such free space is not much considering the huge Tokyo area however. It is difficult to create free public spaces with observatories for a few reasons, namely limited floor volume and competition with other facilities. Almost all 9 public observatories discussed in this paper were constructed in the 1990s during the so-called Bubble Period. The space secured for free open public spaces was limited since the intention was to make various functions coexist with each other in the limited floor space available, such as eating and drinking areas run by businesses. There are a few cases, such as the Tokyo City Government building and the Ichikawa city's I-Link-town building, which provide expansive, comfortable public spaces for visitors. 3. Panoramic views from perfect circulation are 2 examples only. Other examples are partly and divided by other use. Scope of panoramic View is limited by planning with other use. The value of panoramic scenery seen from public observatories had not been thoroughly discussed in the process of each project. There are only a few documents that discuss this aspect of the value of public observatories. The panoramic scenery viewable from public observatories is worth considering as a valuable public asset. Historically, it has always been difficult for the public to have a chance to view the city as a whole.
From these three points of view, it became clear that the value of public observatories is difficult to be understood and the opportunity to view panoramic scenery has been hard to secure throughout the history of Tokyo. Nine public observatories were established in high rise architectures between the years of 1980 and 2000. Many of them , free spaces, were poorly planned, with limited space being divided among varying functions. Highrise buildings and its tops were realized as symbols of each area. Symbolism of outside and business of other use are main focus. Public observatories inclouded in highrise buildings were not main theme of the projects. They were almost realized without discussing about value of free space and panoramic view in this city.
As some parts of the Building Standards Act have been specified in 2000, and more safety secured by the Method of Verification for Evacuation Safety, a wider range of architectural design has become possible. Safety is more confirmed by the Method of Verification for Evacuation Safety as it evaluates performance by calculating Evacuation time, unlike former regulations. Evacuation time is consisted of ‹Starting time of Evacuation›, the time taken from the start of fire until the start of evacuation, and ‹Behavior time of Evacuation›, the time taken from the start of evacuation until the people evacuating arrive at a safe area. It is confirmed by studies from the past that it is more important to study Starting time of Evacuation as it is more likely to take up most of Evacuation time, compared to Behavior time of Evacuation. Unfortunately, the calculation of Starting time of Evacuation shown in the Method of Verification for Evacuation Safety only considers the surface area of the room and does not consider human characteristics such as vision and smell. Therefore, the establishment of a calculating method that considers human characteristics is requested. In order to calculate Starting time of Evacuation, the time taken to sense emergency and its factor is important. A factor that lets people sense emergency can be witnessing a fire or smoke, hearing a crowd, or breathing in the smell of smoke. Studies focusing on visual factors shows that smoke originated from the fire stays around the lightings on the ceiling, and the visual detection of change in luminance due to increase in smoke density, leads to accident perception. Therefore Starting time of Evacuation based on accident perception can be assumed as the time taken to visually detect the change in luminance under ceiling lightings. To estimate Starting time of Evacuation , a calculation model that derives the change in luminance under ceiling lightings due to the relationship between different space elements (wall reflectance, illuminance, room dimension) and smoke density is needed. Additionally, smoke density changes from moment to moment therefore the model estimating smoke density is needed to be represented by time as its variable. That been said, by making clear how people react to luminance change, it is possible to construct a model that estimates Starting time of Evacuation with space elements as its variable. In this study, an experiment was executed by creating an equipment that measures luminance with space elements as its variables, in purpose of constructing a model to estimate the luminance of ceiling lightings from the relationship between space elements and smoke density. In addition, a combustion experiment assuming an initial fire in an actual size model was held, in purpose of constructing s model that estimates smoke density with time as its variable. In conclusion, the Luminance Estimation Model, and the Smoke Concentration Estimation Model were individually constructed, and its consistency were confirmed by comparing the estimate and actual measurements. Moreover, by combining the two models, a model that estimates the luminance of ceiling lighting by the relationship between time and actual space elements was constructed.
1. Introduction After World War II, new junior high schools were established in many municipalities by the reform of the school education system. Later, at the time of implementing the municipal merger of Showa, many of these new junior high schools were consolidated. 2. Purpose This paper addresses the reorganization process of public junior high schools in the Yamaguchi Prefecture. This paper considers the effects of municipal merger on the integration and abolition of Junior high schools up to 2014. This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the policy municipal merger and the consolidation of Junior high schools in Showa and Heisei. 3. Conclusion 1) In Yamaguchi Prefecture, new junior high schools were established by the pre-war local government bodies according to the policy of Minister of education. In 1949, 229 junior high schools founded in 170 municipalities. At first, the construction of the new school-house was the major challenges for small local government. However, the school-houses were newly built in most of the areas before the municipal merger of Showa. 2) In Yamaguchi Prefecture, the large-scale reorganization of the local governments called “merging municipalities at the Showa era” had been promoted along the policy of government. On the other hand, the policy to reorganize junior high schools didn't established at the time. However, junior high schools were integrated in the many new municipalities after merger. In short, it is assumed that the merging municipalities at the Showa era became a trigger for the junior high school reorganization. 3) The transition of the number of students was classified by its features into 5 periods: before 1962 when the increase and decrease had been remarkable based on the war-damage recovery process and baby boom, from 1963 to 1980 during which time the number of students had rapidly decreased by the population movement in high economic growth period and fertility decline, from 1981 to 1986 during which time the number of students had increased by the second baby boom, from 1987 to 2002 during which time the number of students declined continuously during a period and after 2002 when the municipal merger of Heisei has a profound effect on the school consolidation. The features of the school consolidations differed depending upon the time period. In Yamaguchi Prefecture, the administrative reactions of every local government to the new school educational system after World War II and municipal merger in the Showa and Heisei periods has greatly influenced on the junior high school management up to the present time.
In Japan's regional cities, due to a decline in agriculture and the development of motorization, the urban sprawl phenomenon has become an issue. The declining population and growing proportion of elderly people have created a demand for compact urban structures as a form of effective financial investment. These circumstances have also led to the integration of medical and retail facilities and residences. An increased number of local governments are planning compact urban developments that allow access through public transportation to services necessary for daily life. Meanwhile, the American city of Portland, Oregon, which is well-known as a sustainable city, is advancing compact city policies. As its characteristic policy, Portland is attempting to establish “20-Minute Neighborhoods.” It's implementing urban planning while controlling regional city structures to make compact cities a reality. This study demonstrates and visualizes a future urban structure model by constructing an expert system that incorporates this concept and applies it to the regional city of Ube in Japan's Yamaguchi Prefecture. It also assesses this model and considers processes for moving populations. Based on these findings, we aim to propose new ways to support compact city planning. In this study, the target area is Ube city as the target city for this simulation modelled on Portland's compact city planning. First, this study examines Portland's population trends and land use transitions and analyzes the urban structure of Ube city. Next, the study samples aspects of Portland's compact city administrative planning and configurations for “20-Minute Neighborhoods”, preparing a “knowledge base.” The “knowledge base”, is used to create “rules for population integration” to migrate future population. Then, we develop a system for constructing the Portland Compact City Model (hereinafter referred to as the “PCM”) in accordance with indicators arbitrarily set by users, based on the rules for population integration. The GIS data used for Ube City has been organized into 100meter mesh data. Finally, future urban structures are considered by assessing the compactness of the PCM and discussing the process that could be used to move populations and make the PCM a reality. This study reaches the following conclusions. (1) First, based on the Portland City administration's concept of a “20-Minute Neighborhoods,” we identified areas corresponding to a complete neighborhood by calculating the walkable value of Ube City. (2) We developed an expert system that incorporates the planning policy of Portland's compact city, examined a future urban structure by constructing an urban structure model. (3) In the future urban structure model, the population is concentrated mainly around a central urban area. In addition, the population living within walking distance of urban and commercial service facilities has increased and the convenience of life improved. (4) When all of the population is concentrated in a complete neighborhood with high residential environment, it will be a very high-density urban structure for a city the size of Ube City. To migrate the population in stages, we created a standardization index and examined the mesh with high population movement priority.
The issue of vacancies has been receiving increasing attention. We aim to describe factors and tendencies of housing abandonment from the perspective of the built environment and property owner characteristics. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the relationship between housing abandonment and the characteristics, and three major findings were clarified. First, building age and attachment to a road less than 4 m wide raised the probability of housing abandonment. Second, floor area was positively related to housing abandonment in exclusive residential zoning areas only. Third, a relationship was seen between several property owner characteristics and housing abandonment.
Generally, in Japan, two public land supply projects have been employed in Tsunami mitigation: Promoting Group Relocation for Disaster Mitigation and the Land Readjustment Project. Because these projects require much time for completion, some affected households withdrew from participation in them, and instead rebuilt a house on land that they located themselves. Housing reconstruction is the most basic element of rebuilding life after a disaster has struck. Timing or placement of housing reconstruction varies with each household's character. This study focuses on private land supply methods offered by private companies or individuals. The area, where it is assumed future tsunami damage will occur, needs to develop a “Housing Reconstruction Scenario” that uses residential land supply methods and considers temporal or spatial demands. This paper clarifies the characteristics of each Residential land supply methods and demonstrates how to frame a “House Reconstruction Scenario.” This study conducted a temporal and spatial analysis using a “Building Plan Outline” from buildings that were built after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Residential land supply methods are grouped into the following types, which have various living environment characteristics: 1) Promotion of group relocation for disaster mitigation, or land readjustment projects that can provide a large amount of favorable housing but at the earliest will take three years to supply. 2) Development projects by a private company that will take two or three years to supply at the earliest but has relatively low accessibility. 3) Development projects of infill housing in existing urban areas that can be supplied immediately but are few in number, small, and expensive. 4) Development projects by individuals that can be supplied immediately and at a low price but are not secure, safe, or accessible. 5) Land and housing stock that is available immediately but are few in number. A “Housing Reconstruction Scenario” is necessary as a prior plan to match methods with temporal or spatial demands. To smoothly promote housing reconstruction, the local government should make preparations before disaster occurs, including plans for vacant land, utilization of the built-up area, small unit area development by public-private partnership, promotion of existing house distribution, group relocation project for community units, etc. It is also important that such a plan be positioned as part of a larger strategy, such as a general plan or an urban master plan.
Both the atmosphere and the quality of cities have been receiving increasing attention these days. The cities of today are evaluated not only by what they have, but also by what they are—how they “feel.” However, the qualitative aspects that we feel in cities are so vague that they are difficult to quantify or visualize. To address this, the authors have been implementing studies related to “urban modality,” which indicates the total mode of a city. Urban modality manifests itself as not only as that which is visible—buildings, trees, people, traffic and so on; but also by that which is invisible—the sounds, smells, breezes, and general atmosphere and feel of a city. In order to depict urban modality in a visual manner, we conducted a city walk. The walk was conducted on February 2, 2017 in Yaizu, Shizuoka Prefecture, with 40 participants. Each participant walked around the city with a smart phone to input and transmit onomatopoeia—their descriptions and their impressions at the time (on a five-point scale)—using an application named “100ninmap.” The data were transmitted to a server along with the locations obtained by the smart phone, and visualized on a map. We were thus able to obtain a total of 533 pieces of data. By classifying onomatopoeia based on the five senses, and preparing illustrations based on subject expression, we developed the “Yaizu Onomatopoeia Map.” It was made clear by a questionnaire survey that the participants of the city walk enjoyed finding onomatopoeias. In addition, we verified what impressions people received from the onomatopoeia map in a comparison experiment with general sightseeing maps. The results revealed that the onomatopoeia map transmitted the atmosphere of the city very well and made people want to walk around the city, even though the onomatopoeia map was less detailed than existing sightseeing maps. This indicated that our goal of developing a new sightseeing map through visualization of urban modality was basically met. Next, we analyzed the obtained text data itself and showed that the data were quantifiable and that they offered information about urban modality. First, we categorized data by which sense the participants grasped urban modality and by what kind of representation they used—such as imitative words and mimetic words. It transpired that more information about sounds is captured by using onomatopoeia than by using free words. Next, we classified the subjects indicated by onomatopoeic words. Categories obtained by the classification reflect the characteristics of Yaizu city. Then we calculated a correlation coefficient between use and impression evaluations for each category. Categories related to foods are positively correlated with impressions, while categories related to noise are negatively correlated with it. The research method used in this study to make maps based on city walks using onomatopoeia can be adapted to other cities for depicting and analyzing urban modality.
In recent years, the architectural design process has been becoming more and more complicated due to increase in factors to consider. Therefore, facilitation in the design process is becoming more important to reduce the task and needlessness work. As a tool to facilitate design process, BIM (Building Information Modeling) is the focus of attention recently. But, in spite of the large expectations for BIM's influence of facilitating design work, actual introduction of BIM into the building industry is very few, because of the lack of quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of BIM. Therefore, in this research, we evaluated the effectiveness of BIM utilization on reducing reworks and improving the design flow by comparing the 7 buildings which designed with BIM and 3 buildings which designed without BIM. As preparation, we organized meeting date and contents in chronological order from minutes information of 10 buildings. And we classified the contents into 113 design work items. The first analysis is the evaluation using a progress chart. It is the graph showing the progress of the design progress degree. The average of the design progress degree in BIM used cases was higher at the early stage of design process than that of the BIM unused cases. So that, it made clear that many design work items are considered from the early stage of the design process in BIM used cases. The second analysis is the evaluation of the study timing of design work items. It is the percentage value expressed as the average timing of the meeting. The study timing in BIM used cases average is 28%, and that of study timing in BIM unused cases average is 39%. which shows that utilization of BIM leads forward the meeting timing. Next, analysis of the study timing of 19 design work group shows that “16. Structural performance” and “19. Estimate and make the book of confirmation request” were studied early stage of design process. And, analysis of the study timing of 113 design work items shows that “46. Decide the beam size”, “78. Study the fire protection zone”, “79. Design the corridors”, “94. Decide the floor vibration performance”, “103. Design the window (form/kind)” and “113. Make the book of construction order” were studied early stage of design process. The third analysis is the evaluation of rework. We clarify the type of rework occurred at each meeting. The type is classified as “1. Rework by owner's change request”, “2. Returning by designer's change request”, “3. Rework by the change of other design work item” and “4. The other”. In this research, the rework frequency of BIM used cases is 28% in average, and that of BIM unused cases is 19% in average. It shows that reworks are increased 9% by BIM using. However, in the interview survey, designer said “Utilizing BIM, the cases that have been overlooked in the design stage and become troubles at the construction stage have been discovered and improved at the design stage.”. In conclusion, using BIM in the architectural design process is effective in front-loading of design work, but it becomes a factor to increase the rework of design work. However, the number of building in this research is 10, making it difficult to say statistical analysis results. Also, if the increase in the rework at the basic design stage is one that foresaw the trouble at the construction stage and avoided it, verification including implementation design is required.
1. Introduction The objective of simulation is to understand the content of a construction plan and to clarify the problems in the plan to be improved, by simulating the progress in accordance with a construction plan before the construction start. This paper proposes a modeling of simulating workers' movement at construction site, and suggest incorporating algorithmic planning methods into the simulation model. Then, using a case study, the author verifies the validity of these modeling methods. 2. Workers' movement at a construction site The author describes the characteristics of moving-type work in a building construction, and points out that geometrical planning of a site is indispensable for grasping workers' movement and transportation of materials by workers. 3. Modeling of workers' geometrical position In order to indicate geometrical position at a site as a model, quadtree-structured 'Cells' are used. Cells represent floors where workers are moving and materials are transported. Thus, the accurate position of workers at each time can be grasped by workers' movement among these Cells. 4. Modeling of Rrepetitive work Process The author mentions that the interval of simulation of workers' movement and transportation of materials should be 1 to 3 seconds, and suggests that modeling of repetitive work process is necessary in order to model building construction at such a small interval. The author also presents the method of representing repetitive work process using a model, together with the method of autonomously selecting a repetitive work process while taking work progress into consideration. 5. Modeling of Moving-type work Here presents a method of modeling moving-type work. In addition to a model using 'nodes' and 'arrows' in the past study, this method uses 'scripts' to describe detailed actions during work. Thus, it becomes possible to autonomously search the shortest path of workers' movement, and accurately simulate actions such as holding or releasing materials to be transported. 6. Algorithmic planning Planning Items such as Workers' moving path, layout of materials at a yard, and sequence of installation of components are not clearly decided at the construction start time, therefore the system should make a plan autonomously and incorporate the content of these plans into a simulation model. The methods of algorithmic planning are defined for planning of workers' autonomous actions required in the case study in Chapter 7. 7. Case study A building with many individual research rooms is used for this case study, which focuses on a process of installing partition panels. This process consists of the following three repetitive work process; (1) transporting panel tracks, (2) transporting and installing panels, and (3) transporting vacant tracks. The author develops a model that incorporates algorithmic planning into simulation, and makes a work scheduling chart as well as a manpower scheduling chart. Then, the author verifies that simulation enables workers to proceed with actions by autonomously to be required to complete works. 8. Conclusion This paper verified that the progresses of workers' movement and transporting works are simulated accurately by the proposed simulation models
The Shiga-in Temple is a Tendai sect temple built in the first half of the 17th century and located in Sakamoto Otsu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. This study seeks to clarify the spatial arrangements indicating hierarchy of the Shiga-in Temple in the Edo period. The paper is organized as follows: 1. Introduction The previous study demonstrated that three authorities controlled the operation of the Shiga-in Temple, namely the master of the Tendai sect, the chief priest, and the Shiga-in administrator. The Tendai master and the chief priest were people of authority, while the Shiga-in administrator was like a house-keeper. 2. Floor restoration plan and equipment The floor restoration plan for the historical restoration was derived from ancient drawings. In addition, historical architectural documents and diary contents reveal the equipment that was used to restore the Shiga-in Temple. 3. The configuration of the temple premises is shown in the restoration figure. The restoration figure shown in Chapter 2 compares with that found in more recent historical documents. The recent documents tell us how spatial configuration was used by the three organizations. A Kyakuden is used for public service and in ceremonies conducted by the Tendai master and chief priest. It is a type of large-scale construction equipment that is of excellent quality. A Ko-shoin is used for the office and private study of the chief priest; it is a piece of equipment that is of good quality. A Yo-beya is used by the Shiga-in administrator in temple administration. It is a piece of equipment that is of high quality. A Daidokoro and Nagaya are used in kitchens and residences by housekeepers. These pieces of equipment are of standard quality. A Nikai-shoin is used for the private ceremonies of the Tendai master and it also serves as his living quarters. It is of the highest quality in the Shiga-in Temple. A Seisho is used for kitchen and housekeeping needs and is reserved only for the Nikai-shoin. This equipment is of standard quality. For the reasons mentioned above, the features of the temple premises must be clarified. 4. Conclusion This study seeks to clarify the complex correspondence that occurred among the three authorities organizations and the spatial configuration of the Shiga-in Temple from the restoration figure. The temple premises could be divided into the north and south areas. The north area shows the standard configuration for Buddhist temples, including the Kyakuden, public main hall, Ko-shoin, a private study for the chief priest, Yo-beya, temple administration, Daidokoro and Nagaya, housekeeping, and the residential facilities of the temple. The south area shows a configuration that is particular to the Tendai sect in the Edo period, including the Nikai-shoin, a place for the head of the sect to lead ceremonies, as well as living quarters and a Seisho, which is an attached service room.
The following is a summary of the content analyzed in this paper on the process of introduction of reinforced concrete structures for office buildings in modern Japan. If one focuses on the structural forms and floor plans of office buildings constructed in the initial period of the introduction of reinforced concrete structures, it is confirmed that the process of introduction of reinforced concrete structures was significantly different for the Mitsubishi conglomerate and the Mitsui conglomerate, particularly during the initial period. While the lineage of Mitsui was heavily influenced by the floor plan of the Mitsui Building No. 2, based on the steel structures of Yokogawa. All reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were introduced with the Mitsui Bussan Yokohama branch, which happened to have a structural form that was rather close to the rigid-frame structures of Endo. In other words, the lineage of Mitsui consisted of the introduction of steel structures and the development of architectural planning alongside rigid-frame structures in RC. On the other hand, the lineage of Mitsubishi begins with the box-frame constructions and the Munewari Nagaya-style (partitioned tenement-house style) floor plans originating from the idea that concrete was a stone substitute. Later, with the expansion of the size of room space using a combination of wall and column beam structure, the reduction of cross-sectional area through the adoption of RC rigid-frame structures, and liberalization of floor plans, structural forms and the floor plans for large-scale, high-rise office buildings that could be reasonably managed were explored, and the above-mentioned lineage went on to merge with the Mitsui lineage. Regarding the differences between the two business entities Mitsui and Mitsubishi in the introduction of the above-mentioned RC structures, the most notable factor is that it corresponds to the demand of the company business whether the purpose of construction of the office building is exclusively for company business, for lease, or a part of a large-scale district development. In other words, it reflected differences in the position of the construction businesses of Mitsui and Mitsubishi. In this way, if one focuses on the business purpose at the time of construction, it is possible to add aspects such as assessment of plans that prioritize the reasonableness of land management, which considers business practices in historical evaluation, in addition to the assessment of which, one can include architecture and an understanding of who the pioneers in the introduction of new technology are.
French gardens in the 17th century consist of boschi and garden roads conformed to geometric figures under the Italian garden's influence. The château is placed as one pole on the garden entrance side, and it is said that the château and the jardin are closely tied together to create a uniform world. The château and the jardin were planned on a grand dessin. Meanwhile, as a result of the transition of the ceiling painting theme of Galerie des Glaces directly facing the jardins, we have already clarified that there was a serious discrepancy between the world of the gallery ceiling painting depicting Louis XIV's own glorious wars and the peaceful world of the garden centered on the sculptures based on the Apollo's myth. Therefore, Versailles Palace since 1680 is not a uniform world in which the garden and the château were united together in a same iconographical program. If we discuss the unity of the garden and the château, we should examine it not only from the viewpoint of architectural planning but from various viewpoints such as iconographical program. So, in this paper, we will discuss the relationship between the three rooms, Salon de la Guerre, Galerie des Glaces and Salon de la Paix occupying an important central position. A reason for considering the relation between the garden and not the gallery alone, but the ensemble including two lateral saloons is that they were planned as one on the architectural plan and the iconographical program. At the same time, it is also a purpose of this paper to reevaluate the significance of these two saloons in the construction of Versailles. Therefore, we adopt the following three methods. We reconsider the viewpoint of spatial theory as discussed by Giedion and the viewpoint of iconographical program as discussed in our previous papers, and newly, about the two saloons, we discuss the viewpoint of how these have been used. The first viewpoint is based on the architectural design theory of the Modern Movement in Architecture, the second is an application of our previous papers' issue, and the third is newly tried in this paper. We are trying to clarify that various relationships between the two saloons and the gallery, or relationships of these three rooms with the gardens could contradict each other as we change our viewpoint. In other words, these relationships have practical and symbolic aspects, so, our aim is to clarify complicated design methods of French modern architecture. For the first viewpoint, we summarize discourses of representative histories of Versailles by Verlet, etc. Regarding the second, we summarize the points of our previous papers mentioned above and describe the iconographical program of the two saloons that was not mentioned in them, based on historical documents and previous studies. Regarding the third, in addition to various kinds of image documents, documents by Dangeau and Saint Simon are also used for clarifying how to use these three rooms under the reign of Louis XIV. That is, even if the gallery and two lateral saloons have a relationship from the point of view on the iconographical program, it does not matter about the function. However, when the decoration of the salon de la Paix was remodeled in the 18th century, efforts to maintain the iconographical symmetry of allegory of war and peace have not been abandoned. Even after losing its functional relationships, designers tried to keep iconographical relations. We can see the intention of achieving the so-called Louis XIV's grand design. Exactly in this point, the two lateral rooms played an important role for achievement of the grand design of Versailles.
This article aims to exlore the discourses on the Italian word “tendenza,” which is now recognized as an indicator for the architectural movement led by Aldo Rossi. In post-war Italy, this word was used in accordance with the three following motives:
1. Revolt against the pressure exerted by the older generation of the Modern Movement in Italian architecture.
2. As an alternative to the existing structure of architectural schools protested by the student movement of the 1960’s.
3. A presentation of new Italian architecture on the international stage, contrasting to the “Avant-garde” movements.
Modernization in the former colony has been promoted by the diffusion of culture and technology along with colonial rule by Western powers. In the field of architecture as well, diffusion accompanying colonization has been studied so far. These studies mainly discussed from the viewpoint of style of colonial architecture. In 19th century, the covered market came into existence as a new type of modern architecture scene. Lemoine described that the covered market was constructed in rural areas and colonies based on the theory of the central market in Paris as prototype. However, he also described that despite of the influence of the prototype, there was the diversity in terms of form and material. Moreover, to clarify the detail of type of the covered market, inventory of the covered market in former colony was necessary. French Indochina was one of the largest colony of France. French colonial policy was to assimilate the colonized countries in the same way as the mainland. Especially in French Indochina, Vietnam was the center of politics and economics and a lot of urban facilities were built. In the area called Tonkin, the northern part of Vietnam, the cement plant was built in 1899. It was inferred that the technology of reinforced concrete would have differed in early period. In terms of the viewpoint that showed by Lomoine, construction through the typical covered market and focusing on the diversity of its materials and form, it seemed reasonable to set the Tonkin as the model place that we would be able to find diversity of materials and forms.
Firstly, we examined the document about the covered market in Tonkin that was in National Archives Center I, Hanoi. We found the project of the covered market in the documents covers 24 provinces in 29 all provinces of Tonkin during the colonial period. Furthermore, the planned year of the projects showed in the range of 1896 to 1954. Compare to the colonial period of French Indochina (1896 to 1945), the documents covered the most part of the colonial period.
Secondly, the covered market was analyzed through the typification from the viewpoint of the form of the roof frame. As the result of typification, 48 projects were classified to 10 types. Three Basic types (A), (B, ) (C) depended on the way to support the ridge beam. Four derived type (D), (E), (F), (G) depended on the constitution of the web members. The rest of three types were common in terms of having the high-side lighting. By means of adding the analysis from the view point of the span of the section, we identified the type that has same span and same form of the roof frame. These types were mainly planed in 1910 to 1930. It was presumed that the type was planned as the prototype of the covered market in Tonkin. Accordingly, from the evidence that several prototypes were appeared, the diversity of the form that Lemoine showed has been verified. Likewise, from the evidence that there was the difference between the material of the roof frame, Wood, Steel and Reinforced concrete, the diversity of the material has been verified.
Finally, we examined the geographical distribution of obvious prototype (B), (I) and the similar type of (I). From the distribution of these prototypes, it proved that these prototypes of the covered market spread around the Hanoi in 1915 to 1923.
In conclusion, from the above, we have been verified diversity of the type of the covered market in Tonkin that Lemoine showed. Therefore, we showed the different approach to the colonial architecture that was not from style but prototype.
The purpose of this thesis is organizing the process of modernization of the port city into two steps, taking example of the international trading city of Yokohama, where the full-scale modernization project of harbor was executed for the first time in Japan (completed in 1896). The first step is development of private waterfront estates in the early part of Meiji period (the 1880s). The second one is the conflict in 1892 between the project of harbor construction and business in the waterfront area, where the forwarding agents, giant shipping company and a lot of laborers had concentrated in the first step. There were three private estates which were developed in the early part of Meiji period. First one was reclaimed as the yard for the entrepots under the jurisdiction of the custom house. It was purchased by Mitsui group in 1873. Eighteen entrepots were built by the coast of the estate of 25000 square meters. Mitsui group moved sixteen of them separating from the coast and created a vast waterfront space for land lease. The tenants of the estate were mainly foreign residents of Yokohama and Mitsubishi corporation, which was the fastest-growing shipping company in the modern era in Japan. Besides them, there were some tenants of Japanese exporters and importers. It seems that the tenants began to use the yard for loading and unloading around 1880 and we can find some instances of loading in the waterfront area in 1892. The fact that people can use the waterfront area for loading or unloading shows a very important change of the port regulation of Yokohama because unloading in the waterfront area excepting a limited place (hatoba) was strictly prohibited from the late Edo era to the earliest part of Meiji period (the 1870s). The second private estate was the one around Japanese hatoba, where was the limited place for loading and unloading Japanese goods adjoining the entrepots. In 1873, forwarding agents, who had been managing transportation since the late Edo era reclaimed the yard around Japanese Hatoba for their convenience. Before the project of harbor construction in the 1890s, they built a relationship with Mitsubishi corporation, who had purchased the estates of the former entrepots from Mitsui group. According to the data in 1892, the most part of the goods which the forwarding agents handled was the goods of Nihon yusen gaisha, succeeding company of Mitsubishi corporation. They cooperated with the company, or perhaps were affiliated by the company, meanwhile the waterfront area assumed a character of a wharf. The third private estate was the reclaimed land adjoining Japanese hatoba created by Horai-sha, which was the company of financial and manufacturing business. It seems that the reclamation was done to build warehouses coupled with a new company of inspection of silks, the biggest exports. This reclamation area was used as the harbor equipment for the circulation of Japanese goods along with the former entrepots yard and Japanese hatoba. The manager of Nihon yusen geisha and the forwarding agents and the owner of the reclaimed land presented a petition to the proposal of railway between the new pier and the existing station in 1892. Because of this petition, this railroad wasn't built and the new pier and waterfront warehouses and railway to the inland were disconnected until the second project of harbor construction, which was completed in 1917. Development of the waterfront private estates in Yokohama had an influence on the modernization project and convert it into the project of gradual renovation preserving existing systems in some degree.