In this report,we examined the generation system and measurement methods of the exciting force generated by automobiles during transit over sections of road rough surface and,furthermore,studied the time characteristics of the exciting force and peak impact force,as well as other factors.As a result,we were able to clarify the following. 1. Direct measurement methods using force sensors corresponded favorably with indirect measuring methods calculated from vibration response at points on the road surface (transfer function method) 2. In regard to the characteristics of exciting force,though peak impact force had a tendency to increase as the velocity increased.in regard to impulse.there was a tendency of decline.and impact frequency was in the vicinity of the 10-50Hz band. 3.Considering the exciting force generation system as a 3-mass system made up of the suspension device,tire and the road bed,we found that when the vibration response of the mass portions of the upside and down side of spring were measured at the time the wheels transited the rough surface,results were obtained that indicated a favorable correspondence with the exciting force measured using direct measurement methods.
Respective equation for average sky factor is compared between one-building-unit-block and four-building-unit-block ,and also onc-building-unit-block and nine-building-unit-block .As a result of this comparison ,two matters were found out. (l)The regression equation for average sky factor of plural-building-unit-block can be approximately expressed by the regression equation for average sky factor of one-building-unit-block.(2)When building height, volume and coverage ratio are constant,the more the building is divided ,the less the average sky factor is obtained.
The results of estimation on the vertical temperature distribution of a large scale air supported air done using the multiple regression analysis from measured data are described. The linear multiple regression model for the vertical temperature distribution was found to fit. well to the measured results in a large scale air supported air done when four parameters were used, i.e. solar radiation, outdoor air temperature and humidity, and wind velocity. By comparison between the estimated results under natural conditions and the measured results under the air-conditioned situation,it was found that air-conditioning in the occupied zone had an substantial influence on the temperature in the upper layers of a membrane structure. As the temperature of the occupied zone gets lower by air-conditioning, the vertical temperature distribution from the bottom layer to the top gets gradually lower. This means that it is necessary for estimating cooling load to take account of the mixing loss between the air-conditioned zone and the non-air-conditioned zone.
A new method is proposed which gives the probability density function of room air temperature and heating load taking account of non-Gaussian external climates such as outdoor temperature and solar radiation. This method is a simple extension to the second-order analysis already shown in another article. A thermal system composed of one mass is used to analyze the relationship between the eigenvalue of the system and the degree of non-Gaussianity. Next, the similar calculation using a simple room clarifies the influence of non-Gaussianity on room air temperature and heating load. The utility of the previously proposed thermal calculation method, which gives only the mean and variance of the heating load, is discussed through comparison with the present results.
In this study, we calculated the steady state large scale indoor air flow of isothermal condition with fixed inlet nozzle by means of k-ε ,LES and DSM. The results of numerical simulation were compared with experimental results. The results of calculation confirmed that LES and DSM were more in accord with the experimental results than k-ε in terms of the nozzle jet decrement, and LES and DSM well represented the anisotropy of Reynolds stresses near the inlet nozzle. These results suggest that DSM and LES are effective in analyses of flow fields where the anisotropy of the stresses is significant and eddy viscosity model is not applicable.
Natural air convection along a heated vertical plate is numerically simulated and the results are compared with experiments conducted by the present authors. The temperature difference between the plate surface and the ambient air, ΔT, is set at 43℃ and at 404℃. Low - Reynolds number k-ε models with variable density and that of incompressible flow with Boussinesq approximation are used for the simulations. The two variable density models differ in their treatment of density fluctuation. In the case of ΔT=43℃, the results of the three numerical models correspond well to the experimental results and differ little from each other. In the case of ΔT=4Q4℃ there are considerable differences between the results of the three numerical models. A better agreement with the experimental results is found in the models with variable density.
This study aimed to illustrate the future image of resort facilities, which having just passed through their germinal stage in Japan. Ski-resorts in France have been developed since 1940's and their accommodation facilities have been changed from massive, tall buildings to village style structures. Concentrating on this trend, an evaluation structure for selection of ski-resorts preferred by Japanese was compared to that of French. In order to find the interest of the skiers, and the psychological backgrounds of their interest, evaluation grid method and method of pair-wise comparison were employed. From this study, the similarities and differences involved in selecting a ski resort between Japanese and French skiers were clarified. And it was confirmed that French skiers prefer village style middle and low story buildings. With Japanese, who prefer to stay in village style facilities is still quite small, the number is, however, expected to increase in the future.
The living environment in Tokyo now has become worse combined with many problem, such as congestion, pollution, noise and low-efficient land use. To seek a better life with the technology and to conserve the earth environment are the global problem which is widely recognized. Many development project now try to make a balance between environment conservation and loacate development. The concept of ecological palnning is the most impressious method to have a redevelopment of the city. In this study, the Shitamachi(downtwon, Koto-ku, Sumida-ku) has been selected as study model to present an ecological planning through introducing the high rise buidings with a large open space. Before planning, a field study has been carried out to understand the present situation in Shitamachi.
The AKHA locates settlement and forms its spacial composition in the following ways of their own ; 1) The land for human settlement containing main passage ways and open spaces must be clearly distinguished by the villagers from the forest where the spirits live. So they are apt to select types of the lands for settlement which symbolize their religious belief and allow them to take the spirits away from there to the forest. 2) Traditionally, the group of the aged'and the priests have always made all decision about land use, according to their own animistic beliefs. But now the conversion movement to Christianity has changed their lives and divided villagers into two groups opposed to each other. As a result of this, the settlement is also being divided into two areas, one for the animist, another for the Christian.
To clarify the cultural situation of "Culture Halls" , we adopt the classification with the condition of the perfoming categories at halls ,that of the municipalities and the regions' classification. 1. The rate of "multipurpose-use type", 21.7%, is highest that of other types, with the condition of the performaing categories at halls. 2. The percentage of persons engaged in the theater/concert hall going in the regions interrelate with that of the halls' classification with performaing arts' condition there. 3. The condition of performance at halls weren't only depend on the population and the centrality of the municipalities but also the character of the area, such as the regions' classification.
This paper examined human factors of the indicator in elevator car. Three experiments were practiced as follows : (1) First experiment study was to search the hight of indicator-panel that many people could operate,children,wheelchair-bound person and able-bound people. (2) Second experiment study was to research into the letter-arrangement of indicator-panel. The result of study had proved that the design of indicator's letters had the arrangement system according to demand of number of stories. (3) Third experiment study was a confirmation of effects that the install position of indicator-panel had improved better by method of human factors.
The aim of this study is to analyze the residential environment of hosing estates on artificial island cities, called marine new town in this paper. One of the methodology is to analyze residents opinion, gotten by questionnaire survey on three marine new towns - Port Island in Kobe, Nanko Port Town in Osaka and Yashio Park Town in Tokyo. The other method is to analyze physical data of three islands. The conclusion consists of four points; 1) the marine new towns are not necessary to be built on the artificial islands, 2) Residential environments are not so good in traffic, shopping and medical facilities, 3) environmental problems are not solved because of lack of flexibility on land use planning, 4) mixed development with port facilities and surrounding big projects prevent well growth of these marine new towns.
Every Japanese elementary school has an original school song, and its words have typical forms that show us the educational idea and the local landscape. The aim of this study is to pick out local landscape images ,of the elements ,from the words. As the first step, we sampled the nouns (noun phrases) which concretely shows things as landscape elements from school songs in 98 cities. Next we divided them into 12 categories, and we calculated appearance rates of the categories. Using the appearance rates, we classified 98 cities into 10 groups. Next we picked up typical city of each group, and drew its image map. As a result ,we made it clear that each image map present local landscape clearly.
113 photo samples, explanation of each by photographer, and the voting result in the exhibition "My favorite view in Kyoto" were analysed by KJ method of grouping, quantification 3, and Ward method of clustering. In the grouping of paragraphes of explanation, structure of recognition and evaluation of a view consist of 5 aspects ; 1) spatial view objects 2) changing objects in time and objects of quality 3) experience 4) knowledge 5) an image. 7 views-types and 5 compositiontypes were classified. As a result, the traits of 17 favorite views were recorded according to composition-type, view-point, constituent elements, elevation and depression of an view-angle.
People provide their community facilities taking charge of a portion of works between public and private sectors. Nowadays, it doesn't go forward easily, because they depend on public sector for most of its adjustments. Therefore it is investigated that the importance of people's participation. As a result of this background, this paper takes note of village community "Nozawa-gumi," that is formed by the central part of Nozawa-Onsen Village in Nagano Prefecture, and this village community works very useful for the adjustment of local living environment. This paper makes clear about the road constructions from 1888 to 1944 and the functions of "Nozawa-gumi" between inhabitants and village community.
The lord of Mouri-Han sometimes made the tour of inspection in Edo era. Through the examination of historical materials on these tours, the following results are ascertained. (1) Lodgings called Hon-jin were used by the lord. (2) The term "Hon-jin" was applied either in a broad sense or in a narrow sense. (3) The composition of the rooms of Hon-jin in a narrow sense except temples can be devided into 3 classes.
The following results have obviously been obtained from the study on the exit and the riding place in the Residence of Toin-Kinkata. 1. The Kinkata, as the master, had mainly used Chumonro (中門廊) as an exit. 2. Kintaka used to ride in carriage at the Chumonro or outside the gate. 3. In case of riding at Chumonro, generally Utokihito (外人) did not accompany the master. 4. Utokihito is one kind of person who is contrary to the so-called Karei (家礼) and Jikkinnohito (昵近人).
The columns in classical architecture take especially important roles for their visual effects. The authors show through experiments by simulation of computer graphics how tapering, fluting and enthasis of the Parthenon columns effect on visual perception. As a result, they have found that the upward tapering of the columns gives the strongest influence on the visual impression of the building compared with other two. The enthasis, which is very subtle in the Parthenon, also gives the visual effects in fact, although it looks almost unrecognizable.
Landscape architect F. L. Olmsted and architect H. H. Richardson collaborated on a number of schemes through 1860s into 1880s. The present paper pointed out thus attributed projects to the number of twenty three, as shown in Figure 1, and identified respective role in ten major conjoint works. Olmsted acted as an environmental mentor to Richardson, and led this most congenial architectural collaborator to cultivate the following framework of his professional career. 1) Pursuit for distinct architectural forms, corresponding to then uprising social forces - commercial core and outlining rural zones, 2) Search for the geological imagery, expressive of an American identity, and 3) Improvement of design methods in the use of bold rockwork. The resulting creative integration of two different design practices is to be ascribed to their mutual notion of effect of organic expression, which derived from the Picturesque tradition, and of a new art form or natural architecture based upon strictly American sources of inspiration ・ the land, as well as recognition of the new social environment.
A wind rose is a circular diagram that denotes directions and names of winds. This diagram has the Pythagorean idea of tetras behind it. The Pythagorean linked things that consisted of four elements [tetras] by resemblance, and explained the order of cosmos by such system of knowledge. De L'Orme's descriptions of winds and wind roses are based on resemblance to some extent. But deciding a direction of a building by means of a wind rose, his thinking by resemblance fades away. Moreover, in case of a new extension on an old building, he grasped some actual conditions, considered on the basis of the experimental knowledge, and finally found new inventions. The name of such thinking is bon esprit & jugement, the escape from metaphysical knowledge is called libertf.
The image of architecture changes with its age. This paper is a study on the image of the appearance for new and old Jingu's shrines, whose style is called "Simmei-Zukuri". The image was rated with six scales : gorgeous-modest, strict-loose, hard-soft, orderly-disorderly, new-old, and beautiful-ugly. Through the subjects' inquiry, the image common to Jingu's shrines can be represented as "strict" and "beautiful", regardless of their age.