This paper aimed to derive the environmental evaluation items as the environmental indicator to improve care environment of children's psychiatric ward, through research of children's activities in the ward and environmental evaluation by staff. Along with analyzing the evaluation and activities, it was revealed that children's relationships with others and support the proactive recuperation were required in care environment for children's re-growth. In addition, the ease to care by staff helped to improve the quality of children's recuperation.
In this study we analyzed the formation and the establishment of teachers' room and principal's office in Japanese school buildings. The teachers' room was placed for rest and meal in the early time of the educational system, but after the late 20th year of the Meiji era, it was also used for works for class, school clerical works and official/unofficial meetings. The principal's office began to be placed around the 20th year of the Meiji era and progressively increased. Both were situated closely at the center of the first floor of the school building in the late Meiji era.
The distances a small mobile robot moves to an adult female compared with an adult male were studied. This paper focuses on a small mobile robot and identifies distances at which the robot can approach individuals. The following three results were obtained: 1. The adult male and adult female affected “approach angle” and, “speed differently”. The robot intentionality increased its speed when approaching the adult female. 2. The robot tended to come closer to either individual when it was moving at 0.08m/s as than at other speeds. 3. Overall, the robot moved closer to people by tracing a semicircle with the person (male or female) at the center. It came around 10 cm closer to the adult female than to the adult male.
In order to maintain the functions of buildings, it is necessary for the owner such as an enterprise to estimate all repair timings and repair costs in the life cycle of each building, and to keep the balance between the appropriation and the investment sum for repair of a group of buildings for each year by investment leveling. In this paper, we suggest the following. 1. Calculation methods for estimating the investment sum for repair for each year in the life cycle of a building. It is possible to calculate the life cycle repair cost of a group of buildings easily and accurately by applying these methods. 2. Some methods for leveling the repair cost of a group of buildings for each year in its life cycle, in view of avoiding various risks caused by delay of repair. As a result of evaluation of the investment leveling method, the leveling ratio, the reduction of repair cost, and certain other features of each method were clarified. We also suggested how an optimal method for investment leveling should be selected.
This research aims to verify the development plan of a detached housing estate by the resident's evaluation of the living environment. The development plan can be divided into townscape plan and the community formation plan. To promote voluntary community activities, they did not make residents organization and environmental rules.The following were able to be confirmed. 1) Townscape plan •Dwelling environments are different according to the location. •The resident's evaluation scores high when there are a lot of green spaces. However, the resident tends to dislike management of the green space. •As for the united designs, the environment is highly evaluated. 2) Community formation •The road design influences the community formation. The resident who space for daily activities to associate with neighborhood.
The purpose of this study is to outline recent trend and a new approach of Groundwork movement in the UK, especially focusing on new programme for low-carbon society and social inclusion through establishing social enterprise. Characteristics of development strategy of Groundwork are 1)making a project by matching national policy through a holistic approach, 2)developing a financially independent project in niche market and then setting up a subsidiary as social enterprise and 3)reforming a multilayered national network by Groundwork trusts and subsidiaries. Groundwork has established a type of operation model for non-profit organisation in community development and has been one of the largest bodies in the UK. Its next step is similar to establish an operation model for social enterprise through the Groundwork mechanism and network. It is expected to create an alternative body for regeneration in British society and to regenerate more employment in the intermediate labour market.
Terraced rice field in the mountainous area, called Tanada, is recently evaluated as Cultural Landscape. This study analyzed formation of Tanada landscape by solving mechanism of its irrigation system. Diversified landscapes of Tanada could be seen at several settlements in Niikawa Tagomori. The irrigation filling each patch with water has been formed adapting to its landform. Therefore, two rice fields were examined and founded that completely different systems existed on each site. This demonstrates that peculiar landscape was formed based on its original irrigation system, and the diversity of the systems has leaded different condition of cultivation continuity.
This paper's aims to clarify realities and characteristics of reconstruction until struck 4 years as comparative study in case of the Touge and neighboring villages - Kaiso and Kuroshima - affected by the Noto Peninsula Earthquake. We focus on the characteristics of villages previous the earthquake. The findings are as follows. 1) Characteristics and subjects of villages affect reconstruction. 2) Non-living households have a role for the reconstruction. 3) Some residences live in their house, their attached building or relative one between refuge and house rebuilding, not to live in temporary house by public. 4) Site land use almost follows previous one.
This study aims to clarify the planning method of greening parking lots in order to improve the urban landscape. The results are as follows. 1. Parking lots could be classified into three types from usage patterns and spatial composition. 2. About greening method of parking lots, the study revealed that there are important elements of greening in all types. As for, revealed that a characteristic greening methods of each type. 3. Pedestrians are evaluating the harmony of greening parking lots and urban landscape. Also, landowners are evaluating the improvement of cognition of stores and the corporate image by greening parking lots.
The ideologies of Tibetan Buddhism bestow the Tibetan people (defined here as an ethnic group) with a unique religious behavior in which pilgrimages are made in a clockwise direction around sacred places following the specific routes. These pilgrimage routes, known as kora paths by Tibetans, have thus become a unique type of urban space in Tibetan cities. This study presents the environmental issues of Kora Paths in Lhasa City reflected in the behaviors of pedestrians based on a field survey. First, the study identifies both the ways in which the network structure has transformed in the last few decades, and the current status of kora paths in the city of Lhasa. Specifically, the physical composition is clarified, and the street spaces are classified into four types based on the measurements. Next, the behavior were observed and analyzed to clarify the characteristics of behaviors occurring in three target streets. Finally, the study makes arrangement of the issues from the view of behaviors, and approaches to the possible solutions. As a result, based on the current state of the target kora streets, this study provides adaptable suggestions for improving the physical environments of the kora paths in Lhasa.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the basic information for the improvement of regional environment by electric-pole elimination project in Japan. The questionnaire survey was carried out to local governments. The contents consisted of the main methodology of project, the general criteria of the road selection and their priority, the inhabitant opinions of project, etc. Followings are the results. The economic condition of a government has a large influence on the embarkation and the continuation of project. Major roads in cities have been the main subjects of project. On the contrary, the importance of scenic beauty increases as the criteria. In small towns not urbanized, projects tend to be executed because of the conservation of traditional streetscapes, the incorporation of barrier free design, and so on. On the other hand, in large cities, project often be executed as a part of road construction.
This paper explores the ways in which Built Environment Education (BEE) has been progressed in UK to discuss on how to educate built environment matters to school pupils and local communities. By closely looking at the implementations in UK since 2000, when the urban white paper was issued, this paper finds the following three significant points. There are the unique methods to produce BEE programmes and guidebooks providing knowledge able information and as well as prompting creative mind, the presence of governmental bodies to lead BEE projects such as CABE and Engaging Places, and the existence of plural supports for schools, NPOs and local communities to undertake BEE activities in terms of finance, technique and human resources through a couple different organisations.
When value engineering (VE) is applied to building construction, all of the tasks in the building construction project could not be accounted for VE objects in the allotted time. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate each task based on relevant evaluation criteria in the area of building construction. This study confirms the effectiveness of principal component analysis to the selection of VE objects by comparing the score based on principal component analysis. It is found that author's methodology is able to select VE objects effectively from various viewpoints of the building construction project by using multi-dimensional components based on principal component analysis.
There were 161 closed schools, the 66% elementary schools, the 19% junior high schools, and the 15% high schools were closed from 1989 to 2009 in Aichi, Gifu, Mie prefecture. Especially, after around 2003, it increased. The number of students decrease greatly, but the number of schools decrease low. It is possibility of many schools will be close immediately in near future. Feature of autonomy that closing many schools are the ratio of young people is low, elder people is high, and forest area is high. In the present situation, it is a problem that the autonomy have not the reuse policy of recycling about closing schools. Reuse schools are the highest ratio of all. As a result of that, there are lot of the highest usage for recycling schools are the gymnasium for neighbor, social education for neighbor, the other schools, and so on. So, that is of overriding importance today that we positively use closed schools for various uses without the restriction.
This paper examines college student's attitude to the learning contents of housing education. The results are as follows. 1. I analyzed the contents that students desire to learn about housing using factor analysis, and five factors were obtained. They are ‘housing principle and culture’, ‘living environment’, ‘sociality of housing’, ‘planning and design’ and ‘maintenance and arrangement’. 2. The desired contents vary with the specialty of study, the leaning experience and gender. 3. As for the content of the social aspect of housing such as "History of the residence" and "Housing policy", the student had little experience of learning about them and felt not much interest in them.
As for this thesis, the Tokugawa Shogunate targets the tax imposed on the tradesman in Kyoto. In a current research, it has been assumed that 6m that faces the road in tradesman's land in length is a standard of the tax. However, there is no content of which the standard of the tax 6m faces the road in length in the land right book after 1767 and the law of the town. Therefore, the conclusion of this thesis is assumed to be 'The tax in Kyoto of Edo period was unrelated to length that faced the road'. In addition, this thesis points out the thing that the tax in Edo period is imposed on the house-to-house.
In the Edo Period, the once-in-a-lifetime performances of noh required large spaces. In these cases, the sites of the theaters were usually built on open spaces intended as firebreak, controlled by the Fushin-bugyo. The Machi-bugyo had jurisdiction over the city area and Noh performances. During the performance, the jurisdiction of the open space shifted to the Machi-bugyo. Under the Machi-bugyo jurisdiction, the noh actor had to look after the site and the buildings during the performance period. The Shognate worked out systems to ensure the safety of the open spaces in the large city of Edo.
This paper discusses how more presents the Yaku-daiku were given after a ceremony. The Yaku-daiku were carpenters working at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. They were divided into two groups, and broken down into three levels. The highest level was Daiku, followed by Toryo, and Cho. Their presents showed the following three points: 1. They were given presents based on their position. 2. Carpenters in the main group were given more presents than those in the assistant group. 3. They were also given what they had used during a ceremony. These differences were related to both their ceremonial procedures and their position.
Before this study, I got 7 terms of dwelling houses in Song-shi宋史, and I try to understand the changes of those terms in this study. I used 7 official records as my research method —Shiji史記, Hanshu漢書, Wuhanshu後漢書, Jinshu晉書, Suishu隋書, Jiu-Tangshu舊唐書, and Xin-Tangshu新唐書. I read each 2 chapters that contain many useful articles in these official records, and checked “how many useful articles are there in each books” and “what terms are written”. From the first check point, I know the change in the position of articles about disaster and extraordinary phenomena with terms of dwelling houses. After around 10th century, such articles were considered to ought to be written in official records. The second point told that 3 terms—Lushe廬舎, Wu屋, Jie家— were basic words as dwelling houses before Jiu-Tangshu.
The Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame in Huy, Belgium has been acclaimed as a masterpiece of Mosan architecture, but the peculiar shape of its chancel has impeded clear classification and understanding in terms of architectural style. By investigating the remains of the crypt of this Collegiate Church, this paper attempts to reconstruct the form of the Romanesque Church which disappeared in the 14th century, and verifies how far that form affected the form and structure of the current Church.
This paper clarifies the basic nature of lineamentum in Alberti's architectural theory. We made this clarification as referred to the thoughts on lineamentum and other concepts related to that, especially limbus, in his painting and sculpture theories, after showing that he ranks lineamentum as the common concept between painting, sculpture, and architecture and between the theories. The result is as the following; essentially, the lineamentum signifies as a representational medium the lines that form the external form of a body. It is, so to speak, outline. But the outline actualizes at the two scenes that are meant by the limbus.
Examining the works of Gyoji Banshoya in Japan, this paper considers how was his idea about the history in his younger days. Analysis of “The Square House (1953)” shows that the influence of Kiyoshi Seike brought about a concept of reconstitution of historic spatial composition to realize the broadness and the convertibility in the low-cost houses. This concept was introduced as a symbol of the transformation of Japanese housing and accepted in the international architectural trend at that time. In his translation work about the post-war Italian town planning, similar concept and motivation were found to confirm his planning idea.
This paper is one of the comprehensive researches to explicate Geoffrey Bawa's architectural thought and works. The aim of this paper is to focus on his ‘landscape’ thought through the inquiry into his methodological concept of ‘human intervention’ revealed in his statements. The analysis consists of three main chapters as follows: Chapter 2 describes his key motif of ‘site’ and analyzes the structure of his ‘work’ realized by the binominal correspondence of two aspects: mental and physical. Chapter 3,4 explores the meaning of ‘human intervention’ through the explication of the structure of ‘view’.
Harar, situated in the eastern highland of Ethiopia, has flourished by dominating the caravan route from Red Sea to the inland Ethiopia. Registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2006, the old town of Harar Jugol still maintains its traditional character as Muslim city. This paper aims at the status quo of its architectural heritage by analyzing its building typology as well as the housing conditions for those who reside within the old residences, some of which date back even to the 17th century. According to the full research on both the buildings and the inhabitants in a selected case study area, central Harar was proved to be a unique city with the characteristic of woman-headed society with strong tie among them. Unlike other historical cities in Ethiopia, Harar still keeps the nature of comparatively wealthy residents supported by a dense network of Harari who dispersed all over Ethiopia.