The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence that living environment has on the vital functions of aged cerebral apoplexy patients and disability structure. The subjects were in-the-home cerebral apoplexy patients over 65 years of age, and the investigation was conducted by individual interview. The investigation items were base attributes, living environment (measure for evaluation of living environment), physical function (SIAS), ADL (BI), IADL (FAI) and health-related QOL (EuroQol). As a result of the analysis, a comparatively strong relevance was recognized in trafficability and living environment (convenience, safety).In addition, there was relevance between the degree of dysfunction and living environment, which suggested in particular that the degree of dysfunction and living environment were influenced by certain physical functions such as the functions of the lower extremities and the trunk. In ADL, relevance was shown in safety and convenience although a significant correlation was not recognized concerning relevance between IADL and habitat. However, a comparatively strong correlation was recognized among all items on the scale in health-related QOL.
The purpose of this study is to clarify conditions to generalize the refurbishment on public rental housing by tenants. We researched the reality of the refurbishment, which used refurbishment system of Kanagawa Prefectural Housing Supply Corporation, and then studied conditions for generalization of the refurbishment by tenants through the reality analyses. As the result, it would be required for generalization of refurbishment by tenants to prepare various choice of refurbishment including expense.
Wudadao district is an upscale residential area in the historical concession area of Tianjin China which was established in 1903. The Tianjin government designated the entire area as a conservation area in 1994. It has been one century since construction was begun on Wudadao's historical buildings. An investigation of 736 individual street addresses from the six streets of Wudadao district clarified the current conditions of the reutilized historical buildings and the reformed lots. The study of Wudadao indicates that 30.7% of historical buildings are being reutilized in someway (i.e. business use), whereas 22.0% of them are serving dual purposes, both regular housing and some secondary purpose. A total of 52.7% of the historical architecture in the area is being reutilized in some fashion. A significant measure of the trend of reutilizing historical housing is related to the unique shapes of the buildings themselves.
This study focused on the natural growth process of forming six coastal villages for the purpose of gaining a spatial understanding of how residents perceived distance between themselves, which is a component in the inherent self-regulating order of the villages. In the types of fishing industries and processes of becoming villages, the results indicated that villages with higher ratios of fishing production tended to form denser territorial communities with mutual support functions. In this spatially-organized system supporting these industries, it was found that buffer zones were situated within the residential area by appropriately assessing the conditions of the neighboring environments so that high-density living environment conditions were alleviated. In addition, observation of production, living, and exchange activities in outdoor spaces enabled a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the crowding states of the entire village space by how distance was perceived in terms of residential, clustering, and environmental units.
This paper aimes 1) to grasp actual condition of various learning activities in the Junior High School and 2) to acquire the knowledge towards a future planning by analyzing students' grouping for study and style of learning activities. In this paper,we reached the conclusion as follows, 1) Recently, how to construct the curriculum and a timetable of a junior high school is becoming flexible, and practice of characteristic education has started for every school. 2) It is forecast that the development of study is diversified more and more in the future. Therefore, it is important to plan the scale, arrangement, and the composition of the study space noting the diversity of the study activity. 3) A common trait to the content of study and progressing each subject was extracted, and it arranged and it classified it.
The purpose of this paper is to research actual conditions and problems of the complexes of day nurseries and other facilities in Tokyo. Many day nurseries have been built as a part of complexes with other facilities, because of higher land prices. And the local authorities certify specific day nurseries based on their independent criteria, because of rapidly increasing demand of nursery services. Many of certified day nurseries are also built as a part of complexes with other facilities. We focus on physical environments of the day nursery complexes from the viewpoint of child care. These day nursery complexes have some merits and demerits. The merits include convenience for parents and opportunity to communicate with other generations. The main demerit is safety problem. Especially the teachers and children in the complexes with housing suffer from a fear of falling objects. Most of certified day nurseries have no playgrounds; they use parks in neighborhood instead. Some of certified day nurseries have a problem that it is difficult to take cooperation with other facilities.
This paper aims to study on the modeling of material management and supply systems, and evaluates the model from the view point of the material flow. Some reasons are given in the following. (1) The plan of the rational movement is an important theme for the hospital. (2) The matter that the material flow is put in order is connected with the rational movement plan. Interview investigation was done in 2005, 2004 and 2003 at 4 general hospital. As for that, all materials and the post were made the target. The characteristics of the supply form were explained from the actual condition. Then, the material carried with the supplied processes became a chart. The following is results of study. (a) Three models could be extracted from the actual condition. It made the sharing of the material management job an axis. (b) As for the flow of the material, the flow which could be removed by detailed check's being done was found. And the flow of the material in three models could be estimated.
This research aims to evaluate the shelf designs with Less Lumbar Stress. More Lumber Stress action of the lumbago patient has been understood from the investigation. (Going up and down in the stairs, Washing the face, Standing motion, and Storage action) The Joint moment of lumbar vertebra load was made an index, and the storage action was compared. And the following matter was clarified.・As for the storage design, the Lumbar Stress reduction can be done according to height and the type of Storage Designs.・Senior person's influence of the load is larger than a young person because of the difference of the design.
In this research a workplace that enables the entry of information in a public space is proposed. Recently, important information, like individual personal information and so on, are being handled in public spaces. Such information can easily be obtained from PC screens or other information terminals. Reassurance when entering information is defined based on the fundamental research of ergonomics and environmental psychology. Some concepts and design standards for environmental design to remove uneasiness were proposed in this research.
This study focuses on the problems of peculiar condition of Private Finance Initiative (PFI) that is intended to suit particularly to the legal and social circumstances in Japan. Based on the analysis of discussion that taken place in the process of PFI introduction in Japan, following four factors were identified as the root of the problem. (1) The inconsistency between the PFI and existing legal system, (2) The difficulty in the practice of project finance, (3) The capability of clients in the procumerment procedure, (4) The difficulty in the selection of bidders. Considering the four factors, the paper sets up several selective conditions that trigger the problems. Finally, the paper explains the assumable PFI project frame works in Japan as a combination of those conditions.
This paper focuses upon the segregation of the caste groups in the city of Madurai, which is a typical "temple city" in Tamil Nadu, in order to consider the feature of the spatial formation. First, the ideal model of the city is considered by reviewing the historical forming process and the function of festivals. Secondly, it is clarified, the present condition of the caste segregation in Madurai based on the distribution of temples and shops, street names and so on. One of the conclusion is that, Madurai city has the hierarchical co-centric square formation which is similar to "Nandyavarta" described in Manasara, and the arrangement of the caste group's residences also follow it basically.
This study aims at analyzing the population structure from 1980 to 2020 in terms of generation balance between the child generations who were born from 1950s to 1970s and their mother generations. It also aims at specifying the municipalities in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area where the population will be out of balance in near future. In this study, the Generation Balance Index based on the five-year age group is employed to make it possible to adapt this method to the further analysis. By comparing the generation balances of populations within the child generation, it is clarified that the cohorts born in 1960s and 1970s tend to move to the central area unlike the cohort born in 1950s. From the analysis of the future population, it is clarified the phenomenon of 'Empty Nest' in municipal level may occur mainly in the suburbs which were most rapidly urbanized in the 1960s and 1970s.
Based on the investigation of Xibali village in Xi'an city of China, both the construction and the transition of residential space of urban villages have been studied. Conclusions can be given as follows: 1. Many people in urban villages become city dwellers because of land condemnation. They give up the traditional agriculture, rent their houses to others and live with them. 2. According to different plane styles and frontages of houses, the houses have been utilized efficiently based on three usage patterns, i.e., residential rooms for householders, residential rooms for others and being rented as stores. 3. The original good residential conditions have been destroyed by the changes of plane style and height of houses due to their reconstruction and extension.
This study will track the reconstruction process of the urban area devastated by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and clarify how the change of characteristics of houses/urban districts has affected the "isolation" of residents. We made a questionnaire survey on the residents in the public housing at the Tsukiji district, Amagasaki City where the Residential District Improvement Project was enforced. Clarified points are as follows: 1. Family units that moved in to the public housing from a detached/row house showed a larger percentage of "isolation" than the ones from an apartment house. 2. The degree of "isolation" differed according to what floor the residents lived. Family units living in the 1st-2nd floor showed a smaller percentage of "isolation", but the ones living in the 3rd floor upper showed an extraordinary larger percentage of "isolation". 3. What can control "isolation" is to have a chance of a natural exchange with the vicinity residents. An intentional plot to urge an exchange will not function well for the already "isolated" residents. A space design, which secures an exchange with residents on a day-to-day visual/traffic line base, is required.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the traditional landscape management and its transformation in Ogimachi, Shirakawa villege. As a result,we found that the landscape had been managed traditionally until 1950's. In traditionally.they did easy management themselves, and the else difficult part,they left it to the specialist of carpenter etc., and did the help by mutual aid or manpower offer. And the material had been obtained from a more familiar range. But the following, the traditional one has changed by the depopulation, a modernization, and the spread of public service. Afterwards, the local society is working on the landscape management while substituting or reviving the management method because it aimed at the preservation of traditional landscape.
The purpose of this paper is to investigated the fact of technical standards for developments exceeded, to secure the minimal standards of town area. Result is as follows. Ranging small-scale development connected to roads of weak condition in the loose regulated area, which causes a condition of maze-like street. And we showed that technical standards in the City Planning Act are not enough to accumulate an ideal living environment. It is necessary to revise the technical standards or to guide developer development by local governments.
In this research, the technique to analysys the rambling activities in downtown was developed by the follow-up-pedestrian survey and the concept of rambling unit. The researches were held in 3 regions of Tokyo metropolitan area and in 3 local cities. As a result, the following three points were analized. 1. Detailed and accurate problems caused by characteristics of each city became clear by the analysis of the concept of rambling unit. 2. The various problems on pedestian rambling were able to be shown, such as problems by a frame structure, a shape of block, an absence of supplementary axes and bases, etc.. 3. The important elements of pedestrian-rambling were empirically clarified. For instance, the importance of the distance between bases/ the arrangement of bases, and the using realities and the importance of byways/ back streets were clarified.
In recent years, a number of subdivisions of building lots have been observed in established urban districts. Such subdivision of standard lots into smaller spatial units could be the cause of serious problems in case of the city disaster following great earthquakes, as well as the environmental deterioration. It is, therefore, very important to investigate the mechanism of subdivisions of building lots. In this paper, we construct stochastic models that describe how building lots will be divided and smaller spatial units will be formed. The unknown parameters of the models are estimated using the GIS data compiled by a local government ward in Tokyo, and the factors related to the subdivision are examined. Some numerical examples demonstrate that the possibility and the probability of lots subdivision is mainly dependent on the condition of the location and the properties of the lots.
The Companies' branch locations are selected by weighting financial merits and the work efficiency merits in Osaka. The office market is competitive and the office centers are changing in Osaka. The relocation objectives showed characteristics of the each office center. The Office centers starategies can be positioned 3 different ways in the matrix of financial merit and work efficiency merit. Such as "New Development","Change of Use", and "Stagnant".
The client's task in a construction project for business differs from the client's task for self-use. The purpose of this paper is to check the structure of client's task in construction projects for business and clear the model of client's task. In "Self-Project Management" and "Commissioned-Project Management", the client's task model for business is confirmed by the method of Interpretive Structural Modeling. And, the model of client's task is verified by other construction projects.
During Edo-Era Honmaru palace of Kmegasaki castle shifted as follows; 1) In 1601〜1614 palace was used as a dwelling of lord and its plan was similar to other castles. 2) In 1614〜1622 governor was sent by lord to castle. 3) In 1622〜1867 palace was used as a lodging of lord and its plan was similar to Ocha-ya in Shonai-Han.
The Kenchikushi Law for Architects & Building Engineers was completed by reform act in 1951. Purpose of this study is to clarify the reform process of Article 3 of the Law: Types of buildings which require Kenchikushi's design or superintendence. Conclusion of this study is as follows: 1. By reform act of the Law in 1951, Types of buildings were broadened than those of Kakuei Tanaka's declaration in 1950, but most of the housing in need were exempted from the Law. Ryoichi Naito, then the Director of Building Administration Division, Ministry of Construction, supposed every building should be designed or superintended by Kenchikushi. Naito's hope wasn't realized. 2. The first qualification standard of Kenchikushi, being considered simultaneously, was affected by the limitation of the Law. 3. The decision on the limitation imposed a serious problem on building administration officials of regional governments. Therefore, they began to expect the system of architectural agent for procedures required by laws to replace the role of architectural engineer outside the limit.
The purpose of this study is to consider the canons of the measurement of pasada type of Buddhist monastic architecture in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. In this paper, I analyze the measurement of the main parts of the building, especially the intercolumniation and the base, with the measurement data and the descriptions of traditional architectural texts. And I concluded the process of determining the intercolumniations as follows. At first the distances between corner pillars were roughly divided into same intercolumniations with unit measurement. Then vastupurusamandala was drawn on the building area and pillars that stood at the vulnerable points of this mandala were moved from their original positions.
The member of the Asiatick Society, C. W. Malet researched on the Ellora Cavens, in the latter part of the 18th century. To investigate the origin and the chronicles of the Ellora Cavens , he paid attention to the cavens style and the sculptures of the pagan deity, and the characters and the sentence inscribed on six inscriptions. He was certain that most of the Ellora Cavens were the ancient works of the people, whose religion and mythology were Hindu. And he imagined that the most northerly caves were the works of another religion which was of a comparatively modern origin. This interpretation was based on Sanskrit and its literature.
The church of Santiago de Penalba, generally known as an example of mozarabic architecture, is the only remains of an hermitage which Saint Gennadius founded in El Bierzo, Leon, at the beginning of the 10^<th> century. It is also one of the best preserved monuments from the Repoblacion period of the Duero basin. Besides its fancy horseshoe arches which show certain influence of Cordoban aesthetics, the structural characteristics of this small church demonstrate conservative tendencies still valid since Roman Hispania.