To clarify the effective luminance ratio at transient adaptation to introduce the effective luminance concept into the dynamic evaluation method, experimants by using Line and Londolt targets were conducted and found followings : (1) Visibility at transient adaptation can be analyzed only by use of two factors that are the sensitivity of eye and the effective luminance, as same as the visibility analysis of steady state of adaptation. (2) The effective luminance function F (θ) with θ<80 minutes and the effective luminance ratio at transient adaptation are determined independently of visual sensitivity, and they are equal to the ones obtained at steady state of adaptation. (3) The effective luminance at transient adaptation is determined independently of adaptation luminance when there are no significant luminance distribution in the field.
Exhaust heat from a subway is one of the urban waste heat. From the point of view, the author selected a subway of representative business center in Tokyo, and measured temperature, humidity, wind speed and the others on the platform, in the tunnel, at the ventilation facilities. The actual survey continued for one year. From measurement data, the thermal environment in a subway became obvious and thermal basic data were obtained. For example, the outlet temperature fluctuation from the tunnel is small because of heat balance between the tunnel wall surface and the tunnel air. Exhaust heat is hopeful for heating source, but undesirable for cooling source.
The purpose of this study is to understand quantitative prperties of internal condensation in porous material. In winter, water vapor is generally supplied from the interior side of a roof slab and the condensed water accumulated at this side, causes difficulties. In this paper the moisture behavior in this process is dealt with. Firstly the properties of materials concerned with moisture transfer are discussed. Next the experiment and the analysis of the condensation and re-evaporation process are discussed. And the effects of variations in properties on the analysis is also discussed. Consequently, the validity of the application of the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer equation to the analysis of the internal moisture content is shown. Finally it is proved that the variance of material properties effects on the results of the internal moisture content calculation to a large degree.
In this study, we present a model for analysis of thermal and hygric behavior of thc underground space taking into account coupled heat and moisture transfer in/on the ground. In the model effects of the precipitation and the location of the water table are considered. Using the model, heat and moisture behavior of the underground space under natural condition without heat and moisture supply are analyzed. The results show that 1) effect of moisture in earth ground on room climate are considerable, 2) moisture capacity of surrounding wall must be considered in analysis, because of its considerable effects on moisture variation, 3) to predict room air humidity and moisture condensation, distribution of the moisture flow on surrounding wall must be considered.
A computational procedure has been developed for simulating 2D and 3D incompressible steady state flows in enclosed spaces with parallel processing based on an HX network computing system. The numerical procedure is based on a modified SIMPLE algorithm and has been parallelized with matrix calculation. Performance of the parallel computation has been examined through simulating laminar flows in enclosed spaces. In the case of computation with 256 processors, inter-processor communication time occupies about 10% of total calculation (CPU executing) time. When the data structure (i. e. dimension and size of data matrix) of the numerical procedure matches the characteristics of the computer system, the speedup ratio of parallel computation is proportional to the number of processors.
Cross-ventilation rate which means the flow rate of natural ventilation passing through a house is not easily calculated by the ordinary equation for ventilation rate based on pressure drop coefficients of openings, because the air flow through an opening conserves a part of its dynamic energy. Numerical simulation of cross-ventilation can give the detailed information of air flow in and around a house, and the cross-ventilation rate, pressure differences and other data can be easily calculated from them. Cross-ventilation rate is examined mainly based on the numerical simulation results, which is compared with wind tunnel tests and the ordinary equation. There are six models which have the same outside shape and differ in partitions one another. The differences between the cross-ventilation rates by the numerical simulation and those by the wind tunnel tests are small, and the order of the cross-ventilation rate in the models by the numerical simulation is the same as that by the wind tunnel tests. The ventilation rates calculated by the ordinary equation are smaller than those of the numerical simulation by 10-30%, and the ordinary equation can not express the changes of the opening in the partition. The equation based on the total pressure drop coefficient is useful for the cross-ventilation rate.
The purpose of this research is to clarify psychological effects of windows and to confirm the way they compensate other interior elements. Many elements were introduced in an underground experimental space, then postoccupancy evaluations came into effect by the subjects studied there. 1) The transition of wind or light, and outside information such as the time or weather, are more important for recreational purpose rather than for research activities. 2) Principal psychological effects of windows are pleasantness, including recovery of mental fatigue, reduction of monotonousness, creating a good atmosphere, and connection with the outside world. There is a good possibility that the effects of windows are compensated by other elements too. 3) It is possible that a space without a window makes the occupants feel more at ease and improves concentration for their research activities than a space with a window.
This study reveals the effects on work area evaluation of coworkers' and supervisors' territorial and psychological invasion of a worker's personal space. We performed an experiment using a full-scale office model (a single room) in which four participants performed three different types of office work, after which they were questioned regarding work area satisfaction, e. g., how conductive the work area was to office work. Statistical analysis of this experiment showed that work area satisfaction depends not merely on physical factors, but rather on how a worker interacts with his or her coworkers in a work group.
The Aim of this study is to develop a method of predicting the spatial distribution of leisure facilities in urban areas to realize their desirable location planning. In this study, sports facilities in Osaka City are selected for survey. The actual conditions of spatial distribution of various sports facilities are analyzed by employing the theory of quantification 2. A model is devised which predict the number of facilities. Finally the adaptability of the model is reviewed in the case of sports facilities in Osaka City.
Based on the levels of transfer capability of 405 physically disabled subjects the factors preventing them from going out of the house were analyzed. It was found that even in the group with the highest frequency of going out more than 60% felt a sort of hesitation when doing so. The mean reasons were transfer impediments, physical body factors, and anxiety and fear. The analysis showed that anxiety and fear were experienced especially at pedestrian crossings and/or crowded places. And we confirmed that the rate of remodel house for going out was lower than that for locomotion in the house.
This research is concerned with methods for calculating target amounts for in-home and institutional services for the elderly with senile dementia, a rather narrow field, but for whom service demands are widespreadly held to be difficult to measure. Specifically, we will put forward considerations based on the comparison and arrangement of data from the results of a survey on the elderly with senile dementia living in their own homes in Sendai City, which our centre has used in previous research, and legal formulas for calculations in official government health and welfare plans for the elderly. Items to be dealt with are as follows; (1) Measuring the number of people requiring the services (2) Minimum service standards (3) Necessary degree of services (4) Service target amounts
The research consists of a quantitative analysis on the distribution of quantity and types of precast concrete components for apartment houses. Formerly, the construction of apartment houses using precast components were often based on a standard design. However, the practice have changed in line with demand variations. The industrial production of precast concrete components has been changing from a production based on a "small number of types of components, made in a large quantity" to a production based on a "large number of types of components, made in small quantity". In order to estimate the variation in the productivity caused by this change in the production philosophy, it is crucial to make an accurate analysis of the distribution of components quantity and types of products. The research achieved a quantitative model showing the relationship between apartment houses, quantity of components and types of components.
A man sitting for an extended period changes positions both consciously and subconsciously. This study, premised on the transactive relation between man and his environment, analyzed through observation the sitting behaviour of theater audience and train passengers, with the aim of understanding the dynamics of sitting posture. The findings show that the number of times a change of posture took place is affected by attire, condition of neighboring seats, and the differences of spacial features and its location. Moreover, they point out to the existence of multiple basic postures such as those determined by the design standard of the seats, as well as seat types. The result of the analysis with Marcov Chain Model indicates irreducible, non periodic pattern of posture transition. The existence of multiple basic postures was confirmed using the stationary distribution method, while the computation of average time intervals shows short interval for the postural change. This analysis of postural transition provides a fundamental understanding that can be utilized as index for the evaluation of seats.
The purpose of this study is to make it clear how people perceive the shape of setback of street space. We made perceptual experiments, using the space simulator which enable us to observe scale models from eye level. As a result, the perceived shapes of setback street space could be classified into five types. These are as follows: Uniformity, Swollen, Separated, Pushed, and Divided. And we got diagram of these types. They are determined by physical factors such as the ratio of the depth and the width of the road, the ratio of the frontage and the width of the road.
This paper is aimed to clarify the from of buildings arrangement in contemporary Japanese city. At first, we analyzed buildings composition in blocks and street patterns in several representative towns in Tokyo. From the analysis, we obtained two typological characters of town space. 0ne is homogeneous blocks group with open spaces face to streets and non-hierarchical street width system. Another is heterogeneous blocks group with hierarchical street width system. These typologies of town space suggest that grade of homogeneity on arrangement and shape of buildings show the order of contemporary urban space.
This paper proposes the concept of "Landscape Management Planning" in a non-linear and spread villagescape area, which aims to not only realize a conservation of traditional structures but also assimilate impacts of local community's development. The contents of this paper are as follows. 1. Proposal of the analysis framework of landscape structure. 2. Representation of a landscape image which local people and government had been aim for. 3. Analysis on preferences of dwellers for the simulated future landscape images.
Purpose of our Study is to analyze the theory of city planning for Japanese ancient imperial capitaIs through Feng-Shui thought. Feng-Shui is based on the idea of Yin-Yang. It was systematized in the 3rd century in ancient China. In Feng-Shui, all materials and energy are made from 'Ki'-spirit. An invisible fluid 'Ki' flows in the mountain range and runs out at the special spot called the dragon-hole and spread about the basin (Meido). They looked for the dragon-hole and made the city in 'Meido', and then made the center Iine Iinking the 'desk' and 'chair' mountains. We tried to find the dragon-hole, and the desk and chair mountain of each capitaI.
This paper discusses subjects of landscape conservation in Ogimachi-area of Shirakawa-village devoted to "Conservation Areas of Traditional Structures" in 1976. The contents of this paper areas follows. 1. The development process of political operation and local movement for landscape conservation. 2. Inspections of landscape transformations as the result and investigation of its causes. 3. Presentation of conservation terms based on the analysis.
During the Muromachi Era, Prince Sadafusa's palace was converted into a temporary Imperial Palace of the Emperor Gohanazono. I drew the floor plans of the Shinden(the main building) of these tio periods. The building measured 7 ken east-west and 6 ken north-south. The east room floor was covered by Tatami mats and one part was lower, which was called the Jidan(Gedan) and another part the Jodan. Such style was being developed in the upper Kuge's residences before the Ohnin War, but were not yet widely practiced. There were changes in floor plans including Jodan and Zashiki-kazari to reflect the hierarchy along with the establishment of the Shoin-zukuri style.
This paper is to analyze the design and writings of Theodor Fischer (1864-1938) to clarify his architectural ideas. The substance of the analyses in this paper is as follows: 1) extraction of the formative characteristics of his design 2) analysis of the key-words in his early writings: "Einheit (unity)", "naturliches Empfinden (natural feeling)" and "malerisches (picturesque)" effect 3) analysis of the conception "Raum (space/room)" to make clear the change of the construction of his architectural idea in 1910's 4) As results of these analyses, a position of the conception "Raum" in his architectural idea and its relation to the conception "Tradition", discussed in my last paper, is made clear as a basic construction of his architectural idea.
J. L. M. Lauweriks, Dutch architect, played educationaI active part in Germany from 1904 to 1916. This study attempts to clarify Lauweriks' educational activities at Dusseldorfer KunstgewerbeschuIe and StaatIiche Handfertigkeitsseminar in Hagen. It became clear that Lauweriks taught at these institutions a design method, called "Entwerfen nach System" in Germany. And the contribution of Lauweriks is of great importance in direct spreading such a method, to be sure, but it cannot easily reach below two conclusions. 1. Lauweriks' systematic method of design was delivered of the way to industrialization in archilecture. 2. Lauweriks had influence on German Expressionist. And besides as an distinctive feature in Lauweriks' educational activities pointed out an character, enlightenment of theosophicaI thought.