This study is focusing on Japanese American in Stockton, Northern California, where old Japantown exist, as a case study of Japanese immigration in the world. Through the interview and housing research on Nisei and Sansei of Japanese American, it aims to clarify the feature of Japanese American housing and living situation. And also it aims to clarify the role of Japanese American community and local facility for their own history and culture.
From 1868 to 1941, about 340,000 people had emigrated to the United States from Japan. The hometown of Japanese immigration had inclined to the western part of Japan, mainly from Chugoku and Kyushu district. And the settlement place in the United States of America had inclined to the State of Hawaii and California. Before the World War II, many of Japanese American had been engaged in the unskilled work, mainly consisting of agriculture and housekeeping. After the World War II, their work have shifted to service industry, manufacturing industry, commerce and professional.
Harbor city Stockton, developed as the transport hub from inland, has the richest farmland in California. Many of Japanese immigrant had moved to Stockton for the work at farms and agricultural products processing plants. Near the Port of Stockton, there was one of largest Japantown in Northern California. In 1930s, the peak of Stockton Japantown, 150 species of Japanese business and 31 Japanese community had been active. After the World War II, because of highway construction and redevelopment project, the function of former Japantown had been completely dismantled.
Nisei houses located in the south side of old Japantown. Along with the aging and the security deterioration of old residential area, Sansei had moved to the north side of new residential area. But Nisei remains in the old residential area because of the attachment to the community. At Nisei and Sansei houses, many of Japanese ornaments and articles have been arranged as interior elements. Most of those elements have been inherited from Issei to Nisei and Sansei. Moreover, the spatial elements of Japanese garden have been used at the front and back yards. And “KAMON”, inherited from Issei, have been used for the ornaments and articles, as the symbol to show their family root.
The local facilities in Stockton, related to Japanese American history, have been functioning as the important role for cultural exchange with Nikkei community and local society. Stockton Buddhist church and Calvary Presbyterian Churchare are especially functioning as the important facilities for not only members but also fellows. The historical landmarks, Nippon Hospital and Stockton Assembly Center, registered by the State of California have been utilized as local resources to share Japanese American history and culture. With the transition from community aggregation to human network, Nikkei community activities have been maintained beyond the generations.
The purpose of this study is to understand “living through involvement in community” in areas developed by the residents as part of community projects planned by them for the maintenance of residential environments and to find the key to the formation of a successful sustainable community. These residents gathered together out of a willingness to participate in the community for the purpose of sustainable community management. A questionnaire survey was administered in the months of July and August, 2014, for the residents of suburban areas that were developed as part of the community projects based on Uji City's community-building ordinance in 2011. The residents had relatively high feelings of involvement in community organization and activities, and nearly sixty percent of the residents possessed a desire to be involved in community activities. This is evidenced by the fact that they demonstrated a high rate of “living through involvement in community, ” meaning life attitudes toward the community and consciousness of community roles, which largely affects the formation of their willingness to participate in the community. Such a living style was also present in feelings of attachment or belonging to the community and a desire to continue living there. This confirmed that “living through involvement in community” had taken root in and permeated through the community. The study also found that with an increase in the residents evaluated contractual items when signing contracts for buying housing, the higher were their life attitudes toward the community and consciousness of community roles. An awareness of the value of contract items forms the basis of every individual citizen's attitudes toward daily life and their consciousness of community roles. Sharing these attitudes may have been the key to the organization of a community-building committee and planning tasks centered in this committee. As a new value that replaces contracts at the time of sales in lots, this community-building plan is expected to maintain and improve living environments and residents' cooperation by being passed down along with the circumstances of its establishment. In addition to the above, we can point out the need for the awareness of sociality that the residences possess and importance of rule-making that tackles interpersonal relationships in the neighborhood for sustainable suburban residential living.
In university campus, there exists a complex of buildings connected with architectural elements such as corridors or pilotis, which we call the building-set. It is a characteristic of the university campus that the building-set has been formed through the years. In university campus, reorganization of stock buildings is recently required to create a synergy beyond a single bulding. Moreover openness of university campus with common space is required to promote activation of education and research. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to clarify the composition and formation process of building-set with common space in national university campus in Japan. Firstly, the composition and characteristic of building-set are analyzed through use of building, connecting elements and layout of common space. As a result, we found the 6 types of characteristics of composition of building-set in terms of openness with common space. In case all of buildings have common space, there are characteristics of building-set such as openness of building-set with connected common space, openness of building-set with exterior space, and juxtaposition of buildings with common space. On the other hand, there is closed building-set without common space. In case partial buildings have common space, there are characteristics of openness of entrance with common space, and contrast between open buildings and closed buildings. Secondly, the formation process of building-set are clarified through construction age of the buildings. As a result, it was clarified formation process which corresponds to the social and educational backgrounds. In case all of buildings have common space, they have been constructed corresponding to the quantitative expantion of university education from 1980's. Moreover closed building-set such as laboratories without common space have been constructed from late 1960's and extended in short term corresponding to expantion of science and technology field. In case partial buildings have common space, there are 2 types of the formation process: the building-set has been formed from the building with common space which was constructed beforehand, on the other side, openness of building-set has been gradually formed as building with common space was constructed afterwards. From the above result, it was clarified that the composition of building-set have characteristic in terms of openness with common space and the formation process of building-set which corresponds to the social and educational backgrounds. It is considered that it gives effective view point when the utilization of stock buildings or the examination to the openness of university campus by buildings with common space.
1. Background and Objective In recent years in Japan, the survival rate of newborns has been improving due to the advance in medical technology. At the same time, the number of children who are forced to live with some kind of disability has been increasing. This has led to the development of support facilities for disabled children. However, the design criterion for this type of facility determined by law only requires minimum placement of rooms and size. There have been many problems as this criterion does not correspond with actual operation of facilities. Also, the facilities were designed without understanding the characteristics of disabled children (e.g. hypersensitivity to sensory stimulus etc., ), which has been causing facility staff in many places to conduct improvements in the building. For the future, in order to improve such circumstance in developing a support facility for disabled children, it is necessary to consider a design criterion that reflects the actual operation. Therefore, this study aims at examining and suggesting considerations in designing a support facility for disabled children. 2. Method We extract problems at the time of operation from research of repair points and questionnaire survey in facilities for disabled children of Japan. In addition, in order to grasp the actual activity situation, a behavior observation was conducted, and the activity of staff, children and parents during the day were plotted at 5 minutes intervals on 2D diagram. in a facility located Kanto. From this, Characteristic situations in the facility from a viewpoint on activities and usage of furniture were extracted. With the method mentioned above, the considerations in designing a support facility for disabled children were examined. 3. Results As a result of surveys, we clarified following some points. 1) In the nursery room, blinder is put on doors and shelves to make the environment where disability children can concentrate on activities. 2) In the nursery room and hallway, In consideration for the safety of disability children, special keys are attached to doors so that children cannot go in and out without permission. 3) In the rooms such as the the nursery room and playroom, cushioning material was placed on the sash of doors/windows, corners of shelves, and pillars etc., for children's safety. 4) In welfare-oriented class (Wa), In order to make switching activities easy, the guidance training room is divided into 3 space with shelves and the children move between space for different activities. In addition, the characteristics such as inability to concentrate on activities because of surrounding objects are taken into account, thus the furniture or toys are prepared/removed for each activity to keep the guidance training room clear of things. 5) In medical-care-oriented class (Ka), since many children in this class cannot sit independently, most activities are done laying down on the floor. The parents also engage in most activities in a sitting position. Due to the hard floor, activities take place on a floor mattress. In addition, the supportive chairs cannot be stack for storage as they are custom made for each child's physical structure and level of disability. Since there is not enough space in the storage room, they are kept in the part of training room. 4. Conclusions In order to provide safety for children and create an environment to be able to concentrate, the factors mentioned in Table 5 should be taken into consideration when designing the facility. In view of this, along with considering the design criterion based on the actual operation, a designer must make an effort to communicate with facility managers and seek an understanding of disabled children.
Nursing-care insurance revision in 2015 is a big turning point of supply of day care facilities for the elderly. According to that, the small-scale facility of a capacity with 18 or less users is classified into three types, such as satellite type 1 with a large-scale or middle-scale facility, satellite type 2 with a multifunctional Long-Term Care facility in a Small Group Home, and community-based service type. And the number of facilities classified into satellite type 2, and community-based service type is managed and restricted by the self-governing body. Moreover, nursing care compensation of community-based type is reduced by 9%. From the above-mentioned social background, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between regional characteristics and management organizations of day care facilities for the elderly, and to consider an issue and an influence of facility supply by institutional revision in 2015, in Yamaguchi prefecture. The results are as follows. 1) The middle-scale day care facilities with a nursing home are established by social welfare corporation in many areas of the prefecture before 2000. Private sector corporations establish many small-scale facilities centering on urban areas, and facility supply is rapidly progressing after 2000. On the other hand, in mountainous areas, although there was facility supply for filling the non-supplying district division by a social welfare corporation, as compared with urban areas, there is a little facility supply of a corporation for profit, and there is a disparity between mountainous areas and urban areas. 2) Moreover, about facility form to be supplied newly, there are many ratios of newly-built facilities in urban areas, and there are many ratios of facilities repairing an existing building and facilities with a nursing home in mountainous areas. As compared with urban areas, although elderly ratio is high, since population is small, there is not much demand of social welfare services in mountainous areas. Therefore, when private sector corporations build a new facility in mountainous areas, it is necessary to achieve cost reduction of construction and it seems that the existing building was utilized. 3) About location of the facilities in mountainous areas, a facility type with a nursing home or a group home tend to be located at the place distant from the central part. On the other hand, a small-scale and independent facility type tends to be located at the convenient place of the center part. Since supply of the small-scale and independent facilities is restricted by institutional revision, it is thought that the number of supplies of them will decrease in the future. Although a facility type with an elderly housing and a nursing home continues being supplied by a corporation for profit in urban areas because social welfare services demand is large, it is expected that it becomes very difficult to supply a new facility in mountainous areas.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the regionality of schoolchild care facility supply situation of the old local government unit and to estimate the number of registered children of the elementary school district unit in Chugoku district 5 prefectures, and to consider the supply method of schoolchild care facility for the future. The results are as follows. 1) Each old local government in 2000 was able to classify into five types, called Urban type, Flat-ground type, Middle type, Mountainous type A, and Mountainous type B. The old local governments classified into Urban type and Flat-ground type are located in a city area and they have more schoolchild than the old local governments classified into other three types. Although the establishment rate of schoolchild care facility in Urban type and Flat-ground type is over 100%, other three types are under 100% and the disparity between urban type and mountainous type is large. 2) Generally, one schoolchild care facility is established at one elementary school. Then, the change in the number of registered children is considered, and more facilities are established newly when they are overcrowded. The classification of the old local government unit is applied to the elementary school district unit, and analysis is conducted about the relation between the establishment rate and the number of registered children. Consequently, clear relation was recognized between the local type and the establishment rate. In the elementary school district unit classified into Urban type and Flat-ground type, the number of schoolchild care facilities is corresponding and increasing to the number of registered children. On the other hand, in the elementary school district unit classified into other three types, one facility was established at one elementary school or there was no facility in one elementary school unit. In addition, although a schoolchild care facility is established in an elementary school by all the types in many cases, the rate that a facility is established out of an elementary school increases in Mountainous type A and B. 3) By estimating the number of one facility registered children for each elementary school district of Chugoku district 5 prefectures based on the data of Yamaguchi Prefecture, it is indicated that half of facilities in Urban type don't fulfill the new required conditions of one facility with 40 or less children and most facilities in Mountainous type A and B fulfill the new required conditions.
The purpose of this study is to inspect whether Small-Scale Multi-Care facility provide the community based service to users or not through the research into the aspect of real utility area. The following facts have been clarified through the research into ninety three municipal governments and all of Small-Scale Multi-Care facilities in fourteen cities in Japan. The real utility area of almost facilities have extended beyond the planned service area and the distance between user home and facility is long. As a result of it, the concept which Small-Scale Multi-Care facility provide the community based care service to users has been emasculated. The many causes of the expansion phenomenon of utility area is found as following through the analysis of opinions by persons in charge of the department for old people welfare in municipal governments and manager in Small-Scale Multi-Care facilities. The strongest direct cause is the owner's mind of management to hope to get many users as possible for keeping business. The second direct cause is user's mind or their family's mind to select facility being based on various factors except distance, also their mind to wish to avoid the backbiting by their neighbors. From these facts, we can find the coincidence between demand by users and supply by the facility owners. In the background, there is indifference by municipal governments and the facility owners to the significance of the community based care service. Also there is indifference to the significance of setting the planned service area for supply it. Beside them, the disordered utility and the expansion phenomenon of utility area is promoted with the nonexistence of the information service organization. As mentioned above, the expansion phenomenon of utility areas come from the circumstances of management system, administration, facility owners, users and their communities The correlation between the number of Small-Scale Multi-Care facility in a city and their utility areas is not clear against our expectation. In the previous paper wrote by us, we explained the structure with many causes in the expansion phenomenon of the utility areas. The structure has been verified also in this research. In this time, we have found new causes of the expansion phenomenon of utility area. That is the long stay use at Small-Scale Multi-Care facility. The mean of the long stay use is staying at Small-Scale Multi-Care facility over thirty nights against the regulation. The long term stay appear as the result from the coincidence between user's mind and owner's mind. The user desire the care facility which can supply the long term care and accept the long term stay although it lead to long term distance use. On the other hand, the owner wish to accept many users as possible to fill out regular user number although it lead to the long distance use. As the background of this phenomenon, the long term care facilities like the nursing home for old people are not sufficient. So if we expect Small-Scale Multi-Care facility regain the role as the community based care service facility, it is necessary to discuss each role and necessity of care facility.
When people recognize a landscape through vision, they see the different view from what it actually is. This is defined as Spatial cognition properties that people in this study. The objective of this study is to reveal structure and tendency of the common Spatial cognition properties of humans. Recently, both environment and landscape became interested words among people. Therefore, it will be beneficial for architectural design to clarify Spatial cognition properties. In the study, We investigate Japanese Zakanshiki gardens which are designed integrally by buildings and landscapes. I performed a field work and analyzed Spatial cognition properties with grid analytical method and Impression Scale that is the method of measuring of impression with indication method experiment. Form Analyzing Impression Scale, the strength and weakness of the element which there is in the garden and the psychological influence that the elements give are classified. On the other hand, the case of Spatial cognition properties, that is classified by drawing of Movement, Field of vision and Center eyesight of eye. From this research, it is clarified that there are three significant factors which cause the difference between real opening view and scene of Space Recognition properties. First, the movement of line of sight is one of the factors which cause Spatial cognition properties. Karesansui － traditional Japanese dry landscape garden－and are Chisenshiki －traditional Japanese garden with pond－the one of grate examples. In the Karesansui, only few elements are impressing since the way of using color lead the line of eyesight. On the other hand, the case of Chisenshiki, people see the pond at center of garden, and then they gradually move the line of sight to other elements which is sat same eye level as the pond. Thus movement of line of sight related to elements which are impressing. Second, field and point of view are also important factor for impression. Generally, the point of view of people is low when they see a landscape. However, it is possible to lead high point of view by putting unique plants in the front. Moreover, it is possible to let people focus on the side, but setting the impressive material on the right side cause narrower range of view. This phenomenon is occurred since people tend to focus on the right side. Therefore, point and field of sight are influenced by impressive elements as well. Third, score of impression scale affects what people see the elements in a landscape. Human tends to recognize impressive elements as center of a land scape even though they are not sat at center of that. From this research, it is clear that Spatial cognition properties related to Impressive Scale.
This study is to illustrate thought on regionality from the point of view of space composition in design theories on Public Theater by contemporary Japanese architects, Through the investigation of their published articles after the Second World War. Public Theater is important to local communities as "New open space". After the Great East Japan Earthquake, The designers of public architecture need to think for the local community. Recently, Public architecture was developed every major application (Building types). So, The thinking about the relationship between architecture and regionality is the most important for the contemporary Japanese architects. Therefore, this study is described about the thinking of relationship between architecture and regionality on design theories on Public Theater. Further after this paper, the some design theories of several building types (Museum, Theater, Public Hall, Library, etc.) are going to be compared. Firstly, the contents each design theory on Public Theater were analyzed, and several descriptions of “The subject on regionality” were extracted(Fig. 1). Next, the meaning of these comments was analyzed by applying the method created by Jiro Kawakita. Then, there were drawn a relationship diagram and 7 groups of meaning were found (Fig. 2). Next, those meanings were divided into two different types (Fig. 2); “Phenomenon value and Physical value” and “Universality and Locality”. Then, the change of that relationship in terms of time was analyzed (Table 1). Secondly, the contents each design theory were analyzed again, and several descriptions of “The Realization by space compositon” were extracted. And the space compositions were analyzed. So, these were classified into 2 space compositions (Table 2); “Singular area” and “Plural areas”. Then Singular area was classified into 3 areas; “Inside”, “Exterior” and “Outside” (Table 3). So Plural areas were classified into 2 areas; “In site” and “Out site”. “In site” is things that have no relationship with “Out site”. “Out site” is things that have relationship with “Out site”. As a result, “Inside” is the most large (Table 4). And “Exterior-Out site” is large. Then, the change of that relationship in terms of time was considered (Table 5). Finally, Between “The subject on regionality” and “The Realization by space composition” were analyzed (Table 6). Then, Relationships of “Phenomenon value and Singular area” and “Physical value and Plural areas” are large. Next, from the detailed analysis, 3 Patterns were found (Table 7). (1) The subjects with Phenomenon value, “Art culture”, are represented by “Inside”. (2) The subjects with Phenomenon value, “Life culture”, are represented by “Exterior”. (3) The subjects with Physical value, “Continuation with neighboring scenery”, are represented by relationship between “Exterior” and “Out site”. Further, the change of that relationship in terms of time was considered (Table 8). So, The thought on regionality of the designers of Public Theater has changed from around 2000. Consequently, a definite meaning about thought on regionality in design theories on Public Theater was found. In this particular study, we have pointed out the design ideas of contemporary Japanese architects about public architecture after Second World War.
In the Japanese modern times, Meiji and Taisyo period , pioneering business in Hokkaido settled in undeveloped wilds and also produced a city of more than 200 as well as reclamation in a farming ground beyond 1,000,000 ha, in the end of a hardship. "Newly-compiled Hokkaido history" when document historical sources of etc. are reduced to origin, it's possible to assume 6 prototypes of the formation in the city in a pioneering period in Hokkaido. The aim of this study is to search for the planning principle of an urban formation to study about 6 prototypes of the formation in the city in a pioneering period in Hokkaido. In conclusion, I was able to obtain seven following planning principles. 1)The view of land :they made get a bird's-eye view of an area from a hill with a view, and selection of location of the town planned site. 2)The basic axis and basic point :a perspective from a hummock was a criterion of area space forming also a point of intersection on the main street was a cardinal point in a city parcel. 3) The existence of the rural-urban planning :they planned a city as a base of area pioneering and went as a so-called city farm village project in general together with a pioneering settle plan in a city hinterland. 4) The existence of the riverport or railway staion :riverport as the shipping and railway station which were main means of transportation of pioneering were a cardinal point of city formation. 5) The scale of the urban area :the flat land with which a hill, river and a railway line are surrounded is a town planned site, and its scale are spread from (1080m) for 600 kenn~(1,636m) for 900kenn. 6) The hill of a mental foothold in an urban area: there was way to read in feng shui-like land as a river in a hill and the front in the back in an election place by the city, and the shrine which became mental grounds in an area was put in the hills. 7) The grid pattern :grid checkerboard-like considering town division and place name transcription of jou choume are performed in most cities.
In this research, with regards to Kande Northern Village, which has had multiple continued activities for village building until now, from the interchange enterprise in its Rural Community Plan, the details of the enterprise operation outline and the role division between residents of the actual enterprise while focusing on the division of roles between villagers of the actual practical project, and the organizational structure on the actual day of events it was examined as to how these were continued within the village. As a result, from the enterprise operation outline, we have come to know of the interchange enterprise that was being run within the village, which has been put in place as an activity of the Rural Community Plan as an ongoing enterprise, and a new interchange enterprise that was implemented by the local administrative agency.
This study aims to clarify the establishment of S Farm by non-farming citizens in Hino City, in a suburban area of Tokyo, and the facts of their activities. Its objective is to clarify that these activities are linked to community planning and consider the continuation of these activities. Flow of research ·overview of the topographic features and history from existing documents and farmer's interviews. ·to grasp actual farmland conditions from field observation and farmland ledgers From participant observation to S farm and interviews, questionnaire, the communications ·the establishment of S farm and its history ·features of the activities and S farm management S Farm activities commenced with the recycling of kitchen refuse and joint cultivation, and then expanded to include programs for interchange and education and approaches to local issues. This widening for linkage to community planning was derived from their reflection and usage of local characteristics. The activities have been linked to community planning such as regional resource circulation, decrease in combustible waste, disaster prevention, conservation of hydrologic circulation and agricultural landscape, activation of community, preservation of the canal, inheritance of food culture. The number of farmlands that citizen use have increased in Arai area. Because (1) there are many rice fields having low productivity; (2) the farmers have an idea of maintaining these farmlands for tax measures; (3) farmlands are easy to be unutilized due to non-cooperation among farmers. The space characteristics of S Farm are as follows; (1) the farm is located at the corner of a large agricultural land area. Therefore, its impact on the surrounding due to farming experiences and harvest events by many peoples and kitchen refuse composting is not severe; (2)the farm is facing the road, thereby facilitating carrying of kitchen refuse via a car; (3)water flows through the farm that was once a rice field and is used for the cultivation of the crops. The characteristics of the community are as follows; (4) the residents' associations surrounding the farm have many people residing since a long time, and the participation rate is high and is active. They participant in kitchen refuse disposal activities; and (5) there are childcare and educational institutions that provide food education, and farming experience within a range of 500m from the farm. Moreover, they are located on roads having little traffic. In addition, through the experience of the children, some of their mothers participate in farm activity and administration. The features of activities are as follows; (1)taking over joint cultivation and normalization as the background of establishment of S Farm; (2)collaboration with the administration and cooperation with the local community for the recycling of kitchen refuse;(3)awareness and educational activities for recycling kitchen refuse and promotion of the same. Anyone enabled participate in the activity at any time. Consequently, the farm is open to the community; and (4) the farm members have aggressively built the inside and the outside of the network to expand activities. The feature of the management to support these activities are as follows; there are earnest leaders, and core members and sub-member systems; communication of information and learning to use e-mail and newsletters, and management of S farm is flexible and flat while respecting the independence of the members. It was found that joint cultivation and coordination with the community, which are characteristic features of the activities, are important for their advancement.
The 2013 Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) widely affected approximately 3.42 million households (161 million people) with 6,300 casualties and 1,061 missing in the Philippines. It damaged 1,084,762 buildings in the country. The authors investigated building damage in Basey, a province of Samar Island, twice in February and December 2014. This paper analyzes building damage due to the typhoon and tidal wave based on the field surveys and a building damage dataset provided by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Chapter 1 explains recent meteorological disasters, including the 2005 Hurricane Katrina and the 2015 Cyclone Pam, and the importance of research on regional disaster risk reduction to typhoon-related disasters. It describes that this research aims to clarify the relationship between the building damage and building characteristics (structural type, stories, outer walls, and location) in Basey. Then, it introduces existing literatures and the difficulties to understand the mechanism of building damage caused by typhoon. Chapter 1 also explains the procedure of the research. Chapter 2 summarizes the damage to people and buildings in the Philippines caused by the 2013 Typhoon Yolanda at first. Secondly it introduces an outline of Basey, such as population and location, and the conditions damaged by the typhoon. Finally it shows how the authors carried out the field surveys in Basey twice with driving recorder and Open Street Map. Chapter 3 analyzes building damage due to tidal waves with a building damage dataset provided by JICA. The building damage data has building damage level and locations, on which the analysis of relationship between building damage and the distance from coastline was based. As a result of the analysis, a tentative building damage function was obtained. The building damage dataset gathered by the authors' field surveys was arranged in Chapter 4. This chapter explains (1) how to make the base map with Open Street Map and pictures/movie recorded by the driving recorder, (2) building inventory, (3) building structure ad outer walls in Basey, and (4) high wind damage scale. Then it reports the aggregate results to indicate the tendency of the buildings in Basey. Chapter 5 analyzes the dataset arranged in Chapter 4 and clarified that the damage level of wooden buildings was higher than that of RC buildings. Then, the logistic regression analysis was conducted and it clarified that the types of building structure was the dominant factor of building damage by strong wind compared with the distance from the coastline and the number of stories. Then a building damage assessment model from the 2013 Typhoon Yolanda was proposed. The final chapter summarizes and suggests the importance of future research by the same approach for another areas affected by the 2013 Typhoon Yolanda.
Recently, reinvention of public spaces is receiving academic and practical attentions. The purpose of this paper is to make clear the
planning process of “pedestrian plaza” in Times Square as a result of collaborative efforts by Times Square Alliance, NYC-DOT and
other professional organizations. The following four facts are pointed out and discussed as lessons from the process: 1) continuous
initiative by TSA as an area management organization, 2) supports from the professional sector, in particular, non-profit
organizations for remaking the public realm, 3) leaderships by the mayor and the commissioner, 4) connection between local
pedestrianization and transformation of the city’s structure.
Introduction Since 1930s, the hilly area began residence turning on Mt. Nam-san of Seoul inner city's incline has residential section which bring on urban problem about urban environment, nature environment and infrastructure. The cause of problem happened by local low-rise high-density redevelopment of joint-redevelopment program (1983) introduced to resolve urban problem due to 1) detention of government owned land by the Korean war in 1950s, 2) high-rise high-density caused by urban growth in a period of economic growth(1970s∼1980s) and concentration of population at capital area. For resolving this problem, various system improvement and policy in enforced, though problems of secure finance about resolving vested rights of land owner already developed was happened. Furthermore, the delay of maintenance business of hilly area residence was continued because of decrease of economic gain with reinforcing regulate about land-use for preserving historical environment according to changes of time, protecting urban landscape and natural landscape. So, Seoul introduced CRP to resolve this complex problems (2006). CRP is method that push ahead maintenance business and development business at the same time through adjustment about FAR between areas with conjoint two or more apart areas to one area. Now this 2016, through revise relevant law, CRP can apply to all maintenance business and development business of local government. Also, management of Seoul's CRP and model area's CRP much affect management of local government's CRP. But, there is shortage about the study of system operation of Seoul's and model area's CRP.
Purpose The purpose of this study is obtain basic knowledge about design of method planned ‘urban renaissance’ with propel maintenance with conjoint plural apart areas which have each difference problems through verifying operation state CRP model area in Seoul. For above purpose, draw systemically feature about introduction of CRP's meaning and operation method, operation process and earning adjustment of managing system with conjoint areas.
Methods To arrange clearly CRP's concept and operation method, we collect data and information of 'survey by interviewing' about the concerned with CRP's introducing, process of establishing and manage. Then, based on collected data, analysis and consider. Chapter 2; through introduce basis of Seoul's CRP and its change, consider and analysis about CRP's case and its operation method, we define CRP and draw point which is necessary for study. Chapter 3; about model area, we arrange city regeneration policy about land use plan. And research zonal present condition of model area. Analysis and consider CRP's operation process about planning for maintaining two area integrated turning on right and authority of main planning agent. Chapter 4; based on the analysis and consider of second, third, we clarify feature of earning adjustment method through analysis and consider about process of earning adjustment conducted in model area.
Results and Conclusion Seoul's CRP is new way to enable complex adjustment of building density through mutual earning adjustment basis on the maintenance planning which connect reinforcement and relax about land use regulation of two area with conjoint two or more apart areas to one. The results of analysis and consideration about Seoul's CRP and model's area in the following. 1. CRP resolve the unbalance problems of land use caused by designating of zoning. 2. Management of CRP link rationally purpose plural land use, governments and private build cooperative relations. 3. Earning adjustment of CRP's management can adjust complexly about building density as a requirement for Public Contribution
This is a study about the space for Dialogue and “Kyoudou” . Through a hearing and questionnaire survey to the staff and
members of 35 municipalities in Shizuoka, it approaches to the subject for the condition from diversifying that consciousness by
sharing culture between the residents and the municipal government.
As a result, we theorized profitable components in how both, residents and a municipal government, cooperate to organize a
certain society. It primarily consists of four elements to facilitate shared communities converting from the traditional type as such
unilaterally requested communities. The findings are following : 1) Interference by a hierarchical organization, 2) Consciousness
improvement of a municipal government, 3) Consciousness improvement of residents, 4) Necessity of sharing community between
municipal governments namely “Kyoudou”.
In recent decades, many cities in the world has started to apply policies and development projects that aim to increase their citizens' convenience of life, which is considered one of the most basic criteria to a high quality living environment. The most obvious example is building subway, monorail, LRT (Light Rail Transit) as well as BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) systems to reduce inner city travel time, thus, enhance public transport convenience and quality of life. Especially, for an aging population country like Japan, the switch from using private transport to public transport is necessary in order to adapt to the current rapid change of its population's density and social structure. Actual urban public transport planning needs to select transport means that not only have appropriate speed and level of punctuality but also are compatible with the scale, structure and the demand of each city's population. Among the above requirements, everyday travel time is one of the most significant criteria to evaluate quality of life. Apart from travel speed and density of public transport terminals, walking time between home and stations crucially affects total travel time within urban areas. Because each person's commuting ability depends on age and physical ability, the sphere of walking should be carefully considered in public traffic transport network planning in order to enhance the living convenience. This research focuses on walkability and accessibility, aims to evaluate travel quality of each public transport in urban areas by using algorithmic models to analyze travelling time as well as physical and mental consumption index of public transport users. In addition, the study also conducts quantitative analysis on travelling quality in order to evaluate accessibility and applies the developed model to the central area of Utsunomiya City in order to verify the model. The algorithmic model analyzes three basic public transport means in the city, which are bus, BRT and subway systems. The model assumes that the researched urban area is 1200x1200m wide, public transport routes are arranged horizontally in the center of the area, and the walking routes are arranged horizontally and perpendicularly, which means the walking distances are measured by the Manhattan distance metric. The model will calculate total traveling time of pedestrians including walking time and public transports using time. The sphere of travelling is assumed to be among the three distances that are 1200m, 4800m, and 9600m. Using the total travelling time projected by the model, the study calculates total users' travel energy consumption by age. In addition, based on the algorithmic analysis of the central area of Utsunomiya City including JR Utsunomiya station as the centroid, the study analyzes the impact of walkability on people's travelling quality and research further on evaluating how convenient living environment in Utsunomiya city can be by the implementation of the three basic public transportation means. Based on the final result, the study elucidates the impact of station distribution in term of density and distance on users' travelling time. Especially, the study analyzes different levels of travelling quality by public transports between ages based on factors of walking speed, weight and resting metabolic rate. The study gives specific results in convenience level of each public transport means which can be used as a basis for establishing the assessments and selection of most suitable transports in urban planning.
This research aims to analyze the "parklet" and "plaza" generated by the Pavement to Parks Program in U.S. San Francisco and to consider the main point in the case of planning, designing and using a street as a place for people's exchange and stationary. It become clear that the half of streets which parklet and plaza are installed have characterized by concentration of neighborhood shops and have the location which public access is easy to obtained. The design of parklet and plaza has attained pedestrian friendly and desirable amenity for people. And also it is the design as inclusive public space which people can continue to stay without interference mutually. The parklet as public space and the sidewalk seat in front of the cafe is articulated and both parklet and plaza serve as open space which includes people's various activities. In addition, sustainable design here assumes not to maintenance-free and durability of initial condition but to frequent maintenance and repair. It also become clear that the purpose of plaza project is the making people's place on the street and the purpose of parklet project are street beautification and to put the rest space. As for the plaza, the temporary one is built first and then improved in full-scale. And it is the issue that not only a control of the undesirable use such as crime prevention but also a promotion of the desirable use such as an event. As for the parklet, the maintenance issues for each cases, such as a cleaning, a burden of the repairing cost in a hardware, and so forth. It can be summarized in the problem of fund. It is considered that the pavement to parks program create a place of human-centered on the road. Seating space of parklet is designed so that many and unspecified persons may not carry out mutual interference but may continue to stay, and also to be a inclusive humane space on the street. The installer of parklet and plaza has been recognized as a host rather than maintenance administrator. Although maintenance of a parklet is managed by the shops in front, it is not use for commercial. Design and use of parklet and shops are separated. Although the parklet manual shows the guideline of its location criteria and design elements, the its design is diverse, in particular, the part of user interface. It would say that parklet create a public open space on the street in the user's point of view. In parklet and plaza design, priority seems to be given to humane and desirable amenity over the durability that assumes the repair and frequent maintenance. It is thought that this design offers comfortableness. Event use, safety, and aesthetic are contributed to comfort for people, too. The process of temporary plaza improvement promotes sympathy and agreement formation of a local community with verification of their various subjects through its experimental introduction. By trial and error, it enables the design which gives priority to atmosphere or creativity over durability. It is thought that these two points offer the process of both the publicness in a user viewpoint and the people's comfortableness.
First in the study, some inter-country input-output tables (ICIOs) that can be publicly available have been searched. As a result, it was decided to use WIOD (the World Input-Output Database) which have been published recently under the EU's fund. This paper is an analysis that focused on the construction industry, which is one of the 35 industrial sectors in the WIOD. There are two main contents in this paper. First one is to find the total amount of production value of the national & international construction industry. The second is an analysis of the industry's input structure in construction production, which can be measured by the ratios of materials, services and labors from home and abroad. This paper revealed the following points.
· The total production value of the world's construction industry in 2011 is 10,410 million US$ (837.1 trillion yen), and the nominal value is increasing year by year. Taking the ratio of the total production value of the whole world, it has remained stable and in a range of 6.80 to 7.52% (in 1995-2011 years). (see Table 2) · In comparison of country-specific construction industry total production value of China in 2011 is 20.2% of the world's total, followed by the United States is 10.2%, Japan accounted for 7.1%. (see Fig. 4) · In every country, the size of gross value added in the total production is different. Brazil, Lithuania and the United States are as high as 50%, on the contrary, China and Taiwan are lower value of exceed 20%. (see Fig. 5) · In a cluster analysis based on the configuration ratio of the input structure, for example, the three countries such as China, Taiwan and South Korea, have become clear that there is a large difference from other countries. It is suggested that the terms of the geographical proximity and the size of the construction investment has been affected to the classification result. (see Fig. 7) · As for the ratio to procure construction materials and services only within the country (the domestic sufficiency rate), China has the highest 94.9%, so, the country is dependent only 5.1% in foreign countries. On the other hand, Malta depends on foreign countries in the ratio of 49.4%. There is a trend that the higher the total production value, the higher the domestic sufficiency ratios. (see Table 3)
In one country's National I-O tables (NIOT), foreign sections are aggregated into one. On the other hand, the ICIO clearly recognize foreign countries and the breakdown trade value of them are concretely expressed. The WIOD tables are as such, and it is possible to pick up the national and/or international business relationships between industries. Fortunately, the “construction industry” can have a common recognition between countries according to the ISIC industrial classification system. So, each country's national statistics and the WIOD tables have also been created consistently. Therefore, the scope of "construction industry" which is the main interest of the study can have a unified recognition between multiple countries. Although this paper clearly stated the difference of contents and features of the industry, it is difficult to explain the reasons clearly. If the "construction industry" could be subdivided into architectural sector and civil engineering sector, for example, it would be more beneficial for concise comparison. That is one of the limits in the WOID as for an analytical tool. It will need to step into a wide range analysis on other data, or narrow down the target countries will also needed.
This paper focused on the input structure of the industry. In the next, similar analysis of the production structure will be performed.
The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics of the origin of the earliest wooden structures in China: specifically, we worked to identify the process of development of architectural technology in the Yellow River basin of northern China from cave dwellings to structures with a wooden pillar and then to wooden structures. For this objective, we investigated the research materials from the excavation of structures in China from the Neolithic Age, focusing on the Yellow River basin of northern China. The main target of our research was pit dwellings with wooden pillars, semi-pit dwellings and ground-level dwellings in the earliest stage. As a matter of chronological order, the most primitive type of wooden structure developed into ground-level dwellings in the earliest stage in the Yellow River basin and further progressed to dwellings with post-and-lintel construction built on the base. We found that central pillars had appeared in the base-to-ridge post style among semi-pit dwellings, which had developed from the pit dwellings with wooden pillars, and among the earliest ground-level dwellings. Earlier, in the case of cave dwellings with wooden pillars, one of the pillars added to the dwellings was built on the ground of the cave, reaching the top of the structure. Hence, we confirmed that in those cave dwellings with wooden pillars, there was no division between the supporting pillar and the superstructure. Cave dwellings with that type of wooden pillar running from the ground to the top had the base-to-ridge post structure in the sense that the support pillar and the superstructure were not separate. We concluded that the base-to-ridge post structure was already present as early as the time wooden pillars were added to cave dwellings.