The purpose of this study is to extract defect-forecasting method by influencing factors of the apartment construction which become the nationwide concern due to recent tremendous casualties on korean apartment housing For this, the study tried to forecast defect occurrence by presenting a regression formula when the defect factors analysed to have affected the defect occurrence were interwoven with each other ; the construction company, the construction method and contract method As the regression formula for estimation of defect occurrence suggested in this study clearly is expected to include most of the major construction types available in korea, it will be of benefit as a useful and indispensable data for an improved level of defect management business that is facing with establishing of the specialized company for defect repair(or mending) and maintenance.
We have examined how to compose multiple-section resonators to attenuate air-conditioning duct noise. Regarding characteristics of resonance frequency the maximum transmission loss was produced when the resonators had a space of one-fourth of the resonance wavelength. Regarding double-section resonators the equal value of the absorption loss to the transmission loss was obtained by making normalized acoustic resistance of the up-stream resonator "R+1" against "R" of the down-stream resonator. And we stated possibility of applying to air-conditioning ducts by comparing the frequency characteristics of multiple-section resonators.
The purpose of this study is to survey the colors of streets in old and new city areas in Japan and Europe, and to describe the present status of the streets comprehensively taking into account their historical aspects. A series of surveys were conducted to study colors seen in the streets in four city areas in Japan, namely, Imai, Kawagoe, Nihonbashi, and Shibuya, and five city areas in Europe, namely, Gent, Telc, Salzburg, Wien, and Stuttgart. Data collected in surveys were analyzed in terms of the Munsell color system, Hue, Value, and Chroma. In the streets of historical city areas, the colors of natural materials dominate in both Japan and Europe. In the streets of new city areas by contrast, decorations use many different colors. Streets in Japan show high fraction of achromatic parts and a large variation in Value. Main colors of buildings in Europe are of limited variety, except for decorations in lower levels where many colors are seen.
A new colorimetry technique by color video images is developed and named "Video Colorimetry". A digital camera is colorimetrically calibrated using a colorimeter, a xenon lamp, and color samples. The calibration describes the device dependent characteristics of the camera as a series of regression functions. In the actual measurement, the calibration functions transfer the video signal values RGB on a digital color image into the absolute values of the CIE 1931 tristimulus values XYZ pixel by pixel. The XYZ values of each pixel are transferred into the absolute values of color coordinates xy. For light sources, correlated color temperature is also calculated. The accuracy of the video colorimetry is validated by comparison with the colorimeter.
The investigation for indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in air-tight house was carried out. The results are as follows, (1) The thermal environment in summer and winter season, the temperature of the living room is varied from 20℃ to 28℃. (2) In summer, electric energy consumption of the air conditioner and the hot water is about 30% respectively, the refrigerator is about 11%, lighting is about 3%, the mechanical ventilation is about 7% and the electromagnetic cooking heater is about 4%. (3) In winter, electric energy consumption of the floor heating is about 44%, the hot water is about 23%, the lighting and the electromagnetic cooking heater is 1% respectively, the refrigerator is about 3% and the mechanical ventilation is 2%.
The data processing equipment that is installed in computer rooms generates a large amount of heat, which is unevenly distributed in the room and may result in undesirably high local temperatures at places within the room. When the air-conditioning ceases to function due to power outages or system failure, this uneven distribution of temperatures in the room can become conspicuously large and result in stopping of the equipment operation or damage to the equipment. Our research involved the investigations listed below, with the objective of developing a convenient means of estimating the temperature distribution and the maximum temperature in a computer room where heat is generated unevenly after the air-conditioning system ceases to function. (1) The temperature variation characteristic was evaluated from the results of full-scale model experiments. (2) The factors that determine the standard deviation of the room temperature were identified and their effects were evaluated by means of multiple regression analysis. (3) The factors that determine the standard deviation of the room temperature were used to indicate a method of easily estimating the maximum temperature within a room where the amount of heat generated is distributed unevenly.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the physiological and psychological response of the human body at various air temperature and humidity conditions in summer and winter. Experiment were conducted using 2 Japanese young males under 15 kinds of the following combined conditions :air temperature of 24℃,28℃ and 32℃ and relative humidity of 50%,60%,70%,80% and 90% under still air in which the mean radiant temperature was nearly equal to air temperature. The following results were obtained : 1) Seasonal differences of the relationship between mean skin temperature and thermal sensation vote (TSV) were suggested. Neutral TSV is represented in MST of 33.8℃ in summer and of 33.6℃ in winter. 2) Seasonal differences of the relationship between humid operative temperature(HOT) and TSV were represented. Neutral TSV is represented in HOT of 24.9℃ in summer and of 25.7℃ in winter. 3)Seasonal differences of metabolism and evaporative heat loss were found.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the environmental factors upon the concentration of formaldehyde using small chambers and to develop a prediction method of indoor air quality in houses. The results of the measured emission rates in the small chambers are asfollows. 1. The emission rate increases as temperature rises and its influence is larger than those of the other factors: the humidity, the ventilation rate, the concentration and the sink effect. 2. The emission process influences upon the emission rates and the process is influenced by these factors. 3. The characteristics of the emission rates influenced by these factors obtained from the experiments using the small chambers meet the characteristics of the calculated values using the proposed simple equations.
In this paper, the Typical Weather Year data for 25 main cities in China were developed for the purposes of building simulations. The source data are the observed weather data with the interval of three hours. First solar radiation is estimated with the total cloud cover, temperature, humidity and wind speed. The Typical Weather Year consists of 12 typical months. The typical months were selected with the average dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, solar radiation and wind speed, as well as the cumulative distribution functions. The three-hour interval data were interpolated with the Fourier Analyses.
The aim of this study is to estimate distribution of meteorological factors in high resolution in order to thermally evaluate a land use in urban area. In this study, distributions of monthly mean average, maximum and minium air temperature were estimated by using 3 layered back propagation neural network system. The input data sets for this neural network system were (1) height above sea level, (2) normalized vegetation index, which was calculated by using LANDSAT TM data and (3) distance from seashore. The supervised data set for learning were meteorological data observed at 30 stations around the Osaka Bay. R^2 value and the sum total of error show a sufficient accuracy of this method with neural network system in comparison with the estimating method with multiple regression, which we have used before. The addition of distance from sea shore was recognized to improve an accuracy an estimation of air temperature both in sea side area and in inland area. After checking the over learning problem on the neural network system, distribution of monthly mean minimum air temperature around the Osaka Bay was drawn by this method.
Detailed maps of vegetative cover are used for analyzing and evaluating urban environments. The use of remote sensing data is an effective way to create such maps because these data are obtained with a large area repeatedly. However, since much small vegetation exists in urban areas and such vegetation is observed as mixels, it is difficult to classify them into vegetative areas and non-vegetative ones. This paper utilizes a neural network technique to estimate the location of vegetation in the mixels from the image which is generated from the occupation ratio of vegetation in a pixel. The scope of this estimation method is when the spatial resolution of the data is smaller than vegetation. In this case, the mixels exist only in the boundary and parts of the vegetation constituting mixels are contained in the neighboring pixels. Therefore, this study assumes that the location of the vegetation in a mixel can be estimated from the occupation ratio of the neighborhood pixels. Several patterns of vegetation cover locations in the mixels were estimated from eight neighborhood pixel patterns using the neural network technique. As a result, the location of the vegetation in the mixels was able to be estimated when mixels were divided into nine pixels, and the effectiveness of this method was demonstrated from detailed vegetation shapes.
We obtained the following data of a structure generating cold air drainage flow. 1) A remarkable cold air drainage flow was observed all through the night in the area. 2) Wind velocity was less than 1.0m/s but the air temperature was apparently lower than the outskirts of the area. 3) The heat collectible area largely affects the strength of cold air drainage flow (temperature drop and wind velocity). 4) Role of vegetation cold heat source depends on the lay of the land in the upper area on a slope and the use of land. 5) Crowned vegetation may generate more cold air.
In order to measure the human psychological responses in detail to thermal stimuli and to evaluate thermal environment based on the responses, a word-choice method with a unipolar scale was proposed. Experiments were conducted in summer under various air temperature combinations (18, 22, 26, 29, 33℃) and relative humidities (50, 80%). Japanese sixteen healthy (8 females, 8 males) students were exposed to the experimental condition for 60 minutes in the climate chamber. The subjects were asked their psychological state using both the word-choice method with a unipolar scale and the conventional rating-scale method. As a result, Japanese are used to using atatakai (warm) and suzushii (cool) as adjectives indicating not only the degree of thermal sensation but also as expressions of comfortable state different from atui (hot) and samui (cold), respectively. Based on the new method, SET indicating thermal neutrality was found to be 27.1℃. The word-choice method with a unipolar scale can indicate thermal sensation and comfort as well as the conventional rating-scale method. Although it was difficult to distinguish between thermal neutral, thermal comfort and pleasantness using the conventional rating-scale method, the proposed method was able to indicate subtle psychological distinction regarding thermal environment.
Duration of air-conditioner use about college age students in Kyoto was surveyed in summer, when Active use was distinguished from Passive exposure, (1)Averaged duration of daily use was 5.6 hours for P use while 3.0 hours for A use and total use was 8.6 hours,(2)Duration of P use did not correlate with outdoor climate,(3)Duration of A use changed about 1 hour for 3℃ change of daily mean outdoor temperature,(4)In August and September, duration of A use did not correlate with outdoor climate,(5)Some ways of thinking on air-conditioner use, constitutions and life style correlated the duration of use, although some relationships were weakened or disappeared in August and September.
This case study aimed to analyze the changing process of dwelling environment in the suburban detached housing area developed in the high growth period. The houses were the containers of families, so they changed with the transformation of the resident's life-stages. The houses were also the social representation of resident's life-styles. They enlarged or rebuild their houses not only for space, but also for the alteration of the style of dwellings. Moreover the houses were the elements of the regional dwelling environment. The changes in a lot had influences each other in a block or street.
This study aims at getting knowlegde to examine to correct the pharmacies making of function of preparation too much and to offer of medical treatment, health care and welfare service from the viewpoint of .community facilities planning. First, the relations between 152 pharmacies in Kobe and the medical facilities from the receptive conditions of prescriptions were explained from the questionnaire investigation result. Next, the case of actual condition of the use at 10 pharmacies which locate in the commercial area in Kobe and the relations between the pharmacies and the medical facilities were explained from the listening comprehension investigation result.
This research aims to grasp the actual conditions of the use of smoking room in hospitals, where patients can freely smoke, to maintain health environment for non-smoker. We selected three hospitals including a mental one and investigated behavior of users at the smoking rooms in them. The characteristics of inpatients in the mental hospital and the differences of behavior between the inpatients and outpatients in the other two hospitals were discussed. Finally, we examined the capacity and size of smoking rooms by using of the queuing theory to propose a proper number of seats in smoking room.
The aim of this study is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of the composition of exterior space in Japanese contemporary architecture. Exterior spatial elements are defined from superposition of two characters; solid-plane and artificial natural. Compositions of exterior space are formed by arrangement of those exterior spatial elements. So 16 types of composition are found. Comparing the every type, three compositional actions of architectural parts are clarified. Finally three fundamental compositions are pointed out ; complemented relation between buildings and volumes of trees, hierarchical integration of buildings and other elements, emphasis of arrangements forms.
This Paper discusses the possibilities and contributions of establishing 'design-oriented components', which provide flexible design for the A/E, and concludes follows. 1. The production system of component manufacturers has enough flexibility to accept special orders from the A/E since they have changed from production for stock to that for order. 2. There is no reason why the A/E selects ready-made components only for his design, nevertheless the idea of open system has been based on such components manufactured by the production system for stock. 3. It is essential to establish design-oriented components with which their information is represented by a means of operating their attribute easily. Such components are expected to gather A/E's needs for new developments by component manufactures.
The SI housing, which separates the skeleton and infill, is regarded as a constriction system, which is capable of adjusting to the individual requirements of residents continuously, has drawn considerable attention. And also an evaluation method to quantify the capacity of skeletons is required. This research shows the results on the evaluation of the skeletons operated by specialists. The characteristic items of skeleton were compared with the evaluation, and the influence of each item on the "ease of renovation" was revealed. Using the results, multiple regression analyses were operated, and the evaluation formulas of the capacity of skeletons were proposed.
We developed the multi-user system for the experiments of way-finding with verbal communication in a virtual maze. We experimented competitive-cooperative way-finding with the multi-user system: two subjects make a pair and two pairs compete with each other in finding a goal. We also experimented cooperative way-finding: four subjects cooperate in finding a goal. According to these experiments, we have found seven kinds of way-finding behaviors, state-transition from one behavior to another, kinds of communication words, and characteristics of image map drawn by subjects.
Visual search at subway stations, while subjects transfer or find the exit, were discussed and compared with way-finding in a small maze. The fixation durations on signs and ceiling were distributed from shorter to longer duration. However, durations on the floor were shorter. The fixation movement patterns on signs were repetitive and concentrated. Slanting fixations were not only beyond the occluding edge of the wall, but also beyond column, pedestrians, a stair step and ceiling. After the entire path was learned, number of fixations on the wall, column, and sign decreased, and those on the floor, ceiling, and pedestrians increased.
We discuss an evaluation method of architectural space. In the discussion, we propose several kinds of procedure to understand architectural space. The most basic way is to watch the physical boundary of space which relate to various characteristics of architectural space. Through this idea we can caluculate the numerical value for architectural planning. We have already analyzed several cases of space in this way and published two academic papers. In this time, some kinds of space boundary are automatically organized, evaluated through a certain procedure of GA and evoluted to the better space. Our trial was successufully conducted.
The objective of this paper is to get clues to improve the environmental conditions of Yamanobe area in Kyoto based on the consideration of their spatial quality. Yamanobe area in Kyoto means the mountainside area of three mountains (Higashiyama, Kitayama, and Nishiyama) which surround Kyoto City. Yamanobe area is historically characterized from the facts that it was funeral area from the ancient times, a lot of discriminated people dwelled there until the recent times from the Middle Ages, there were many shrines and temples, a lot of places to enjoy nature was located there in the Edo era, and so on. Although Yamanobe area was very different from the inner urban area in terms of spatial, social and cultural quality, those two areas have long interrelated each other. However, Yamanobe area is much changed especially in high economic growth period after the second world war. The authors make the changing process clearly based on field studies and analysis of historical maps. Also, we want to extract the spatial quality of Yamanobe area through the analysis. In this paper, we take up Toribeno area (mountainside of the Mt. Amidagamine in Higashiyama area) in Kyoto, that is one of the most typical Yamanobe area in Kyoto.
This paper introduces the concept of 'space use' that means the vertical distribution of floor use, and examines and analyzes the transition of the space use in Gobanwari-district in Nagoya CBD from 1988 to 1998. First, existing studies concerning geography, architecture and urban planning fields are reviewed, then the concept of 'space use' is shown. Schematic models on space use in Nagoya CBD are proposed. Results of a factor analysis on space use transition suggest the influences of distance from Sakae crossroad. Specialization trends of CBD functions (not only horizontal but vertical) in each sub-district are examined.
Multiple regression analysis technique was applied to estimate the amount of children's play spaces in urban school districts. Predictor variables described the primary school and parks, which proved to be with a high capacity to generate children's play spaces and with a large play space share. A limited number of variables explained up to 98.3% of total variance: play lots (number), block parks (number), neighborhood parks (area), district or larger parks (area) and the primary school (area of the unbuilt site). Estimation was improved with multiplier variables of park content within the surrounding land use context and park distribution.
This report is based on the result of our second report clarified the necessity of noticing the pattern of land use around a weather point for the investigation of urban environment which alleviates warming-dehumidity of a city. Therefore, we grasped 5 types of land use around 111 weather points in 1960 or 1990 by using cluster analysis and 7 patterns of transition of land use for 30 years. Then, we examined the relationship between the patterns of transition and temperature-humidity change in some types of meteorological conditions with the contrast case on the urbanization, and verified the regulation force by the transition of land use for the temperature-humidity change using the series I of multidimensional quantification method. Above all, we investigated the elements of land use around weather point with contribution toward alleviating high-temperature and dehumidification of a city.
Lessons learned from the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake include the importance of seismic structural planning, public facilities to shelters and the necessity of emergency response manuals. In Hokkaido a cold, snowy region it is essential to provide heating condition in refuge shelters. We administered a questionnaire on disaster prevention and management related to designated refuge shelters in Kushiro City. This paper describes provisional refuge planning for districts from the view point of the evaluation of the disaster prevention functions of designated refuge shelters.
The workshop that is one of the participation community planning is worthy of notice, since it provides the group learning, imagination, and decision of citizens' unrestricted and independent. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the workshop that was held in making the urban master plan and the correspondence of administration about citizens' opinions. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The administration carried out it's accountability for explanation about the citizens' opinion 2. To present the draft of the urban plan was effective 3. The workshop was effective to collect the citizen opinion and the certain amount of the opinions were reflected in the plan 4. The workshop was effective to extract the district specific character
Housing Master Plans by the prefectural government showed the following characteristics about housing and living information, housing and living education. 1) The efforts to open the housing and living information to the public have been done. 2) Many prefectural governments carried out the program of the housing and living education. It was a excellent result that the housing sections was closely connected with education sections and welfare sections. We hope that they interchange the experience depending on the geographical and cultural features of their area.
This study aimed at investigating a better management system of a condominium for promoting reconstruction through the case study at Chiba-shi of the suburb in Tokyo Metropolis where there are many large-scale condominiums. As the results, although they have relatively higher capability of consensus-building in management, they have many problems on it especially in the initial stage of condominiums reconstruction project. As the most critical problem, it is pointed out that difficulty to reach an agreement of reconstruction for large-scale condominiums due to various type of owners existed including aged owners, young owners, absent owners, owners with inadequate affordability and so on. As conclusions, it is important to improve role of homeowners' association and public system on this matter. For this end, it is necessary for the homeowners' association to have a long-term maintenance and management plan. And, It should be taken into consideration of a social system for condominiums reconstruction to easily reach an agreement on reconstruction with various type of the owners like aged owners, young owners, absent owners, owners with inadequate affordability, and to bring up the specialists for supporting homeowners' association.
Under the objective to confirm whether we, Japanese, have been influenced by the rational philosophy of cold region housing or not, a specific discussion from the view point of historical perspective was presented. The historical materials authors focused on, show the marvelous reality that quite a few people were killed by the poor housing philosophy against the severe cold climate around Ezochi, particularly at Etorofu Island, when the invasion of Russian Empire was temporally took place approximately during from Kansei up to Bunka era. These people were compelled to move to live on the ground of not only the protection from Russian invasion but also the development of Etorofu Island. The lack of appropriate philosophy for cold region housing at that era was pointed out more clearly comparing with a certain Russian dwelling at Uruppu Island, adjacent island to Etorofu where suitable measures and devices for the cold climate were observed.
This is a study on the significance of the employment of yatoitoryo with Edobakufu-fushinkata. The point of this paper is as follows; 1.Yatoitoryo were newly employed in the Anei and Kansei era. 2.Sakuryohanmai of jiwaritoryo was changed or tried to changed in the Genroku, Kyoho, Enkyo and Horeki era. Sakuryohanmai of yatoitoryo was changed in the Kyowa era. 3.Sakuryohanmai of jiwaritoryo was fixed after the Enkyo era, but that of yatoitoryo was not since the Anei era, and both were employed since then.
In the beginning of the 18^<th> century, KENNIN-JI Temple had planed to rebuild their HATTO (the main hall), and started to realize its plan as the most important project. But it was difficult to raise funds for the re construction. Therefore, it was not until 1765 that the ceremony for completion of framework took place. At that time, various steps were taken to raise funds. And making housing lots at their compound was a very available means for KENNIN-JI Temple to increase their revenue. So they intended to raise money on their estate for the reconstruction of HATTO.
This document discusses the activities of the SAKUSHO and KOSAKUSHO operating at ISE-JINGU from the ancient times until the Middle Ages, and also the authority of the architects managed by these organizations. (1) The SAKUSHO was constructed centering on SAKUSHOBUGYOU, and one or two priests knowledgeable in construction were appointed in the SAKUSHOBUGYOU. In the KOSAKUSHO, a qualified GON-NEGI was appointed for both the NAIKU and GEKU. (2) The JINGUKO paid appointment fees to the SAKUSHO and ZOUGUSHO for TAKUMIZOROE. When replacing DAIKUSHIKI however, large differences in the appointment fees arose due to the status of the craftsman and whether or not there were other competitors.
At first, the appartement du Roi in the north wing of the chateau-neuf of Versailles consisted of 7 salons on which plafonds the Seven Planets' theme was painted. The virtues and the scenes in Antiquity that were arranged around the plafonds are related to Louis XIV's virtues and the functions of seven salons. The same thing can be said of the appartement de la Reine. However, the first plan is different from the executed plan. Comparing these two plans, it is probable that the Seven Planets' theme influenced the last that had 3 salon each before and after the chamber.
I tried to clear the meaning of the architectural behavior named "Kokorotakumi" through the interpretation of "Eigamonogatari". In the story, "Tono" built the "Midou" as the mortal place and the place being possible to be born in the Pure Land. The essential dwelling in the "Midou" was realized by uniting the "Kokoro" and the body. And besides, We can see that there's the Pure Land in the "Kokoro". Therefore, "Kokoro" is indispensable to build the "Midou" and dwell in it.
This is a study on the inter-textual movement of meaning-historicity in urban architecture, through a critique of the notion of analogy of Aldo ROSSI 1931-97 who is Italian architect and theoretician. In his opinion, the History appears through the typological permanence and the structure of meanings in the urban architecture. Through the collective memory, it is revealed with the urban traces and the sedimented meanings. In that time, it embodies the "place" of the collective memory. It appears that the memory of architecture can be inscribed in the "analogical city".
The purposes of this report are to define the chronological change of the cities and how these cities have been intended to make the character of it by researching the landscape regulation of the city type of eighty-nine cities and special wards which were settled from 1978 to 1998. The words regarding the landscape regulation, such as Landscape, Nature, History, Character, and Culture were used in highly percentage in every period. The civil participation program has been increasing year by year. Registered buildings for landscape preservation show tendency to exclude trees. The object for subsidization has described clearly. Regarding the penalty, it tends not apply to for a term of proclamation. It tends to make the characteristic city by some zonings, registered buildings, and their action plans.
In Cost Planning, Collaboration among the 4 fields of Cost Planning, namely Construction Method, Structure, Design and Facility are important. This paper proposes the use of Architectural Database in a Web-oriented Interactive Rendering System for Cost Planning in the Early Stage of Working Design. Interactive Rendering of Building Models is possible by the use of DHTML and DirectAnimation. Architectural Databases are updated by FIT and can be referenced in the design process with the estimated cost. Data-collection and Presentation is improved by CGI and TDC. Case study of an office building is undertaken. The result shows efficiency of the system.