Present-day public housing redevelopment attempts to take full advantage of the open spaces provided by former apartment complexes in its landscape design. There is an increasing need to consider apartment complex design from a rebuilding and repurposing perspective in architecture and urban planning: how do we make use of and build upon existing external and internal spaces?
Public housing development in post-war Japan sought to shift development away from city centres towards consolidated hillside areas. At the same time, due to remaining safety and economic concerns in building construction at the time, there was a need for urban planning that could overcome the limitations imposed by the natural environment. One example of a building design that arose from such circumstances is the compact, planar, Y-shaped “star house”. The star house was devised as a building type that could better accommodate topographically irregular land on which flat plate building construction was difficult. Star house apartment complexes were subsequently constructed across the country by government bodies such as the Japan Housing Corporation (JHC).
However, until now, there has been no research that has empirically clarified what characteristics a star house possesses, nor the characteristics of the locations where they have been constructed in the development of actual residential apartment complexes. We have, therefore, clarified the architectural characteristics of star houses in detail based on a case study. The subject of the case study is the Ozasa-danchi, an apartment complex in Fukuoka City developed by the Fukuoka Prefectural Housing Association (FPHA) in the latter half of the 1950s. The Ozasa-danchi was developed by arranging multiple star houses (Y-shaped and V-shaped houses) without significantly altering the highly uneven land. Using plan data we obtained by surveying these FPHA star houses, we performed comparative analyses of FHPA star houses with JHC star houses. From the results, it was determined that there are differences in the shapes of the two types, and that the FPHA star houses were designed in consideration of the FHPA’s financial state, and were adapted to suit the local hot and humid climate. The FHPA star houses also preserve the essential points of the design of a star house, such as its compact plane shape. The next report will consider the topographical characteristics of the locations where star houses have been constructed, based on the architectural characteristics of star houses revealed by this report.
This study aims to clarify spatial structures in contemporary Thai houses based on passive design strategies. The functional arrangement according to heat avoidance techniques for thermal conditions was focused. Firstly, Thailand geographical conditions and traditional house’s spatial structure were outlined. Then, the spatial structure of the contemporary house was investigated on functional occupancy on perimeter and sectional level area with their shapes. The characteristics of contemporary and traditional houses are especially analyzed throughout patterns. The result suggests an inherit from tradition in the spatial structure even though it is not the dominant character in the contemporary houses.
In recent times, there has been an increasing demand for childcare, especially for infants below 3 years of age, in Japan. This has led to a massive expansion of licensed nursery schools. Nursery facilities are required to have at least the minimum capacity size and area per child as prescribed by the guidelines. However, guidelines for appropriate group size and space composition in nursery rooms for one-year-olds have not been mentioned so far.
The purpose of this research is to propose a design method for nursery rooms of one-year-olds that suits the group size, from the perspective of it being "an environment that allows children opportunities to do things independently."
This proposed design considers the following points: 1) Children are not disturbed by the activities of one another. 2) Children's waiting time is short. 3) Childminders should understand that children mostly want to do things by themselves and in their own pace.
We conducted observation studies in four facilities located in areas around Tokyo. Two of the four have a capacity of 20 or more children in the one-year-old class, the rest have about 10 to 15. They are private licensed nursery schools managed by the same operator. We examined how group size affects the daily program, childcare methods, and the way of using the nursery rooms.
A comparison analysis is conducted between the group size of “about 10 to 15” and “more than 20,” from the perspective of whether it creates an environment that allows children opportunities to do things independently.”
The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) The duration from lunch to napping and children’s waiting time is longer in the case of the nursery having “20 or more” one-year-olds. 2) From the behavior of the children and childminders during the transition from lunch to napping, the layout of the eating space, changing space, restroom, and napping space are classified into “HUB type” and “SLIDE type.”
In the “HUB type,” they go to and from the lunch room and restroom centering on the room for napping. Compared with the “SLIDE type”, childminders can easily handle multiple actions at the same time in one place. However, multiple actions are carried out at the same time in the room for napping, and hence, it is difficult to secure quietness and calm.
In the “SLIDE type,” slides are moved into different positions in the room for each activity. Since there is only one kind of action performed in the space, children can spend their time in a calmer environment. Finally, if the group size is “20 or more,” it is preferable to make rooms using slides as partitioning so that these can be moved around the room for each activity, in the transition from lunch to napping. Furthermore, we found that dividing a room with movable wall partitions offers childminders some options, as follows: 1) They can temporarily organize small groups according to the children's developmental stage for each activity. 2) In a calm atmosphere, children have more opportunities to do things independently. 3) Making a buffer-like space, they can easily avoid congestion in a specific area and smoothly shift to the next activity with a time lag.
We explored the relationship between human beings and space under microgravity by analyzing how people communicate with one another in space. In order to create a natural state of communication, we asked people to play with a ball. We studied aspects of human behavior including distances between people, inter-personal angles, spatial angles, and moving ranges as important elements of communication.
We asked research participants to conduct the same movements in both the ISS Japanese experiment module “Kibo” and its mockup on the ground. Our experiments were based on methods derived from previous experiments on the ground, which studied people’s actual experiences of indoor spaces. Participants were asked to relax by tossing a ball back and forth in pairs. Two starting positions were set for this experiment: a standing position, or floating in the ISS, and a horizontal position lying down on the ground. In the starting positions, participants were arranged so they faced one another’s backs, rather than their faces, and were upside down. They were allowed to converse freely while tossing the ball. Such unnatural starting positions were set to discover how human behavior works to gradually induce natural communication.
The dates of the experiments and interview were as follows. Participants in the ISS experiment consisted of two astronauts forming a pair, while participants in its mockup on the ground included 24 people in 12 pairs. In addition to this, we later interviewed an ISS astronaut to evaluate whether the scenes from the experiment were appropriate for natural communication. The small number of case studies limits the research, and the collection of more ISS data remains a matter to be discussed in the future.
The experiments and interview survey clarified the differences in human behavior in orbit and on the ground. The following results were obtained:
- People’s inter-personal distances were 2.5 to 5m on the ground and 1 to 3.5m in orbit. Inter-personal distances in orbit were less than those on the ground.
- There was a tendency for people to prefer face-to-face contact along the longer axis of the indoor space in orbit, much like on the ground.
- In orbit, people floated close to floors, walls and ceilings, and touched them approximately once every 6 seconds when they changed directions. So the functions of floors, walls, and ceilings were different in orbit as opposed to the ground.
- For human communication, it is important for people to meet naturally, face to face. Even if their feet touch the walls or ceiling due to microgravity, it is still important for people to see one another’s faces, face the same direction and position their bodies to face one another.
- In terms of angles for communication, it is suitable not to look down on other people. Angles for natural communication – interpersonal angles, shoulder-to-shoulder angles and angles between bodies – were under 90 degrees in orbit, similar to that on the ground.
This study revealed the tendency for people to behave naturally in orbit, much like on the ground, in terms of the directions of their bodies and their angles. Inter-personal distances and the relationships between people and walls, however, differed. Human communication under microgravity using an object showed some characteristics that were similar and some that were different from that on the ground. We hope these characteristics will help design comfortable living spaces and improve the quality of life in space.
Rain is an important factor in capturing the landscape, and in Japan, rainfall has long been a feature of landscape appreciation. However, in the previous studies, there are many studies discussing rainfall as a negative because it is a factor in the degradation of buildings. Studies about rainfall as a positive, or as the object of landscape appreciation, have not been plentiful. In Japan, there is much rain season, landscape planning and landscape color plans should have been focusing on rainy landscapes.
In this study, rain should be taken into consideration as an important factor in landscape color planning, and the visual effects and impression of colors on façades during rainfall were investigated. Verification experiments were conducted in a rain simulation device that can control rainfall and illuminance.
Experiments were conducted based on an experimental design with four factors of hue (5R / 5Y / 5G / 5PB), Chroma, lightness, and rainfall. In the rainfall simulation experiment, the visual effect of the color based on visual colorimetry, and conducted impression evaluations. The findings obtained by the verification are as follows.
First, in order to examine the color lightness of the visual effect, visual colorimetry by Value of the color was conducted. It was found that the Value of the color got higher during rainfall. The color Hue (5R/5G/5PB) showed that the lightness effect of the color Value was at its maximum in rainfall 11mm/h, and above that the lightness effect of the color Value began decreasing. At the same time, the color of Hue 5Y showed that the lightness effect of the color Value increased as rainfall increased.
Next, in order to examine the color saturation of the visual effect, we conducted visual colorimetry by Chroma of the color. It was found that the Chroma of the color got lower at rainfall. The color of Hue (5Y/5G/5PB) showed that the somber effect of the color Chroma increased with increasing rainfall. Other hand, the color of Hue 5R showed that the somber effect of the color Chroma decreased with increasing rainfall.
Also, in order to examine the texture as an impression of color, we evaluated impression. It was found that the color impression became soft during rainfall. It is thought that the lightness of the color increased because of the rainfall, hence softening the texture of the color. Impression was evaluated in order to examine liveliness as an impression of color. By analysis only the color of Hue 5R took on a lively impression at rainfall, with the effect reaching its maximum when rainfall was at 11mm/h. It is thought that the movement of rain changed because of the rainfall, and the color took on a lively impression through its influence. Finally, impression was evaluated to examine the aesthetic sense of colors. It was demonstrated that only the warm color of Hue (5R/5Y) took on a beautiful impression at rainfall. We believe that the movement of rain was changed by the rainfall, and the color took on a beautiful impression by its influence.
From our findings, the relationship between rainfalls and the visual effects and impressions of color were confirmed, and there were differences in the evaluation depending on the Hue and the amount of rainfall. In landscape color planning, it was to consider the influence of rainfall is important for a fascinating landscape. This study will show basic important references of such new landscape color plan.
Collaboration is becoming important in design process today. Design was for increasing the efficiency of industry in the past, and the role of design has been changed as the society has developed and as we have had various kinds of needs. The problems of design are getting complex. In order to tackle such problems, the importance of collaboration has increased.
In this research, we focused on using VR as a design tool in collaboration, and this paper aims to clarify the possibility of VR which stands for virtual reality in the collaborative design process. We used HMD, which is one of the most famous tools for immersive virtual reality. It can work effectively in design process because it will help to imagine the designed space for many people who join the process and are not necessarily good at imagining the designed space.
Design experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of immersive VR on design process. 12 participants were divided into 6 pairs, and one person who is studying architecture in each group works as a designer, and the other works as a client. Through three critics in one experiment, a house was designed.
Three preliminary consideration were conducted in order to analyze the result. First consideration was about virtual reality. Through the consideration, it is examined that the virtual reality experience can be regarded as substantially same as the real space experience, and it was also considered that HMD can give users such virtual experience of space. Second consideration was about experiencing the space with body sensations. The importance of the experience is considered through referring the definition of virtual reality and considering the relationship human body and space. Thirdly, it is pointed out that the move in the VR space is an important aspect of experiencing space.
We focused on the design process of pair 1 and pair 6, because they include some noticeable scenes which should be discussed deeply, and three scenes are picked up and discussed. In first scene, we can see that it became easier for users to give feedback to designed architecture based on their own taste or needs. In second scene, it has seen that user’s hidden needs were revealed and the user’s frame of needs has changed through the experience of VR space. In third scene, we can see that it became easier for users to recognize the complex relationship of designed spaces by walking around and looking around in the VR space.
It is concluded that immersive VR is the design tool which makes it easier for users to imagine the real space, to join the discussion more actively, to make the frame of user change and to recognize the relationship of multiple spaces through the move in the virtual space.
Owing to the falling birthrate and an aging, declining population, it is considered important to sustain regional images, especially in rural areas to maintain the vitality of the region while incorporating external entities.
One cultural resource found all over the country are shrines. Many shrines have long contributed to nurturing and maintaining the ties among local residents through rituals. Although the entities that support the shrine and its rituals are mainly "Shinshoku (priest)" and "Ujiko (parishioner), " in areas of ongoing depopulation, it would be desirable to build a relationship with the "Sukeisha (worshipper)" who contribute to protecting and maintaining the shrine although living outside thereby generating vitality in the region.
This study focuses on Tenkawa Daibenzaiten-sha Shrine in Nara Prefecture, which was revived from devastation and where worshippers not only pray or participate in annual events but have also performed new activities such as “Tenkawa Tatakagurako” (hereinafter referred to as “Kagurako”) for 20 years, to understand the reasons behind the shrine’s prosperity and the actual condition of Kagurako, which is supposed to a primary reasons for its prosperity. Based on this, we examine the creation of human, physical and social capital through the activities of worshippers. The purpose of this research to examine the development of activities by nonresidents through ko in the area.
The direct opportunity for establishing Kagurako was a debt-laden shrine report accompanying the reconstruction of the shrine. The earlier efforts of the shrine, increase in worshippers, enhancement of festivals, establishment of the foundation on which the cultural activities of the shrine are based, led to ko and the development of activities as a compounding factor. The above-mentioned efforts include rebuilding and reigniting the tradition of festivals in cooperation with entertainers outside the area, keeping the shrine premises as a sanctuary always clean, and using the treasures and historical resources at appropriate times.
The Kagurako is not based on the "neighborhood" or the "same belief" traditionally understood as the principle of uniting ko, and is characteristic in offering extraordinary experiences (qigong, yoga, walk, making ceramics and so on) around the shrine in which people can participate casually. The management of ko with these characteristics has led to the increase in activities seen after the Prospering period, and realized in human capital, which supports the festivals, physical capital contributing to regional cultural activities, and social capital bringing external support to the area during a disaster.
As mentioned, to develop the activities of nonresidents in the area an effective technique is to offer extraordinary experiences in which people can participate casually through “ko” while trying to enhance the religious culture based on the history of the shrine. This can also increase the sustainability of the area where the shrine is located, as can be seen from the fact that several households, attracted by the charm of the shrine, have moved into the village in recent years.
In Japan, the unprecedented population decline is proceeding. Therefore, the construction of a sustainable compact city is an urgent issue in local cities. With the amendment of the Urban Renaissance Special Measure Law, which came into effect in 2014, it was possible to formulate the location adequacy plan that integrates urban planning and private facility induction. In formulating the plan, the setting of the city function instruction area and the residence instruction area is required. It is also essential to set target values for problem solving and to quantify expected effects due to achievement of goals. As of June 5, 2018, 164 municipalities have already formulated plans among 1,712 municipalities nationwide. In the future, it is certain that plans will continue to increase. On the other hand, analyzing the plan that is formulated is a problem that the viewpoint of reducing CO2 emissions is insufficient. There is no doubt that balanced policies, including not only environmental aspects but economic aspects, are important for thinking about the compact city. For this reason, this study aims to devise Low Carbonization Eveluation Method that supplements the setting method that is generally adopted in the study of Residence Instruction Area.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport aims at the "compact city + network" that realizes a virtuous circle through collaboration between a site location plan and regional public traffic restructuring plan. Meanwhile, in local cities, public transportation facilities are not satisfied as in the metropolitan area, the degree of dependence on cars is extremely high at present. In the future, rapid development of automatic driving technology is expected, there is a high possibility that this trend will not change significantly even if the aging society progresses. In this study, commuting distance by automobiles with high dependency in local cities was chosen as an evaluation indicator. Utility as an evaluation indicator was clarified through verification of CO2 emission reduction effects resulting from shortening commuting distance due to centralized urban areas. Also, the low carbonization evaluation method has been devised that can extract districts contributing to low carbonization.
1) Estimation of commuting distance
As an effect that can be expected by consolidating employees into residence induction area, the method of estimating CO2 emissions associated with automobile commuting by employees for each town and street.
2) Setting of the “low carbonization area”
Based on the commuting distances, a reference value was set that can discriminate towns and streets which contributes to reduction of CO2 emissions. Next, by utilizing the reference value, a layer related to low carbonization (low carbon contribution area) was set after dividing all towns and streets into multiple areas according to reduction contribution degree.
3) Comparative verification between low carbon contribution area and actual living induction area
A method of utilizing the Low Carbonization Evaluation Method was devised through comparative verification between the low carbonization area and the residence instruction area under consideration in research target cities.
In the future, municipalities that are working on the formulation of the location adequacy plan can utilize as a logical basis when considering the setting of the residence instruction area, and municipalities that have already formulated plans can use as a basis for review every five years.
Community action groups are expected as new groups to support the life of the community instead of territorial groups. In recent years, “Community design” that the expert support to forming community action groups to solve regional problems is getting a lot of attention.
In our preceding paper, we classified members in community action groups into 3 types of participation motivation: “type of using spare time”, “type of desire for recognition from others” and “type of self-actualization needs”. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between the roles of members and the motivations to participate community action groups.
First, We prepared 12-items of roles of members in community action groups（Table2）. We performed the questionnaire survey by the mutual vote method by using the 12-items targeting 106 members in 8 groups. By factor analysis using answers to the questionnaire, it was clarified that the construction of roles of members in community action groups was composed of 3 factors: “Diplomatic and intellectual role” factor, “Leadership role” factor and “Behind the scenes role” factor. (Table4)
Second, The role types of members in 8 groups were classified by cluster analysis as follows: “type of all-around leader”, “type of supporter” and “type of follower”(Fig. 5). The members of “type of all-around leader” showed strong leadership and play a lot of roles in the groups, especially to provide and gather the information, to bring their cooperators and to consider about their activities. The members of “type of supporter” were situation to support and always cooperative with activities of groups. The members of “type of follower” played the leading role in comparison to the other types.
Third, we investigated the relationship between the roles of members and the motivations to participate community action groups. The result was that there were tendencies to be a lot of members of “type of desire for recognition from others” and a few members of “type of using spare time” in members of “type of all-around leader”, and a lot of members of “type of self-actualization needs” and a few members of “type of desire for recognition from others” in members of “type of supporter”. On the other hand, there were tendencies to be a few members of “type of self-actualization needs”. (Table6)
Finally, we investigated how did the action type of groups have an effect on the roles of members. The result was that there were tendencies to be a lot of members of “type of supporter” and a few members of “type of follower” in “action type of player”. On the other hand, there were tendencies to be a lot of members of “type of follower” and a few members of “type of supporter” in “action type of area manager” (Table7). And the participation motivation of members had an effect on both of the action type of groups and the roles of members, in other words, the action type of groups made complex the relationship between the roles of members and the motivations to participate community action groups (Fig9, 10, 11).
Traditionally, the Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya was only introduced as a contracting company for construction founded in Kobe in 1888, the background of the establishment, its motivation, the content of work, etc. were not clear. The purpose of this article is to show from the application for establishment of the Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya which is far unknown so far, to clarify the history and to clarify the personality of the company from the consideration of people involved in the company.
The Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya wished to establish in October 1888, permission was issued within the month. The company was established by participation of Sigenori SATO and others to the Senzaki-gumi of 100,000 yen in capital already established by Yagohei Suzaki in Kobe. Initially, the work of the company was appraisal, surveying, planning, budgeting, drawing and supervision, contracting, construction and trading of the equipment necessary for these projects, construction and lending of houses of houses concerning the civil engineering construction business. However, according to the advertisement issued by the company, it can be seen that manufacturing and trading of machinery materials and the like, the construction, sale and renting of houses are omitted, so that it is limited to contracting work of construction. The company took over the work of the Senzaki-gumi, and after the establishment of the company Sanyo-tetudo, Osaka-tetudo and other construction work was carried out.
The company lasted relatively long after its establishment in 1888. We can know the outline of the company by tracing "official record of all companies in Japan". According to the this book, the company lasted until 1908, after December the same year, it became the joint-stock company and it can be confirmed until 1918. The capital of the company was initially 100,000 yen, but eventually it was 36,000 yen. Tyoziro YONEZAWA who served as the president from the beginning was from Akashi and was exporting rice. Sigenori Sato who participated as the civil engineer was born in Sapporo, Hokkaido, and graduated from the Department of Civil Engineering at the Koubudaigakko. Daikiti TAKI was originally the employee of the Teikoku-Kougyo-Kaisya and was preparing to open the company's Kobe branch, but joined the establishment of The Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya. He was involved in The Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya from establishment of the company in October 1888 until the end of April 1893. In addition, Taimei SENZAKI was the same person as Yagohei SENZAKI. He was strongly related to Hirobumi ITO, and after the Meiji Restoration, it was also the promoter when Ito became the Hyogo prefecture ordinance and advanced Fukuhara-yuukaku construction.
The Meiji Industrial Company can be a full-fledged modern builder that gathered organization, capital, technology.
In this paper, we analyzed the education outcomes based on surveys of students' self-evaluation in the class of housing field. As a result, we clarified the followings.
1) The most liking field of students in fields in home economics is food field (50 to 60%), and housing field is as small as 10 to 30%.
2) About 70% of the students studied housing field in junior high school. The experience of housing studies in junior high school improve interest of class in housing field at high school, but, it does not contribute to increase liking of housing field.
3) About 50 to 90% of the students evaluate the educational outcomes of the classes in housing field positively. And about 60 to 90% of the students acknowledge the effect of slide teachings as visual teachings and experimental practice.
4) The influencing factors in the educational outcomes of the class in housing field is follows.
(1) Comparing the housing studies at junior high school and the interest of housing field before the class, the influence of the interest of housing field before the class is more influential.
(2) The high interest in housing field before the class helps to increase the interest and understanding of the subsequent class in housing field.
(3) The improvement of interest in housing field will also be high as a result of the high interest or understanding class in housing field, and these high educational outcomes also contribute to increase the interest in housing field after class.
5) Also in these surveys (A, B, C survey), there is a large difference in the interests of the classes in survey or school type, but the rate of interest in the class by liking of housing field is not different in each survey. Among the educational outcomes in housing studies, the interest of the class has an influence on the excellence of the students' liking of housing field.
6) The higher improvement of interest in housing field increase the interest in housing field after the class, and the higher interest in housing field after the class increase the liking of housing field. It is thought that it can improve the knowledge, technology and recognition of housing field by the class of housing field with high educational outcomes, and it has been able to increase the students' liking of housing field.
For these reasons, the following are the subjects of housing education and study on housing education.
a) If the interest in housing field is aroused before class in housing, there is a big influence on the educational outcomes of the subsequent class of housing field. For that reason, it is important to devise measures to evoke the importance and interest of housing field in human life before the class.
b) It is necessary to improve the interests and likings of housing field by teaching classes that give due consideration to students' interests and understanding at junior high school. It is thought that it can have a positive influence on the educational outcomes at high school, by the housing education after that.
c) It is necessary to clarify factors that increase students' knowledge and recognition by the analysis of relationship between educational outcomes items and to examine the way of better housing classes.
Level 4 of the long-period pulse ground motion was observed, for the first time in Japan, when the Kumamoto Earthquake hit Nishihara Village on April 16, 2016. Long-period ground motion is ground movement during an earthquake with a period longer than 1 second and instantaneously generates large acceleration. It may cause different behavior of furniture or buildings from past well-known damage situations.
This paper has investigated high-rise building location around Nagamachi-Rifu Fault Zone in Sendai City, one of the long-period ground motion anticipated faults in Japan at first, and analyzed overturning risk furniture in an office due to the long-period pulse ground motion using simulation and clarified following things.
1. There are 37 high-rise buildings in the central district of Sendai City, which is exposed to Nagamachi-Rifu Fault Zone and 32 buildings (86%) are located within 3km from Nagamachi-Rifu Fault. Although most of them are located on the terrace surface, four buildings are built on the alluvial lowland.
2. The total kinetic energy in case of island layout is the largest, and the energy produced by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake is 2.9 times larger than that produced by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. In the case of the 2011 earthquake, the total kinetic energy with the 20-story building is 1.7 times larger than that with the lower building.
3. Fixing furniture is the most efficient for the lower building hit by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake and it reduced the total kinetic energy to one third.
4. In the comparative study of time history of the total kinetic energy, seismic movement was amplified in the 20-story building by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake though the movement was not so different between the lower building and the 20-story building in the case of the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. The peak of the total kinetic energy of furniture by the long-period pulse, namely the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, appears about 70 seconds earlier than the case of the 2011 earthquake.
5. The maximum kinetic energy was observed in printer, heavy desks, and heavy cabinets in the simulation for 115 furniture items in the office.
6. Overturning risk of furniture is different according to the layout of furniture in office room, and 卍-shaped pattern was the lowest among the prepared layouts in the research. It means that consideration of layout of furniture is one of the important factors to reduce human injury in the area when the long-period pulse ground motion is anticipated.