This paper aims to show the traditional dwelling pattern of Bhadreshwar, Kutch district, India. This paper especially discusses about the spatial formation of houses and their group form. To reveal the spatial characteristics of port towns and houses of Kutch coast could be important leads to discuss the urban formation of port cities of Indian Ocean. There are characteristics house forms in Bhadreshwar are called delo and wandi. Regarding the space formation of Bhadreshwar's houses, there are some variations based on the traditional house type called delo. The delo is the vernacular house type spread paticularly in Kutch and Saurashtra (Pramar 1989). Our reserch revealed that other than the basic form of delo, there is the type attaching the gate house called deli, the type attaching the reception room called bethak, and the type adopting the compound form called wandi. We showed the developing process of the delo type house of Bhadreshwar.
"Machiya" houses in the "segai-style", which is characterized by its use of cantilevers as the ceiling beams to hold the roof, can be seen all over Niigata Prefecture. "Machiya" houses in the Shinano and Agano river basins and on the Japan Sea coast were examined and house systems and their use of interior space investigated. "Segai-style" houses were consequently divided into four groups according to defferences in details: houses on Sado Island; houses downstream on the Shinano and Agano rivers; houses midstream on the Shinano river; houses upstream on the Shinano river and on the Japan Sea coast.
The purpose of this research performs observational research of indoor play, and clarifies a relation with the space composition in the nursery school which is performing different age child care. At the beginning, Listening comprehension investigation in the nursery school of 12 which is performing different age child care was conducted. The second Action observational research was performed in five nursery school where plan types differ. The result, different age exchange was performed at about 50% of a rate. The composition play was able to see most exchange of different age. As Molding play, The arrangement of the desk and size make the interchange of the different age active.
This study investigates the current state of children's hospice in the U.K. and their architectural characteristics and governing structure. This stud first collected source materials regarding children's hospice, and then generated summary overviews of all facilities. Then, we selected the study hospices in the South East of England, Where most facilities are located. Field visits were conducted at 14 facilities. During the visits, interviews with facility directors were conducted, and other data such as floor plans of facilities and patient statistics were collected. All visits were administered from October through December of 2003.
This paper aims to clarify the utilization of school buildings under the departmentalized classroom system and examine advantage/disadvantage of the system in a nationwide school survey. Major findings are as follows; 1) Approximately 50 schools are carrying out the system in national and municipal junior high schools. 2) In many those schools, home base, subject laboratories and media center are set up. 3) Most advantages of the departmentalized classroom system are classified into subject management. 4) The problems under the departmentalized classroom system vary with the school size, formation and floor space of home base, possession of subject laboratories or media center, formation of teacher's office. 5) Even schools with home base represent the problem connect to student guidance and class management.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the traditional houses with signigicance evaluation of facade components using Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP). As the criteria of evaluation, “selected traditional houses” and “the facade components in selection” are taken into consideration.This model had seven criteria and nine alternatives. In order to verify the feasibility and efficiency of this approach, an experimental classification of tradtional houses in Kumandong is attempted.
The purpose of this study is to research on teachers' idea of fire prevention education and teachers' ability to prevent fire. We have two things that we want to find out about teachers. One is a questionnaire survey about their idea of fire prevention education and their ability to prevent fire. The other is an experiment with evacuation simulator involving their preference on evacuation route in fire disaster. The results are summarized as follows; • Almost all of the teachers have not received fire prevention education when they were university students. • Almost all of the teachers admit that they need to general fire prevention education. • Only about 22 percent of teachers have confidence in their ability of fire prevention education. • Teachers do not always have knowledge of fire disasters. • Teachers do not always choose safe route at fire disaster in evacuation simulator study.
The cohort-component method is widely used for population projection of local governments in Japan. The purpose of the paper is to examine aggregation errors caused by the cohort-component method, which can account for age distribution. First, we show that the populations estimated at aggregated level frequently are less than those at disaggregated level by using municipality data in Ibaraki Prefecture. Second, we prove this tendency through a simple mathematical model using Lexis diagram by focusing on internal migration.
There are many serious problems in welfare environment for the aged the handicapped. These problems are also serious in architectural field. However, it is not easy to think that university students who are majoring in architecture consider these problems seriously. In this research, in order to clarify attitude of university students to the welfare environment, questionnaire was carried out. Contents of the questionnaire were mainly “consciousness”, “action” and “knowledge”. Subject were university students whose grade was both the first and the third. As a result, university students thought the welfare environment problems were serious, but they thought that action for the aged and the handicapped was special behavior, and they did not behave for them positively or naturally. Furthermore, the more their experience of welfare was, the higher their knowledge was. But their knowledge of current state was not high. It is important for the students to inform of the current state of the welfare environment, and to respect for the human rights.
In this study we observe the usability of the handrails equipped beside the stools in a public toilet. We examine the position of handrails considering whether it is comfortable for wheelchair users to move, and its effects on the dimensions of the toilet space. Here we suggest a preferable layout and the size of the handrails: 1.L-shaped handrails should be assembled 120mm-230mm off the wall; 2.The preferable intervening space between horizontal handrails is 650mm-700mm; 3.Horizontal handrails are supposed to be installed at a height of 650mm; 4.Well-fitting vertical handrails should be 200mm-300mm off from the stool.
In the present regulations and design methods on fire protection, it is not considered that the reliability of the fire compartment by shutters lowers with the increase in the number of shutter. We obtain the probability that the fire and smoke propagated to the first safe subdivision from the large-scale compartment. By the calculation of the subdivision failure probability, we show that to divide the large-scale compartment is effective. It was theoretically shown to be the division in which to divide in the center is the most effective, when the subdivision was divided into two.
By using Bayesian network and Belief propagation, we made relationship clear between layout of display cabinets and purchase behavior in mass-market discounter of medium scale shop, selling childhood product after observing customers' behaviors. Probability that customers pass around entrances several times and at the far wall of shop more than once is higher than pass center of it (customers walk along walls instead of watching center shelves). Then, though customers who buy clothes walk only in front of clothes' shelves, customers who buy big commodities walk around widely in shop and pass through front of same shelves several times.
This study focuses on the living environment of mountainous village in typhoon-flood prone area central Vietnam. Here typhoons are yearly events and big flash-flood sometimes occurs in recent decades. The field research shows how villagers' housing and livelihood are affected by the typhoon, strong wind and flood water. The houses and the residents, especially deprived residents are at risk of the disasters. They mainly live on subsistence agriculture with limited plain-land in mountain area and cannot afford to invest their houses. However, they often need to spend their time and expenses for recovery after disasters every year. As for the balanced and stable living environment of mountainous villages, the perspective of disaster-resilience should be more reflected into the future development plan.
The purposes of the study are to prepare a land coverage map of Ise-Bay Basin using remote sensing, and to practice its potential usage by analyzing the current urban land coverage of the region in relation to the system of watersheds. The analysis classified the urban land into 5 types according to the land coverage rates, population density, and inclination. At the same time, it gives a consideration upon the relationship between the urban land coverage and the land use regulations designated to control urbanization. The study developed a condition to show the relationship between urban land coverage, watersheds, and the land use regulations.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process of how a regional autonomy organization grows and how the vision of the regional autonomy organization is passed on, through the support of the citizens' council. The results are the following : 1) The growth of a regional autonomy organization requires the activity to be consistent even if the committee changes, and the repetition of success experiences. 2) A consistent activity requires a resional autonomy organization to have a system to educate the candidates of a committee. 3) Within the activity of a regional autonomy organization, cooperation of community organization is effective for educating candidates of a committee.
An experiment on fire fighting activity using portable fire pumps was carried out for 41 subject teams of variable characteristics. It was conducted according to an activity scenario for a team consists of three community residents. The scenario involves six sequential processes starting with detection of fire and ending up with discharge of water. Amount of time required for the operation of portable fire pump was measured for each of the process. The obtained distributions of the required times were approximated with lognormal curves providing expressions necessary for the evaluation of community-scale capability of fire prevention. It is also shown that the occurrence of erroneous operations was not that dependent on the training experience of the residents in the past. The rate of water thrown into a model fire room through a window was measured for 84 residents. It was found that the rates were almost proportional to the direct distance between the target window and the nozzle head.
In order to precisely estimate human damage due to a large earthquake, it is important to grasp the spatio-temporal distribution of population in an urban area. This paper aims to construct models that describe the spatio-temporal distribution of population. The unknown parameters of the models are estimated using the data taken from a person trip survey and GIS data of Tokyo Metropolitan area. The characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of population are discussed and the accuracy of the models is statistically examined. Some numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed models can be applied to various researches in the field of disaster prevention planning.
In recent years, it is one of the public interests to grasp the number of people who have difficulty in returning home after a devastating earthquake. In this paper, we construct a hierarchical neural network model, which describes people's decision making on returning home. The proposed model is calibrated using data taken from questionnaire surveys, and applied to people staying in Tokyo metropolitan area. We attempt to estimate the number of people who cannot return home if traffic networks are blocked by a devastating earthquake, and also demonstrate the spatio-temporal distribution of people who have difficulty in returning home.
In the 1980s, after the birth of democratic government in the late 1970s, some Spanish cities such as Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia have started to address to regenerate the historic city center as well as the suburbs, both of which faced the serious environmental aggravation as a result of confused and frustrated operation of the former Land Act enacted in 1956. This paper describes the chaotic situation concerning the urban transformation during 1950-1970 and the revision process of the Amended Land Act of 1975, then examines the main revised points, and finally considers the characteristics and significance of the Amended Land Act within the Spanish planning history context. To highlight the characteristics, reference is made to planning concept and instruments in the ¨urban land¨ that would correspond with the build-up areas including historic center, old residential district, and old industrial area.
Industrial heritage is the word to point at that the building, engineering works and the machines which contribute to the industrial modernization which happens after the Edo ends in Japan. This research thinks about the meaning of the word of industrial heritage. Then, a generation range and the definition of the object are confirmed. Second, it thinks about the characteristics of the industrial heritage which exists in Kyushu from the data on the construction age and the structure. Third, a broken industrial heritage is compared with which preservation is used for in Fukuoka Prefecture. Then, these tendencies are investigated. Future urban development can give how to use the industrial heritage of that suggestion by this.
This paper examines and clarifies the reasons why the pedestrian environment alongside the Kioroshi Prefectural Road hasnot been improved over numerous years, despite danger to pedestrians(especially schoolchildren). Here we research from four viewpoints: 1) the local history, 2) opinions of the local people, 3) the administrative master plan and practice, 4) interviews with the prefectural administration personnel and the neighborhood association. The results can be summarized as follows: to improve safety of the pedestrian environment, discussions with administration personnel, landowners and the neighborhood association are needed to develop an action plan and to amend the laws.
There were two types of sales-construcion system. One group adopted ‘direct system’ that was done by the enterprise itself. The other group adopted ‘agency system’ that was done by agencies, . The selling, general and administrative expense ratio of the enterprises that adopted ‘agency system’ was higher than the one of the enterprises that adopted ‘direct system’ . This study aims to research the reason why the management of the enterprises that adopted ‘agency system’ went well from the 1980's to the mid 1990's despite the fact above. The result is that the enterprises adopted ‘agency system’ developed Pre-designed House that acomodated to ‘agency system’.
The objective of study are to find out the character of both the formation of Housing Performance Indication System and acceptance of condominium suppliers, and to obtain a knowledge to be required for diffusion of the system in Japan and Korea. The conclusion is as follows: 1) The defective house in Japan and the rise of the housing price in Korea have been the main background of the system introduction. But, corresponding to each characteristic of the problems, system design and make-up have been differently managed in two countries. 2) Suppliers in Japan told the reliability of a house, and while Korean suppliers told a frame which has shown the merit and feature of the houses when using the Housing Performance Indication System. However, the suppliers pointed out views of the diffusion, the faithfulness, and the effect, as the problems of them, as mentioned above. 3) A level of diffusion of the Housing Performance Indication System in Japan, comparing to the situation in Korea, has been evaluated in a higher level through the results of 1) and 2). However, in order to improve the system's diffusion, Japan has to compare all the houses a little mutually, and Korea must make a complementary system to increase the reliability of the indication information.
The study aims to discuss maintaining and making the best use of old suburban detached housing areas through promoting of Middle-aged and elderly dwellers' removal. We surveyed the dwellers of 50 years old and over at a housing area built in the 1970s in Yokosuka City. The paper discusses:1) the characteristics of household and house of the middle-aged and elderly dwellers who wish to move out;2) the dwellers' wishes about the next housing selection and the utilization of own house, and the matters related to the wishes; and 3) the factor in obstructing the removal in the later life stage.
Recently, the amount of discharge of construction byproducts has been expected to increase in the coming years because buildings and houses that have been constructed in the rapid growth period are in the renewal stage and as such, would produce a lot of buildings to be dismantled. In order to accommodate the coming increase in construction byproducts, certain measures are necessary to control the amount of discharge at a construction site and from recycling facilities. However, the reality concerning the disposal problem has not been actualized in the macro sense in the metropolitan coastal areas. This study analyzes and examines the relationship between construction byproducts in the Tokyo metropolitan area and disposal facility sites and population density. In this study, I hope to ascertain the appropriate form of land use by examining the disposal facility sites so as to conform to the notion of logistical systems of construction byproducts from intermediate disposal facilities to final disposal facilities.
This research focuses on cleaning works as one type of building maintenance works, and aims to identify the factors that trigger industrial accidents, through monitoring the current state on the working environment of cleaning workers and its relationship to their physical burden. Specifically, this paper clarifies the working environment of the cleaning workers, based on the results of the survey of multiple buildings that outsource cleaning work to building maintenance service companies. In addition, the characteristics of working environments are categorized into three groups of “Former Middle Facilities”, “New Small Facilities” and “Large Facilities”, in line with the working environments and facility characteristics of the buildings surveyed. This is followed by a survey on the physical burden of the buildings in each categorized group. Psychiatry, physical fatigue, industrial accidents and the experience of risks those have the possibility of triggering industrial accidents are analyzed for each group, to identify the relationship between the working environment and the physical burden.
In folding screens showing some scenes of Kyoto in early modern period, we can see laying the horizontal board on eaves of machiya-house. I regarded the board as “Shoyakumenjofuda”or “Kishukumenkyofuda” in the last paper, but afterwards study makes it clear that “Shoyakumenjofuda” or “Kishukumenkyofuda” hung out near the door. Since these boards were certificate of the Imperial Palace official and purveyors, they were absolved of the duty of fire fighting.
From the 34 traces of chisel cuttings left in Japanese ancient wooden building components, the following features were drawn in relation to forms and methods of chisels at the time. 1. Ancient chiseling was applied to processed wood or lumber. 2. Ancient chiseling was used in order to process parts of building that would remain unseen. Major methods applied were processes using straight joints and angle joints. 3. The three forms of ancient chisels were: straight flute, round flute, which is slightly curved at the tip, and round chisel (its cross section is round flute). 4. Chisels with straight flute varied in its width from 15mm to about 35mm. They were used to cut wooden parts and also for lumber sawing. 5. Chisels with round flute or slightly curved tip varied in its width from 40mm to 45mm. They were used for cutting wooden parts, chiseling concaved surfaces and for finishing straight joints and angle joints. 6. Round chisels (its cross-section is round flute) were used to chisel out round holes.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the ceremonial space in Jijuden,Shishinden and Seiryoden of the Heian-kyu palace by the documents of the annual events.Especially I focused the seats of the attendants(the Emperor and the senior officers) and their distribution. The results are as follows. 1)There are three types of the Emperor's seat,chair,mat and daisyoji bench in the palatial ceremonies,and daisyoji bench was used only in Shishinden. 2)In Jijuden and Seiryoden,the Emperor's seat was set at the peripheral space,hisashi,but only in Shishinden, it was set both at the core space,moya and hisashi. 3)In Jijuden and Seiryoden,the space for the attendants are divided into two spaces,one is for the Emperor another for the officers. But in Shishinden their seats were set in the same space,moya or hisashi.
The Ferro-Concrete structure technology was introduced into Japan in 1890s. In this paper, we try to show that a purpose of the spread played an important role for introduction of Ferro-Concrete in Japan. Various calculation formulas and sign of Ferro-Concrete ware introduced into Japan passing many separated ways and coexisted. It is thought that when it establish a law in 1920 and standardized Ferro-Concrete structure technology, economical conditions would be considered for the spread of this technology. However, the policy for the spread was changed by the damage of Kanto Earthquake(1923). And a deformed bar against the policy of the spread was removed at that time. It is thought that the introduction of Ferro-Concrete would be typical example of process to introduce new technology in Japan.
This paper deals with modern architectural movement through architect Juan O'Gorman (1905-1982) and aims to reveal the present significance of concerns and architectural responses that mark his late career in the 1940s and 1950s. In Mexico, the University City (1949-1952) rejected as unacceptable the ‘International Style’ vocabulary. In relation to these problems, a critical question is how O'Gorman built his own house among the lava beds of Pedregal in Mexico City. He demonstrated one of the most pertinent methods to integrate with nature. For instance, firstly, the representation of pre-Columbian cultures for O'Gorman provides an ineluctable tension that is alert to the details of the lava and attends to complexities of meanings. Secondly, compared with the plastic integration of the experimental museum El Eco (1953), the achievements of his works approach the pictorial composition and attempt to distinguish architectural forms. And thirdly, this case is quite certainly drawn to the symptom of an underlying social totality.
In order to identify a taste of Yamada Mamoru's view of architecture in the Nagasawa Filtration Plant, which was designed by him in 1957, it is the aesthetic characteristics of the Nagasawa Filtration Plant are analyzed in this paper. Based on the documents obtained from the Waterworks Bureau as well as the literature on Yamada's work, the circumstances leading to the construction of the Nagasawa Filtration Plant as well as the context within which Yamada designed it are understood. The features of the architectural design of the building are identified from the original drawings, e.g. the site plan, the floor plans, the section plans and the elevation plans. Also the methods for deciding the curves shown in the columns and the openings are calculated from the original diagrams which detail the shape of the columns.
There are two published refereed papers on Height Limitation of Building by Highest Limited Height Control Zone. Your paper contains many similarities with these papers. The similarities are not only same writings but also analytical flames and tables that those papers investigated. The question is raised why these papers are not listed as references on your paper.