The purpose of this paper is to clarify the real state of home modifications of the elderly. We conduct the questionnaire survey to two types of the elderly who lives in Kizu-cho of Kyoto. One is the elderly who uses the long-term care insurance, the other is the healthier people who doesn't use that insurance. The results are as follows; although each type of the elderly modifies their house at a high rate, they suffer inconvenience. Most of the home modifications is so small that it's not enough for the elderly.
After the 1949 revolution, most of the urban residences were public. They were allocated and managed by employers within the framework of China's social welfare policy. From the 1980's, following the introduction of some elements of the market economy, developers started to supply commercial residences. These have increased rapidly in recent years. In these commercial residences a new system of management by specialized management companies was introduced. This study aims to clarify the actual condition of the commercial residences' environment management, and consider the results and problems of the management system transformation.
Today, we have various production in plays and operas, in which settings tend to be larger and heavier. But these settings are restricted in size and weight by insufficient flying loads and they can't produce enough. So we have to reconsider about the stage machinery, especially, the flying load. It is important process in the planning of theatres to plan the stage machinery. This study compares the data of 20 years ago with today state and aims to make data for the planning of theatres and the flying system in them.
In the previous report, the authors analyzed visitors' ratings of the spatial environment of the terminal buildings of four major airports in Japan. The present report summarizes the results of questionnaire surveys on the staffs of the same airports for their ratings. These results were analyzed in relation to the physical conditions of the terminal buildings and compared with the ratings by visitors. The staffs' ratings of the spatial environments of the terminal buildings where they work were lower, with clearer demand for improvement, than ratings by visitors. It was concluded that planning of airport facilities should sufficiently take account of the staffs' opinions. The conditions for planning were also clarified in regard to building design, comfort, facility service/shops, waiting time, sufficiency of furniture, movements, etc.
Many kinds of components, materials and building systems are turning according to the changes of building systems by several reasons. However, the changes of ordinary components are rarely recorded in detail. In this study, we grasped the outline of development of roofs made of cement or asphalt, and slate. At first, natural slate and asbestos cement slates were imported for European-style buildings. After that, they became to be produced in Japan and spread. Asphalt shingles, being used widely in North America, gradually decreased in Japan, because they weren't non-combustible materials under the Japanese law.
A computer simulation of pedestrian flow is an effective method for examining relationships between pedestrian space and pedestrian behavior within that space. However, the characteristics of pedestrian behavior are not fully modeled in earlier studies. In this paper, a model describing pedestrian behavior is proposed by utilizing the concept of mental stress. Unknown parameters of the model are estimated using observed data from real pedestrian behavior. The estimated model can describe the differences of pedestrian behavior according to walkers' characteristics. Through some of the simulations in the proposed model, we can examine comfort or safety of pedestrian flows within crowded pedestrian areas.
Owing to the progress of information technology, educational and entertainment programs in amusement facilities are changing.In aquariums using a digital device and network technology, it is possible to get some educational information interactively while watching the fish. Using the experimental data, we analyzed the visitor behavior, by the Markov model to see the function of amusement facilities. We also did a simulation to consider how to apply the findings to actual planning.
Information was collected via a questionnaire relating to accidents in the home. Results were as foilows: 1.Most guardians think that the responsibility for accidents involving children is due to their carelessness. 2.Children themselves are thought to be responsible for causing an accident when they are of somewhat of an older age. This corresponds mainly to when they are above the age of 4. 3.Only a small proportion of persons think accidents can be prevented through improvements in products or building facilities. Thus, the fact that complaints from consumers relating to the safety of products are not reaching designers was apparent.
This research is to analyze formative process of complex areas comprised of multiple villages in a coastal fishing region that developed local culture due to precipitous topography and thus possess spaces containing certain autonomous system in it, by field survey and analysis of local inhabitants' environmental recognition. Specifically, the research applied here is based on the assumption that the existing area should not be considered as a singular entity but rather as a complex area that is comprised of overlapped areas in environmental recognition point of view. By clarifying the complex area's internal mutual relations and by analyzing the transition patterns from singular entities to complex area on the complexity of environmental recognition, the research is to exhibit the complex area's formation process.
This paper aims to clarify the regional variation with the spatial characteristics of living system of settlements in Bali Island, Indonesia. In the first place, we try to classify the region by historical and natural features of Bali Island. Bali Island can be divided into three regions, a mountainous region, a hilly region and a plain region. As a result of analyzing the spatial characteristics of living system of settlements for each region, the corresponding original living system is found. Moreover, a hilly region is clearly divided into northern and eastern parts. Since it is possible to consider that community development in Bali Island is fundamentally performed in order of mountainous - hilly - plain region, living system of settlements for each region is expected to show old and new features.
Although the zoning where the same land-use is adjoining seems to be achieved by the regulation, the possibility of the zoning without the strong regulation is theoretically examined in this study. Using stochastic two states model in which the land-use is simplified with the two types, it is theoretically shown that the land-use continuity index increases with the progress in the time and forms the zoning area naturally under the assumption that was concluded by good treatment measures, etc. In addition, using the simulation model, it was shown that such zone could be formed without good treatment measures even in.
Due to the shift in the socio-economic and industrial changes, declining and losing of natural environment in the cities are becoming more apparent. This study aims to clarify the processes and methods, and to evaluate the partnership patterns and its roles on environmental regeneration with urban regeneration in East Manchester, the U.K. The results showed that area based initiatives and regeneration planning are the two main streams to proceed the regeneration in the area. During the implementation, it is also necessary to build an equal partnership, which can also be promoted by an environmental regeneration within the approach.
This study aims to clarify the specific situation of waterways in the castle town Saga, focussing on their sustainable development. The results are as follows: 1) Waterways are specific fundamentals entirely necessary to the development of the town in lowland alluvial plains. 2) Existing waterways are built in the former castle town area with the basic and sustainable network repeating the pattern of waterway-road. 3) Existing waterways serving only as the enclosure of the social settlement unit can be divided into two types of meanings for the town life; the communal and personal availability. 4) Visibility to waterways essential for the future development will be obtained from two types of place; view from spots and linear view.
This study clarified change patterns of landscape or townscape by using pictures filmed in Shinsyu-Ueda area. There are 11 items in changes of elements that make landscape or townscape. They are also divided into 4 categories as follows: element changes of building and town-street, changes of the surface of land and large-scale structures. The pictures, which include landscape or townscape elements with bad changes for its sight, haven't been filmed again in another film works. In the case of townscape there are 4 patterns (building continuity change, surface change, linear change, focus change) in element changes. We can recognize bad change factors of landscape or townscape by the viewpoints of these 4 change patterns.
This research aims to clarify current conditions and their speciality of slope areas in central .Tokyo. 1. Cliffs (retaining walls) are found throughout the edge of heights, though their distribution density and scale differs on north and south side of Kanda river. 2. Stairways are also seen in the place where cliffs are usually seen, especially at the steep slope areas. 3. Residential areas divided by cliffs are classified into six types according to the locational relation between cliff, road, and residence. Characters of each types differs depending on the situation of the length and the height of the cliff.
This paper aims to clarify characteristics of land ownership of "un-urbanized" housing land developments in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki, which was permitted by Old Housing Land Development Law of 1964. The Old Law was abolished in 1968. Some areas of these developments show very low built-up ratio because of insufficient infrastructures in terms of sewage, drinking water and public facilities. There are three types of land ownerships in un-urbanized areas. Firstly, ownerships without any transfer except for inheretances and donations amount to 65 percent. Secondly, speculative purchases and selling amount to 18 percent. Third, housing land with residents amount to 18 percent.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics and issues of the preservation system for historic environments after Shu-Shu earthquake happened in Taiwan in 1999, by inspecting the amendment of the related laws on Cultural property Preservation. It explains by the following aspects. (1) The transition of preservation system for historic environments before Shu-shu earthquake, (2) The response to the survey and renovation of damaged historic buildings and streets after the earthquake, (3) The amendments of the cultural property related laws, (4) The characteristics and issues of the cultural property related laws after Shu-Shu earthquake, (5) The current status. It could be said that the preservation system of historic environment is facing the following issues after earthquake:(1) Urgent and uncompleted amendments, (2) Introduction of historic building registration system, (3) The separated government departments in charge, etc. Consequently, it will remain to be discussed until the accomplishment of the latest amendment of cultural property law.
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime (Tokugawa era). In this paper, it will be clarified who was acted as the command in chief in fire extinguishing performance at the firing location. In conclusion, the role of command in chief was used to be performed by Kyoto machibugyosho (magistrate of Kyoto) supported by Kyoto shoshidai (governor of Kyoto and its neighboring districts) for fire extinguishing team consisting of both of feudal lord group and citizen group.
This study is to clarify the characteristics of "SOU-DOU" and "MURA-DOU" through the cases in Wachi-cho, Kyoto prefecture. In this study, SOU-DOU and MURA-DOU are defined as the "DOU" [little temple] that is kept by organizations such as "SOU" (in the medieval period) and/or "MURA [village]" (in the premodern period). I try to clarify the distribution, formation process, religious area, and location of these DOU. The conclusions are given as follows: 1. The formation process of SOU-DOU or MURA-DOU is influenced by the formation of the village as its religious area. 2. The SOU-DOU or MURA-DOU tends to have location connected to its religious area.
There are many foreign architectural books, former owned by Kaitakushi, which made a great contribution for Japanese engineers to master the art of the western-style architecture in early Meiji period, and which have been owned by Hokkaido University Library and Muroran Institute of Technology Library. We have been able to ascertain the details of the purchase and the transfer of those books by historical materials related to Kaitakushi, and by the ownership stamps on them. The early purchase of the libraries include some building pattern-books to train architects, published in USA and UK in the middle of 19th century.
In the Taisho Period, there is the correction of Nikko Tosho-gu Kanei-Zotai term. In this correction the term became 1 year and sevral month from 13 years. This study is to make clear the change of estimation about Tosho-gu through this correction.
One of remarkable trends in the development of the Khmer building techniques is found at corbel arch of Gallery and Mandapa, which is firstly advanced from a simple cobel arch and the next to be developed toward the arrangement and overlapping of blocks. When making the architectural chronology, the development seems to be more objective certainty than stylistic analysis. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to clear the development of the Khmer stone corbel arch and to make the architectural chronology in view of the development of the khmer building techniques about the Khmer stone corbel arch. It is also able to correct "errors", on the khmer architectural chronology, committed by some past scholars, and to describe here on the construction program undertaken by Suryavarman II. As a result, a distinguishing feature of the building technique during Angkor Wat style, in this paper, is that Khmer architects found the overlapping method of blocks in corbel arch through some advanced stages.
In Sardinia, there is much polychromatic religious architecture originating from the late medieval period, and it seems to be influenced by Tuscany. The purpose of the study is to reveal various aspects of the influence of Tuscan polychromy on polychromy in Sardinia, by comparing and analyzing polychromy in Sardinia and Tuscany. The result of the study shows that the patterns of polychromy are very individual and are coarse by comparison with those in Tuscany, because the process of adopting the polychromy from Tuscany changes its characteristics.
Since 1724, Kofu castle city had been ruled by Tokugawa shogunate vassals named Kofu-Kinban. In the beginning, because of its strategic importance, the space of the Kofu city was strongly controlled by Edo government, which was clearly seen in the banzuke (numbering) system of the samurai residential area. However, this Edo-centric system was absolutely inconsistent with the local logic of Kofu, and the structure of the city had to be changed gradually. This paper studied this change by analyzing how the banzuke system became meaningless.
To analyze solar environments, true time is usually adopted. However, in above paper, the Japan standard time seems to be used without any explanation. In this case, while solar altitude higher than 11°23' is considered to be adopted in the morning, altitude till 4°37' is adopted in the afternoon. Thus, this analysis may not be adequate to evaluate the quality of solar environments. In case of analyzing solar environments through the Japan standard time, it must be evidently described in paper and its intent should be explained sufficiently.
The authors thank Prof. Joji ABE for his discussion, and the answers are as follows; 1) We intend to propose the comprehensive assessment system for residential environment, which includes heat, wind and other environmental indicators in the further study. The existing climate data gathered by AMeDAS and other data are based on the Japan standard time. To compare the sunlight and daylight environment with microclimate, we adopted the Japan standard time in this research. 2) We corrected the description about ground reflectance from 0.25 to 0.20. 3) We consider other calculation methods to improve the accuracy of the simulation.