In the previous paper, smoke behavior in cavity spaces were investigated experimentally and theoretically for the case where the fire sources are located at the center of the cavity space, and it is found that the temperature rise of plume at the cavity opening is well scaled by the nondimensional temperature defined as Θ=(ΔT/T_∞)/Q^<*2/3> where Q^^・^*≡Q^^・/ρ_∞C_pT_∞√<gDD^2, and the temperature is correlated by Θ= α(H/D)^β, where β=5/3,-1 and -1/3 for shallow, intermediate and deep cavity, respectively. In this paper, the smoke behavior was further investigated for the cases where the fire sources are located by a wall and at a corner of the cavity space model, and it is found that the same relationship as in case of center fire holds for the case of wall and corner fires as well. Based on this study the equations for predicting fire plume tempratures are proposed.
Occasionally, district heating and cooling center has been built in general buildings. In these case, large caliber water piping system is installed at pipe-shaft near rooms in the buildings, and structure-borne noise generated by pipe vibration propagated from pumps etc. influence for the room's environment. So, it is necessary lo study on the prediction and control of these vibration and structure-borne noise. In order to know the source and propagation characteristics of noise and vibration at large caliber water piping system, the basic measurements on noise and vibration were carried out in the building in where large caliber water piping system is installed. And the investigations on noise and vibration propagation were carried out using real scale model of rooms and pipe. From these results, the reduction system of structure-borne noise generated by large caliber water pipe to be installed at pipe-shaft was developed and applicated at the hotel in where district heating and cooling center was built, also the noise reduction effect of the system was measured. In this paper, these results are described.
The project was focused on houses in cold regions with good insulation. The temperature and humidity of crawl spaces of two houses, which have well-insulated floor and foundation wall insulation, were measured to identify their basic characteristics. Then influences of thermal condition of a crawl space on room temperature, prevention of high humidity in summer were discussed. As a result, the crawl space built with foundation wall insulation showed the highest efficiency in keeping the space dry. It also improves room environment, such as, temperature in summer.
Wind pressure which is source power of cross-ventilation is usually influenced by surrounding buildings. A high-rise building often weakens the wind in the wake of it, and obstructs the cross-ventilation of low-rise houses around it. The distributions and changes of wind pressure coefficients of low-rise houses are investigated in this paper. Two types of building layouts were tested here; one consists of only low-rise houses, and the other includes a high-rise building. The former is changed by the building coverage ratio, from 0% to 25% at intervals of 5%, and by the wind direction, from 0 to π/2 at intervals of π/12. There is a high-rise building at the center of the layout of low-rise houses with building coverage ratio of 25% in the latter type. It is changed by the height of the high-rise building; 5-storied, 10-storied and 15-storied building. On of the results of the former case is that the values of the wind pressure coefficient come nearer to 0 when the building coverage ratio is higher. The results of the latter case shows that the higher the high-rise building, the greater effects on the wind pressure on the low-rise houses, and that the wind pressure coefficients of the low-rise houses far from the high-rise building get close to those of the former case.
This paper is reported the results obtained by the experiments which compared the different behaviors of the contaminants (test particles and tracer gas SF_6) between in the space with raised floor HVAC system (RF system) and conventional ceiling diffuser system (CC system). The effects both of normal and diffused floor outlet on the concenteration and distribution of contaminants are also discussed. The main results show that : If contaminants generated in indoor air, 1) Contaminant removal performance is influenced by HVAC system and jet direction of floor outlet. The removal rate in the occupied zone from contaminated source is less in the space with RF system (especially with diffused floor outlet) than with CC system. 2) Contaminant removal efficiency is higher in the occupied zone with RF system (especially with normal floor outlet) than with CC system.
This paper reports the results of experiments conducted in an electromagnetic shilding effectiveness measuring room. A copper foil with sqare openings of three differen t sizes at the center was placed between transmitting and receiving rooms to measure electric field intensity. During measurements, electromagnetic waves (plane waves) emitting from the rear shielding surface were observed. Another measurement was made on square openings of other types using an insertion loss method suitable for measuring plane waves. The results showed some relationship between opening side length and shielding effectiveness. This paper proposes a simplified estimation formula based on experimental data.
This is the second paper for a detached house in Hokkaido to discuss active daily activities such as drying clothes, handcrafting or light exercise and spaces for the activities such as a sun room, an underground room and a dirt-floored room. The purpose of this paper is to investigate actual conditions of such spaces where active daily activities are acted, and to analyze the residents' opinions and appraisal for these spaces. Based on this analysis, we propose to provide spaces for such activities with following forms and functions; 1. An underground room or a dirt-floored room for daily working activities such as drying clothes or hand-crafting, 2. A space for drying clothes in winter, 3. An exclusive storage for foodstuff, 4. Storage spaces for implements of snow removing, skis, winter clothes and winter shoes, and so on.
This is the second paper that is to examine a developmental process concerning living room of a detached house in HOKKAIDO, and to make clear a principle of the developmental process for recent 30 years. This paper discusses the following problems; 1. a developmental process concerning living style in a living room. 2. a movement of daily activities in the room, 3. a movement of furniture in the room, 4. a principle of the developmental process concerning the living style - the degree of freedom, 5. the future developmental course of the living room and the spaces of a detached house.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the space organization of the settlemerits in DESA BAYAN in Lombok Island. Three types of the settlements are found in Lombok Island. We focus on DESA BAYAN,one of the northern type settlements in these three types. The settlements are consist of houses, BERUGAK and granaries. Houses and BERUGAK are laid in linear. INEN BALE is found only in this area. Houses are classified in six types. We can see the big transition of BARE space. By considering the utilization of BERUGAK space and the ownership of the buildings, we can find the important role of BERUGAK and the strong connection between houses and BERUGAK.
Situated design is the planning method which addresses the latent value of planning process. The purpose of this paper is to make clear the significance of situated design, residents' sense of living together inspired by situated design, and the characteristics of interaction between person and physical environment through analysing the basic planning process of co-operative housing M-port. 1) Setting dialogue free makes participants to be quite in sympathy with each other, reaches gentle agreement of planning, and generates creative tension. 2) Situated learning, enjoying such action as, site watching and observation of other housings, imprints the life image and the meaning of living together on the form shows a strong tendency to succeed in this project. 3) Such situated design generates the elastic use of common space, leads participants to discovering metaphorical form of living together, and gives a house and common space individual character.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp the present stocks of student unions on national university campuses. Data about areas and plans of student unions were collected from 62 national university campuses. The consequences are as followers: 1) Through theory of quantification analyses, the existence of student union was related to the year of the establishment of campus, the area of campus and the number of students and etc. 2) Function of facilities and building forms of student unions were classified into 4 types respectively. 3) According to the research of students' utilization about 4 student unions, students demand facilities of training room, recreation room, sleeping room, lounge, television-video room, shower stall and etc.
Shizuoka prefecture can be divided into five types of municipalities in terms of the establishment of "day-service" centers for the elderly: City Type, Outskirts of City. Agricultural Type, and Underpopulated Types which are, in tern, divided into two sub-types, (A) and (B). Problems of each type are as follows: In City Type, the "day-service" centers should be established mainly for the elderly who need high degree of care. 0n the contrary, they should be established to provide a wide range of service in Agricultural Type. Both Underpopulated Types (A) and (B) definitely need financial aids from the national and prefectural governments.
In this paper the architectural compositions of Japanese contemporary houses are typologically analyzed in terms of the spatial division in the house with a single volume. Initially, the building-elements defining a single volume are investigated as the overall frame of the house. Next the permutations and hierarchical process of spatial divisions are investigated as characteristics of spatial division: by walls or by slabs, between interior and interior, interior and exterior, etc. Secondly, typological compositions of the houses are defined by combinations of those characteristics and series of rhetorics are found which differentiate them. Finally, the architectural composition of the house is set into the structural relationship between these rhetorics in spatial division.
Architecture is composed of architectural inner space and structural materials both of which have the 3-dimensional geometrical extension. Usually, such a 3-dimensional extension is shown by an inequality according to the 3dimensional geometry, though the inequality can not represent the precise conditions inside of a 3-space. To the contrary, according to the 4-dimensional geometry, a 3-dimensional extension can be given by an equality which can show minutely the geometrical construction inside of a 3-space. By using this equality, we can get automalically millions of architectural design motifs from a few 4-dimensional mathematical shape. ln this paper, we adopt the 4-dimensional sphere as the 4-dimensional geometrical shape and derive various architectural design motifs through the medium of computer graphics.
Many kinds of components are used in buildings. They are progressing or turning year by year. But, ordinary components are rarely recorded. It is very important to catch the development of buiIding components and their backgrounds. We have been making research about development of metal components in buildings. In this study, we researched about development of several metal components in buildings in Japan. These components were developed according to the change of building system. In this paper, we show the summary of development of metallic non-slip.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ease of way-finding, one of important factors for legibility, on "way-finding scene" in the informational space without maps and directional signs by analyzing the protocol and interviewing data obtained from those who made the first visit to a couple of different type of facilities in a community and experienced wayfinding from the entrance to designated goal. The information was also obtained by video recording of their wayfinding behavior. It makes clear that six standards for spatial legibility concerned with order, position, and size of the area of "way-finding scene", are valid.
In the present paper, we studied the architectural space of stage in the earlier long piece novel of Souseki NATSUME who is expected as a representative writer of modern Japan. The wordings related to space were first quantified and were then classified into seveval groups according to "stages" appeared in five individual novels. The groups with various portion in entire quantity were gathered in a proper figure and the meaning beyond was analyzed. We conclude that four types of space could tendatively be classified in those novels: 1. based on "Nan-ga world"; 2. western people's space type; 3. mixtural type of western and eastern-"neutral idea"; 4. the space particularly for educational area such as school. The former two of four types were believed to be more important and reflect the thoughts of writer himself.
Many municipallties are making plan on "Village-area Adjustment Act". In this paper, We Intend to establish the index of obstructive factor on the planning process in villagearea. We sent out questionnaires about planning process to municipal administrators. By the analysis of this data, We expected to extract the obstructive factor. We made next 3 study-frame to clear the problem. Frame 1 : Necessity of planning on inhabitant side and administration side. Frame 2 : The complication of community and planning condition. Frame 3 : The regulation of the inhabitant side and administration side on planning process. Considering the frame, We concluded that coexisting type, commyunity type and muragara is effective to foresee the obstructive factor.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of improvement of an central urban area according to the impacts of urban redevelopment project in front of the station and its related projects. As one of the methods, analyzing the linkage of the each project is proposed in this paper. As a result, the related projects of the urban redevelopment can be classified by the function and the role of the each project. Also, their relationship can be classified into 3 characters as inducement, unification and sequence.
I had offered a reconstruction of the DAISEN-IN-hojo original plan, proving that at the time of construction only a one bay structure was provided for the Ehatsunoma and that the supplemental half bay was added later. An interpretation challenged my theory, stating that the additional half bay was not added later, but during the original construction work. This view, however, proves to be wrong, if the extant architecture and information gained during the repair works are examined carefully. This paper will show for instance, that traces remaining on the funa-hijiki prove an enlargement of the building at a later stage.
This paper is an attempt to analyze the evoluting process and the spatial characteristics of Dohtoku residential quarter in Nagaoya. Rice fields reclaimed in the Edo era were developed by Nagoya-sanbashi-soko Inc. in the early Showa era as the residential quarter for the workers of the factories around Nagoya Port. Although a licensed area was included in the preliminary plan, it was changed into the waterfront amusement park by the direction of the Town Planning Committee of Aichi Prefecture. Around this big park and five small parks, the streets were arranged in a partially radiating pattern.
Rising of nationalism in the middle of Meiji period brought about a trend which intended to reconsider the traditional Japanese cultures. Especially in the field of the tea ceremony, as the symbol of the traditional cultures, many attempts were done to adapt its role into the modern society. This development was supported by chashos, masters of the tea ceremony, and by so-called Kindaisukisyas ; political and business leaders who patronized that heritage. Together with such a development, on the one hand architects also began to take interest in the traditional Japanese architectures, such as the tea ceremony architecture and the sukiya syle architecture, and many books on those subjects were published on the other. As a figure who bore the campaign for enlightment of the traditional Japanese architectures, Harumichi Kitao is pointed out. This study attempts to locate Kitao's contribution within the framework of the history of investigation of the sukiya style architecture by clarifying the features and the peculiarities of Kitao's writings in connected with the actions to conform the sukiya style to the modern society.
It is the intention of this paper to develop an understanding of architecture in human terms, using the architectural spaces created in Tanizaki Junichiro's The Makioka Sisters. The house described in the novel is modelled on one in which the writer actually lived, except for the engawa which is a feature of the created dwelling. In the novel, the engawa and the garden, as the poly-fold points of sight of autoscope, is understood to be intimately related to the development of caracter's self-consciousness. It is suggested, therefore, that architectural space could be investigating deeply through taking account of human terms.