The introduction of effective luminance theory has shown that all visibility is grasped by the actual stimulus to retina which we call "Effective Luminance" and sensitivity of the eye at that time. From the above, every kind of visibility problems can be easily analyzed but to treat all visibility problems generally some problems are left. Therefore we considered based on effective luminance theory about them and analyzed the visibility threshold condition of various objects by the visualization of the effective luminance distribution around the object.
A photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector consisting of a solar panel and a collector can produce electric and thermal energy simultaneously. We made an experiment in winter and found the effect of wind velocity on the hybrid collector performance should not be ignored. The large wind velocity provides a decrease in heat gain greatly and an increase in electric gain. Then we developed the simulation model for TRNSYS and it showed the excellent accuracy as over 95%. And it was cleared that the hybrid collector has better performance than a mere solar panel by a domestic heating simulation in winter.
Wind tunnel experiments were performed in order to clarify the features of airflow in the street canyon, which consists of the regularly aligned rectangular blocks with two different heights. 3-dimensional wind velocities around the blocks were measured with split-film probe. Following conclusions were reached 1. The horizontal vector of airflow on the road, which is parallel to the main wind direction, bends remarkably in the case of normal street pattern. This phenomenon is more clearly observed in the case with narrow road. 2. The backward airflow area in the case of staggered street pattern is larger than that in the case of normal street pattern. 3. Under the eaves of the high blocks, the turbulence intensity increases remarkably.
The optimization of the cogeneration systems (CGS) with the gas engine generator is studied by using the Hamiltonian algorithm (HA). The HA, invented from the study on dynamical systems, is efficient to optimize design and control of complex systems. The results show that the HA enables us to design the optimal CGS under the objective function about the investment of the plants and the equipment. The HA is also found to be effective to control the optimal CGS operations.
The execution of rainwater utilization system was examined for station toilets with the many user numbers per instrument. The following were set on the past investigation value and Tokyo JR 5 stations using opened data' Precipitation, rainwater collection plane, toilet water consumption and rainwater tank. Afterwards, the usefulness of rainwater utilization system was examined by the simulation. Though as the result, the effect of the rain water tank installation is accepted, the toilet water consumption for one day is large, the range of 136 m^3 from 55 m^3. Hence, it seems to be the difficulty that the space for the even one day tank is newly installed in the station premise. Moreover, by the simulation method, it was shown to be sufficiently effective for station toilets by the system with the capacity for the maximum water consumption per one hour, using the rainwater without storing that almost.
Various passive design methods have been applied to traditional Japanese houses. The objective of this study is to investigate the dimensions and configurations of the traditional house's openings, and to clarify the relationship between the bioclimate and those opening characteristics. The traditional Japanese houses with a square plan and floor area of from 70 to 200 m2 were selected from the literature on traditional houses. In Tohoku region, west side wall of houses is blind. It indicates that houses in these areas were designed for preventing the seasonal wind. In Koshin-etsu region, opening position was decided in the relation of the mountain location. In Tokai, southern Kinki, Chugoku and Shikoku regions, the main opening was installed on both of the south and north sides, and these directions were fitted for the prevailing wind direction in the summer time. Relationship between the thermal environment indices and the opening ratios was examined. Significant correlation was observed between the thermal environment indices and the opening ratios. The siting regions were classified by means of the cluster analysis using the ratios and orientations of the openings.
In this paper, a method of environment evaluation by monitors enlisted from citizens is proposed through the result of some case studies. Whereas the number of samples is not large, this method seems valuable because of the following reasons : (1) By using the questionnaires which consist of free-answer questions, it is possible to extract a wide range of concerns and consciousness concerning environmental problems. (2) The rate of collection of questionnaires is high because monitors have volunteered. (3) It is possible to ask the same monitor continuously about one item. (4) The act of working as a monitor helps enhance a citizen's awareness of the city environment. Next, by cluster analysis of significant word, we were able to approach to typical local environmental problems from monitor's free-answers better.
The Breathing Wall using rice straw charcoal has been developed as the constructional material for a natural ventilation system by the authors. Test specimens of the wall were installed in a dwelling, which has the heating system utilizing outdoor air, to investigate the use of the wall under the operating/non-operating condition of the system in winter. It was confirmed that the surface temperature rose near to the room temperature even at a lower part of the wall after the heating system started. Even the longest condition above 80% of the relative humidity inside the wall remained less than a day. It was found a temperature drop of the indoor wall's surface was made small by the parting strips, which were located in the indoor air layer of the wall, under the non-operating condition.
The first two parts of this study examined quantitatively the correspondences between people's behavior and their use of dwelling space, using a time allocation analysis. A classification of behavioral types was then developed. Based on this classification, as presented here, the third part looked in detail at how residents view their actual dwellings. The results suggest that designers should reconsider their standard "white-collar worker family" model and offer alternative designs that allocate appropriate spaces for the elderly, for "double-income with kids" families, and for hobby or in-house working requirements. The significance of balconies and gardens should also be considered in design processes.
In this study, I have shown the changing characteristics of the circumstance of play lots (=PL) in the housing estate, based on the observation during 12 months of children playing throughout a specified Sunday of a month. In addition, I analyzed the condition of the spread of children's plays through all the areas of 9 neighborhood units, using a half day's phase investigation conducted in May when children appear at a high rate. As a result, I have confirmed the following conditions for a PL planing: 1) The number of children's appearances in a PL during a year shows a wavy change-a high rate in spring and autumn and a low rate in winter. The period of the max appearances agrees with that of the annual average outside air temperature. 2) Concerning blocks, 1-3 PL connected to the block park through about 100m utility area, tend to be most often used. However, about half of the all PL have been rarely used. 3) The total number of appearances in a half day phase of an appearance period is about 20% of the population of children under the age of 11.
From the Taisho Era to the early Showa Era, many ideas had been proposed for salaried worker's houses in Japan - namely middle-class houses. The "Hatch" installed between the dining room and the kitchen, is one of these ideas. This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics of the kitchen and dining room through observing the "Hatch". The "Hatch", not only helps a maid to serve dishes, but to stop her coming in the dining room. In addition, most of the dining rooms with the "Hatch" in, have other uses too. The "Hatch" may help to develop the status of the dining room.
The Aichi Art Theater is the first facility in Japan that was specifically designed to present full-scale operas. A purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge which is useful to plan similar theaters hereafter by analyzing the way of usages of the theater. In this paper we deal with the usages of fly facilities. We grasp and analize the quality of their movement.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how to use the wheelchair in health care facility for the elderly. For this objective, the wheelchair users in the elderly were surveyed by means of observation, human factor studies and deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. The moving speed of the independence movement person improved with the influence of the change of the wheelchair and the adjustment. 2. There are few changes in the moving speed of the independence movement person who has much number of helped moving. 3. The change of the wheelchair and adjustment had an influence to the behavioral pattern and ADL.
In this report we aim to clarify collective form of housing units concerned with exterior spaces. It is one of the important subjects which decides the compositional characteristics of collective housing, that is how to make the spatial units and how to combine them. First, we analyzed the connection of housing units with exterior spaces, and then we defined the compositional units which is formed by houses connected with articulated exterior spaces. Secondly, we analyzed spatial relations of houses and exterior spaces, which are arrangement and visual relationship of them. Finally, we found typological compositions. Through comparing those compositions, some characteristic relationships of whole and part in collective housing are clarified.
This paper aims at intervening space between main frame and roof frame which has not been argued systematically because of complication of frameworks in Japanese farmhouses. Analyzing the placement of flying beams, frameworks of typical farmhouses in various regions are categorized. It's revealed that diverse framing systems caused by characteristic beams-placement-schemes had already materialized in the beginning of the latter part of medieval period in Japan. It is generally accepted evolutionary view that one didn't have flying beams appeared earlier, one had various flying beams appeared later. However, the fruit of this paper proves the above-mentioned view is false.
This research aims to grasp the actual conditions of mixed-use in railway stations of a private company in Kinki area and the compound factors. We analyzed existence of facilities located in the surveyed railway stations by the theory of quantification 1 with four factors such as number of passengers, types of junction, land use zones and forms of station. It is clarified that the model expressed with the theory can predict how much feasibility of mixed use in a railway station. Finally, we discussed the influence of the mixed facilities on distribution patterns of community facilities around the railway stations.
This paper analyzes the process of changes of store location in the commercial stock zones, and trends of buying behavior of Inhabitants, by case study in Sanwa-town, Ibaragi pref. The results are as follows: 1. The process of changes of store location is various in the commercial stock zones. 2. The stores are apt to be located on arterial roads in each zones. 3. Trends of buying behavior of Inhabitants is different in each Kyuson areas. 4. Inhabitants often do their buying at convenience goods stores in each zones. 5. Changes of store location in the commercial stock zones correspond to trends of buying behavior of Inhabitants.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the traditional landscape management and its transformation in Taketomi island of Okinawa Prefecture, it's Preservation Districts of Groups of Historic Buildings. As a result, we found that there were the traditional community's ability for landscape management. The ability was to put together labor for a building and a supply of the materials based on the mutual aid sistem, Yui. After Syowa 30's, most of them had been lost, but other forms for landscape management have risen in the movement of preservation historical buildings. Base upon the verification, we drew the today's problems.
This paper discusses the spacial patterns of the urban tissues of the old city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, especially urban quaters which are known as pols and mohallas which consist of khancha (khanchos), khadkis and galis. The Jain, the Hindu and the Muslim have been living together within the old city from the beginning of establishment the city. We can still see the mixed habitation and segregation of the religious groups streets and naighourhood. The objective of this paper is to clarify the difference in the form of streets system and block patterns focusing on the names of streets, the places of gates, and the distribution of religious and community facilities. We selected three quaters, Manek Chouk (Jain district), Khadia (Hiadu district), Khamasa (Musulim district) for the study. The difference is very clear in terms of streets system. The block system is very hierarchical and closed in the Jain area where the pols consist of khancha which have khadokis or galis as subunits. On the contrary, pols are consisted of khancha, khadokis and galis in Hindu area and in general, there are no subdivisions in the mohallas of Muslim area.
This paper clarifies the changes of land ownership in the urban historical core of Kyungju City (Korea) in the period of Japanese Occupancy (1910-45) based on the analysis of a land register. Kyungju City was designated for one of the cities controlled by urban planning law, which was set up in 1912 and 1934, but did not experience the radical changes for the preservation of historic sites. The major purpose of this paper is to discuss the urbanisation process of a Korean historical city that was the old capital. The focus of the study is the increase of the Japanese landowners and Japanisation of the cityscape. In the very beginning of occupation, Japanese already owned about 13% of the total land of the city centre where the old Kyungju castle had been located. The ratio of the land owned by Japanese went up to more or less 35% at the end of World war II. The process that the urban core was replaced by the Japanese is very clearly traced from the analysis of a land register.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the actual condition and effects of the administrative supports for the building agreement on the initiative of residents. And so we analyzed the role and problems of the consultant dispatch system in Hirakata City. Results are summarized as follows: 1) The more support system is made, the more building agreement is concluded. 2) Concerning the understanding of the concrete measure for support, the resident's side differs from the local government's side. 3) Ten districts made use of the dispatch system in five years. And six district residents have concluded the building agreement within one year.
This study explores characteristics and opinions of the occupants of private temporary housing (PTH) after the Great Hanshin Quake by questionnaire. Concerning to the floor space of PTH, 40-60 m^2 is most popular. The building costis 400-800 million yen. Many of the occupants built PTH in order to restart their business or to release from evacuation life. After building PTH, they have complained a lack of space but recognized PTH could make them obtain local information easily. Many PTHs are built in the reconstruction project areas. It does not mean the project brought incentive to build PTH. Contrarily, the project has prevented the occupants from building their permanent house. It is necessary to introduce financial support program because the occupants faced difficulty to prepare building cost.
Today, many railway stations of major cities in Japan are accommodated with the complex function, such as the large commercial facilities. These stations may change the city structures and eventually distort the city balance. On the other hand, the station used daily in the community may prescribe their views and values in life, and essentially, the station is the fecility to have the obligation to keep the public quality. The station under such circumstance can lose it, and that is what we are concerned about. This study, based on 46 stations in the seat of prefectual office, examines the transition of the concept for the public quality of station since the time of the establishment regarding its form and function to make proposals for its future.
In this paper, Competitive Facilities Location Problem (CFLP) based on a new Spatial Interaction Model that was presented in the previous paper is concerned. First, the formations of CFLP are given, and the method of finding the optimal location and the equilibrium location are presented. Secondly, location problems on a segment are dealt and optimal and equilibrium locations are analyzed. Next, location problems on a plane are dealt, and equilibrium locations in 2-dimensional space are analyzed. Through the investigation of equilibrium locations in different parameter (3 and density of facilities, many suggestive characteristics of the equilibrium facilities location in competitive environments are clarified.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how structural renewal of office space design would affect worker's evaluation for their work environment. In order to clarify the changes of worker's evaluation, we carried out a questionnaire survey and a measurement of physical characteristics, at the fourth floor of the office building in Hiroshima City. Simultaneously, the measurement and the survey were conducted over 4 times before and after the renewal in summer and winter. We analyzed the psychological effects of renewal according to the results obtained from the measurement and the survey. We also discussed important factors for making preferable office environment based on the comparison between the evaluation of the man and it of the woman.
On the gates of the Imperial Palace in the Edo Period, the following points were clarified. 1. The Shomeimon in the Imperial Palace, built in the Keicho era, had formal characteristics while the Gekkamon had informal ones. 2. The South gate in the Imperial Palace in the Keicho era, was built for the Enthronement. 3. Shomeimon and Nikkamon built in the Kansei era were used properly according to the kind of ceremonies as well as the Heian Palace. 4. The space of the Imperial Palace in the Edo Period are characterized by the ambiguities of the owning region of the Emperor.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the realities of the modern architectural trend through Mohan-mura that was designated by the Department of the Interior at the end of Meiji era. The architectural form, on which the Ministry envisaged, was similar to the Shoya house of the Edo era in style. On the contrary, the scholars on the science of agriculture, without the reference to the architectural form, merely emphasized the point that the public office was ideally equal to the Shoya house as a mayor's house in its meaning. Therefore, both seem to have envisaged in its concept that the public house in the Mohan-mura should evolve from the Shoya house established in the Edo era. It means that the Shoya house was employed to a public office as building type, with losing its status in the previous period.
The aim of this study is to clarify the designing principle of hotels during Taisho and early Showa period through examining the architectural handbooks and documents written by hotel managers or architects of the period. The profitability was found to be the most important factor for hotel managers in designing a hotel throughout the period. Although documents by architects and architectural handbooks before around 1930 ignored profitability aspect, guidelines which appeared in documents of the sort after the period directed architects to consider profitability. It shows that function and form became subordinate factor to profitability in designing hotels during the period.
This paper is intended as a study of the buildings of the Horonai Public Railway in Otaru for the period from 1884 to 1885. Since the removal of the Head Office to Temiya had been a great undertaking for three years, preparations for the establishment of the colliery and railway office and the transport of coal were considered. The process of the introduction of brick into the construction of buildings of the Horonai Public Colliery and the Railway were examined. The Temiya Locomotive Shed (1885) is an important building as the oldest brick locomotive shed in Japan. Survey research reveal the distinctive feature of the standard measure of the design , the brick masonry and the roof trusses. In the final chapter, the historical characteristics for the entire buildings are summarized.
The posterity of the Huangs have lived in Huangjiadawu. It consists of four kinds of fundamental units; type A, type B, type C, type D. Other rural houses consist of two fundamental units; type A, type E. Each fundamental unit has a tianjing, a tang and passages. We classified fundamental units according to their differences. An axis consists of a tianjing, a tang and passages. The main axis is more important than the sub axis and the little sub axis. Compared with fundamental units (type B, type C, type E) and axes of other rural houses, we clarified the following results. (1) Type E developed into type C in the little sub axis. (2) Type E developed into type B in the sub axis. (3) Type D is merely in Huangjiadawu. Their causes are the increase of rooms, the establishment of passages and the enlargement of living systems.
This paper seeks to analyse the logical structure of Gottfried Semper's "The Four Elements of Architecture" (1851), to explicate his thought of "polychromy" and remarkable ideas of his new theory "four elements of architecture". After this new theory, he searched toward the "beginnings" of architecture to grasp at "four elements" (hearth, mound, enclosure, and roof). He tried to describe architectural histories in terms of modifications of the four elements, because he thought that relations of the four elements could not be fixed, rather that each element could metamorphose independently according to conditions of racial characteristics, climates, topographies, etc. Strictly following this theory, the "polychroay" as wall finishing should be just a kind of spatial "enclosure" as one of "four elements of architecture", and the theme "polychromy", therefore, should be subsumed by the theme "four elements of architecture".
This research studies the wooden 3-storied hot spring inn architecture in Gunma Pref. As a result, the following became with obvious. 1. The description of the most ancient times that is related to 3-storied is 1818 years in Kusatsu hot spring. 2. 3-storied was occupying 50% of hot spring inn architecture in Minakami in Showa early period. 3. There was not the law that 3-storied prohibits in the Kusatsu hot spring in the Edo period. 3-storied was able to build even if it becomes around 1960. 4. 3-storied is built the 39 ridges in 1999 year present Gunma Pref. 5. Beside the era falls the 3-storied appearance becomes the designs that were taken up and the independence of the guest room rises.
Kikuyu has had great interests in trees, especially muhugu and muthaiti for the planks of wall of their traditional huts. The grammar of Kikuyu language illustrates well their interests and, among 10 classes of noun, almost all trees, different from other animals arid plants, belong to the class II Avith prefix mu- and mi- which have spirits connected with human being. In their purification ceremonies, trees played the roles as criteria for value jugement. Their "Thinking" caracterized with such interests shows the possibility for regaining the concreteness of "Things" based on their primitive wisdoms on "Dwelling" and "Building" of bricoleur.
This thesis will focus on the Western analysis and criticism of Japanese architecture. Many Western critics and architectural researchers have been trying to discover the hidden concepts of Japanese space. In order to understand this trend, a comparative analysis of the evolution of Japanese architecture and Western critics will be made. Then, observations will be made to trace the Western critics' interest in Japanese architecture. The evolution of their criticism might help us to discover many hidden concepts of space in Japanese architecture.
Dongje, village rites and festivals in Korea, is held in order to pray for village peace and new year's rich harvest. At the same time it plays an important role of the spatial constitution of a village. We concentrate on 'making rounds' of a village as a ritual activity and try to understand how it determines boundaries and articulates spaces. 'Making rounds' can be understood as '(sur) rouding' a kind of domain, which has relation to both the inside and outside of it. 'Making rounds', that is, 'between' inside and outside is also shown as not only 'horizontal' but also 'vertical' experience structure.
The aim of this study is to indicate an aspect of contemporary Japanese architects' discourses which have grown autonomically. Prized architects' discourses in the "SD REVIEW" are objects of study. The method is to collect sentences described in the passive voice from objects, and to classify them by meaning, and strength of the subject in one sentence into each three category. And six traditions are established by this operation, and arranged by structure which has degree of the disappearance of subject in one sentence. Consequently this study shows that the rhetoric is one factor to change architects' understandings for described architecture.
Oceanic architecture is easy to cause mold by reason of high humidity. Solar ultraviolet radiation has large disinfection power. The effect of ultraviolet radiation of coastal zone is higher than that of inland area due to the reflection from the sea surface. This study aims to ultraviolet radiation disinfection using sea reflection. We have carried out three experiments: experiment using ground reflection, experiment using sea reflection and solar directional experiment. As results, It is clear that disinfection effect is larger than in the case of using sea reflection and south direction.