A public housing reorganizing plan is needed to prepare for future population decline, but it is difficult to manually find a financially reasonable combination that allows tenants to relocate. Therefore, an algorithm to search for combinations that could be subject to a reorganizing plan for multiple housing estates was developed using depth-first search. This algorithm led to a combination of all housing blocks subject to the reorganizing plan for Hyuga Municipal Housing, and narrowed down the combinations with the lowest financial burden. Discovering the best combination is expected to lead to more effective reorganizing plans.
This study focuses on the mutual use of space and joint activities in school facilities complexed with community centers and other facilities nationwide. It aims to clarify the relationship between the mutual use of space and collaborative activities , also the connection between facilities and the characteristics of the complex form. Among the 443 school facilities complexed with community centers and other facilities collected by the author, 81 cases responded to the questionnaire survey for the study. As results, five points were pointed out: the connection between facilities, the form of integration, physical circulation between facilities, zoning, and free space.
This study aims at investigating how comprehensive child support centers are utilized, managed, and planned, then clarifying the defining characteristics of the centers based on questionnaire data collected from 611 centers. Consequently, the number of employees is two per a center on average, but it varies from one to 20. Public health nurses account for 45% although midwives account for only 5%. Multivariate analysis identifies four factors that significantly impact the number of users. Cross tabulation illustrates that the centers can be classified into two categories: one is provided at health centers and city halls; the other at child centers.
This study clarified the impact on living and support associated with transition of the living environment due to unitization at a support facility for persons with disabilities that was renovated on the same site, while grasping issues of renovating in steps.
This paper indicates that the calm life was created by not only environmental design intended to connection between the inside and outside of units/private rooms, but also environmental design that eases and controls stimulus such as planning of settings and planting. Renovation needs the environmental design with these comprehensive point of view.
In this paper, interviews and measurements were conducted to clarify the architectural characteristics of earth and stone masonry huts around Mihara City, Hiroshima Prefecture. The results showed that the huts were used for ash burning as a fertilizer for agriculture and for making compost. In many cases, stone pillars were used for fire and decay protection, and horizontal or vertical members were sometimes inserted inside the earth-stone masonry walls. Furthermore, the results were compared with previous studies that investigated the surrounding area to determine the regional characteristics of the plan shape and specifications of the earth-stone masonry walls.
Architects encounter a variety of limitations in the processes of design development and construction. From safety concerns to economic challenges, the presence of such limitations is a reflection of standards expected in professional practice that at times restrict design possibilities. However, some architects use these circumstances to their advantage, and in doing so, continuously redefine design conventions. In this research, we will study the design thinking that allows designers to subvert disadvantageous conditions for pioneering, unorthodox outcomes.
Through this study, the actual conditions of transition of residents' organizations and activities related to community revitalization, the details of activities, and the actual conditions of operation were clarified. The following elements were extracted as factors to promote residents' activities.
・Visualization of specific goals
・Knowledge and skills to achieve the goals
・Implementation plan based on reconstruction goals and regional conditions
Based on the above, it is necessary to study the establishment of a bottom-up regional revitalization approach.
This paper aims to clarify how the Ainu settlement is formed by focusing on the relationship between a characteristic of each settlement site and a village community in Nibutani based on “Granted Land Map”. The following points were clarified. 1) A pair of two sites between a road based on a pure direction is a primary factor of settlement patterns. 2) The location of a settled site reflects its habitant’s rank in a village community at the settled time. 3) The dominant person, settled in predominant location, determines the frame of settlements, and other members fill up between.
Compact city is becoming a key concept of urban planning for depopulation. Actually, living environment evaluation by residents will be changed due to physical environment change caused by land use rearrangement. Therefore, this study aims at clarifying the relation between resident’s living environment evaluations and their surrounding environments. Major findings are as follows: 1) the evaluation of “convenience” has large effects on the comprehensive satisfaction on their living environment. 2) The distance from some kinds of facilities has effects on the evaluation on “convenience”. 3) The evaluations on amenity of natural environment are affected by the building density.
Differentiation by annual income level was analyzed from the following three aspects.
1. The annual income and its changes of each town was estimated over time.
2. Classification and its characteristics of each town was analyzed according to their changes over time.
3. Differentiation of residential areas according to income levels was analyzed according to the population structure and spatial characteristics of each classified area.
This paper aims to clarify the restoration of detached houses after flood events in terms of construction works and costs. We conducted field research in the six regions affected by the floods which included technical surveys asking the builders and the residents what restoration works they performed in 22 houses flooded above the floor. After confirming the three different levels of the works according to the degree of completion, we analyzed what causal relationships the content of the works and the construction costs have with not only the magnitude of the flood but also construction year and building construction methods.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the early work of Nakamura Tatsutaro (1860–1942) titled Elementary Architecture. This study attempts to analyze it in terms of three aspects: architectural education, the publisher, and its translation. Nakamura wrote this book with the aim of training mid-career architectural engineers, and it was published by his father's publishing company. Nakamura translated books from overseas and wrote a series of articles as a draft in the Journal of Architecture in Japan, which he edited himself. This is a distinctive example of the process of accepting Western architecture in the Meiji period.
This study analyzes the process by which architect Masachika Murata collaborated with structural designer Fugaku Yokoyama to design Komazawa Olympic Park Stadium by examining the materials held by Kanazawa Institute of Technology and Tokyo Metropolitan Archives. The results show that 1) Komazawa Olympic Park Stadium was designed based on the Olympiastadion in Berlin, 2) although Murata proposed a large organic roof for the stands, it was changed to a more feasible design following discussions with Yokoyama, and 3) Komazawa Olympic Park Stadium was designed while keeping its post-Olympic use in mind.
This study analyzes the design process of architect Kiyonori Kikutake for the Aquapolis structure, and the design process of manga artist Osamu Tezuka for the exhibition space within Aquapolis based on sketches by Kikutake and interviews with the people involved. The results reveal that 1) Aquapolis was huge compared to the oil rigs of the 1970s, 2) Kikutake was inspired by ancient Greek temples and the arches of Japanese Shinto shrines when he considered the design of Aquapolis, and 3) Tezuka exhibited his concept of a city under the sea with the cooperation of Kikutake.
This article examines the specifications of nails in the architectural specifications of the Dajokan Kobunroku in the early Meiji period. The following points become clear.
In the specifications, until May 1876, ‘monme-kugi' and ‘sun-kugi’ of the traditional architectural nails were mainly used. After November 1874, descriptions of ‘syo-kugi’ and 'hon-kugi' appeared, after April 1879, there was a description of ‘Western nail’. After March 1876, it was found that the length of nails was uniformly doubled and a half. The spread of Western-style nails can be considered as a factor behind such a dizzying change in description.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of sugar refinery industry on the area development process in the Hualien between the 1900s and the 1920s.
Kada Kinzaburo was a pioneer in the area development in Hualien. The Government-General of Taiwan disposed to him two huge government lands. However, the farmland which his company cultivated was only a small area.
Three governmental immigrant villages were surrounded by farmlands which were cultivated by sugar companies. These villages and the farmlands became part of the restricted zone for raw material collection and helped in the progression of the area development.