Following Part 1 of the research, this paper, Part 2 continuously focuses on the educational environment of students who have profound and multiple disabilities and need daily medical care in schools for special needs education. The objective of the whole research was to identify the points needed for the development of school facilities from the perspective of medical care. The research method and the analytical data used in Part 2 are the same as those in Part 1. The nationwide questionnaires were conducted in 2015, targeting all schools (281) for special needs education with a department of physical disabilities in Japan. The responses from 160 schools (56.9%) were collected. In the questionnaires, we established the following sections and divided the problems based on their features such as priority, facilities improvement, or teachers' creativity: 1) problems solved through repair or renovation, 2) problems remaining despite repair or renovation, 3) problems that teachers cannot solve by themselves, 4) considerable problems in school planning despite teachers' capacity to manage them, and 5) problems solved through teachers' creative use of space and human resources. The data was analyzed using KH coder developed by Higuchi (2001) as text mining software. A total of 688 problems were obtained from the questionnaires. The co-occurrence networks by using the software in each section were drawn; through this method commonality of the problems could be sought. In Part 1, the problems and teachers' requirements for improving school facilities through the analysis of section 1 -4 were recognized. In Part 2, based on the analysis of section 5, the teachers' creative usage of space and human resources to solve problems were illustrated. In addition, a cross-sectional study of 1–5 was implemented. From the results, three main points to improve the educational environment were discovered. First, regarding the classroom planning from the perspective of medical care, a major problem that need to be considered was the limited amount of space for activities in classrooms, which was much more limited than expected. In classrooms, teachers had a tendency to create a corner for medical care and set up various equipment up such as humidifiers and air cleaners to prevent infections from spreading, pots that contained hot water to wash medical care products, carts to put commodities on such as suction equipment, general educational materials and self-supporting tools. Second, we identified the specific needs to improve facilities aside from classrooms, they are; medical care rooms, restrooms and the water supply. Medical care rooms are required to be located near classrooms and the infirmary and they must have adequate space for vital checks and medical care for multiple students at the same time. Restrooms tended to have a lot of problems even after being repaired or renovated, so it was important to consider the number of restrooms, the required space for care and changing of diapers, plus the ease to support those with physical disabilities. Water supply is an absolute necessity in classrooms and lunch rooms in order to wash students' hands and the medical goods. Finally, the characteristics of each need tended to be different depending on the type of medical care required. For tube fed students, lunch rooms should have adequate space so they can spend lunch with their friends. For catheterization, there needs to be an appropriate number of special booths and space, a required bed, appropriate layout to support students and sufficient lighting. For tracheotomy and the suctioning of phlegm, air conditioners, humidifiers and air cleaners are vital to prevent the spread of infections.
Introduction: Regional climate is an important element in architectural design. In particular, from the viewpoint of environmental problems and energy conservation, the passive design that uses natural energy effectively by architectural methods is getting its importance. V. Olgyay said there are three steps to create a comfortable indoor climate in a book “Design with climate”. Composite design based on consideration of the outdoor environment, architectural method and equipment is important for passive design. Thus, the importance of the architectural method is explained. Junzo Yoshimura (1908-1997) designed numerous houses in the postwar Japan, emphasizing architectural ingeniousness in addition to machinery facilities, consistently pursued the comfort of the housing. It is assumed that Yoshimura's architecture and thought to the environment are projected in works and discourses such as proportions of space, windows, openings that can be opened to the full, screens and fireplaces. This paper aims to clarify the intentionality towards environmental design in Yoshimura's housing work as seen from the spatial composition of the living room.
Methods: First, location characteristics of the house were examined. To analyze the location characteristics and the arrangement of the main space, we examined the arrangement of the buildings, the building coverage, and the arrangement of the main spaces. Second, way of closing the main space was examined. The connection between the main space and the outside air, the volume of the main space, and the existence of voids were examined. Furthermore, way of opening the main space was examined. As a characteristic of the window connected to the outdoor, the window-wall ratio and the window openable ratio were examined. Third, based on all these results, spatial composition of closing and opening the main space was classified by the matrix. In addition, fixtures such as the fireplace, shoji screen were examined. From these typologies, Yoshimura's intentionality towards design of combination of thermal and air was analyzed.
Results: 1) Dominant arrangement of the building and the main space was northward and south in spacious condition such as site area and building coverage. 2) In the whole space, external and internal connecting were almost the same number but the tendency is different for each part. A match between the median of volume and the proportion of the plane favorably used by Yoshimura was found. Windows were mainly based on mechanisms that can be opened and closed. Large and small windows were dominantly used differently with mechanism of ventilation adopted in all directions. 3) Typological analysis of spatial composition showed tendencies when the boundary surface is external, the window-wall ratio was low, and in the case of internal, the window-wall ratio was high. Also, when the room volume was large, the window openable ratio was low, and in the case of small, the window openable ratio was high. Thus, many complimentary combinations were found, indicating that there was an intention to maintain balance in each of the thermal and air systems.
Conclusion: In this research, on the domestic housing works of Yoshimura, it systematically was examined the spatial characteristics from the viewpoint of architectural design in the thermal environment.
The district of Ogatsu is located to the east of Ishinomaki, a city in Miyagi Prefecture. Several small fishing villages in that area were destroyed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Since 2012, we have helped disaster victims make plans to move to higher ground and into disaster accommodation. This paper presents their preferred locations for reconstruction and the locational features of new towns made by group relocations for disaster prevention in Ogatsu. In 2012, the Ishinomaki government surveyed the final opinions of affected households about housing reconstruction. Analysis of the data revealed several issues. Most of the victims wished to live close to where they had originally resided. In districts where the proportion of affected households was low, many of the affected householders wanted the reconstruction to be where they had previously lived. Sixteen new towns have been built in Ogatsu. They are located in places that offer views of the sea and access to the nearby harbor. They are also close to main roads. They can be divided into three types according to the relationship with existing villages. Among them, one type consisted of towns built in the vicinity of existing villages in districts with a low damage rate. Comparing the opinions of affected households about housing recovery in 2011 with 2017, the number of householders who hoped to move back to Ogatsu decreased by 48.0%. The rates of reduction were particularly high in cases where the extent of damage was high or new towns were taking too long to build. Regarding the conveniences of daily life, small fishing villages are poor compared with urban areas. Only residents who needed to live in such villages returned there after the reconstruction. This trend is very evident in Ogatsu. Many of the householders who moved back to Ogatsu are elderly and engaged in fishing. It is necessary for them to live near the fishing harbor together with people in their local community and to be able to observe the sea from their new towns.
We collected literature about the historical background and recent research on Hongcun Village in China as far as possible. We also clarified the historical background of the water system, such as ditches and ponds that form the skeleton of village space, based on both reference materials and interviews with residents and officials. In addition, we conducted fixed-point observation and listening investigation to residents to grasp the space configuration of water networks and water utilization works, the water utilization forms, corresponding habits of residents and the management mode. We also conducted photo research and field survey of all the paths of the waterway in the village. Besides, for those dwelling units which have yard fishpond, we had performed site inspections and photographic recordings wherever were allowed by their owners and we had also measured some sites as much as possible. This paper studied on the Hongcun Village which is developed based on the Feng Shui philosophy, mainly from the aspects below: (1) The historical process of forming the village space led by the Feng Shui; (2) The roles of water and water space in the water system of Hongcun Village, which frames the village's space formation. (3) The formation history and spatial structure of the waterway network, as well as the history of water utilization space and facilities, the formation of ponds and lakes within the village. (4) The utilization and management of water and water space which support the villagers' daily life. Our results showed that the village's spatial configuration well reflects the water system, meanwhile, the water system had been incorporated into the villagers' life. However, under the influence of internal and external factors such as the spread of waterworks and the increasing of tourists, the water system has been deviating from the original way though it had been rooted in the daily life of residents for long. Typically, the compliance with the convention of using waterway worsened, and some the waterway had been polluted.
The purpose of this research is to derive an equilibrium arrangement of commercial distribution based on the economic principle, considering the influence of customers purchasing behavior on commercial distribution. Explicitly considering the locational cost and facility capacity, we specifically extended the concept of equilibrium in balancing-mechanism and we consider trade-off relationship between purchase and locational cost. By proposing a mathematical programming problem that simultaneously satisfies equilibrium conditions while leaving the purified formulation, we can propose a generalized mathematical model of the market equilibrium. Considering the reality, it is obvious that the building capacity is finite and the rent in the commercial accumulation areas will be higher. Therefore considering such a model is very important. First of all, we outline the formulation of the balancing-mechanism. Then, we derive the mathematical programming problem that satisfies balancing-mechanism and discuss its mathematical characteristics. Concretely, we discuss about the convexity of the objective function in the mathematical programming problem. This means the optimum solution for each condition is unique. Secondly, we introduce locational cost and facility capacity which are essential concepts when the commercial accumulation is being considered. This model is a comprehensive model on more commercial distribution of the market equilibrium. Then , we indicate that this model can also be represented by a mathematical programming problem satisfying the equilibrium condition and show the discussion on the uniqueness of solutions can be developed by the form of functions of α, other parameters and locational cost. We also show this model include balancing-mechanism and it can be expected to develop into a real space in consideration of locational cost and facility capacity. While performing numerical analysis, we change some parameters. For the balancing-mechanism in the repeating calculation and the mathematical optimization method, in the case where α is less than 1, it was the same result. It can be said that the validity of the mathematical programming problem satisfy the balancing-mechanism. On the other hand, in the case where α is more than 1, these results are not the same due to the fact that the objective function of the mathematical programming problem may be a non-convex function. In that case, the local equilibrium solution may appear as a solution. When mathematical programming problem considers locational cost and facility capacity, in the case where there is no locational cost and the facility capacity is not effective, this model shows the same result as the balancing-mechanism. Furthermore, when α is more than 1, the amount of the commercial is large and the facility capacity is effective, it can be seen that commercial distribution is spreading. And the commercial distribution spreads evenly when locational cost is effective. From these results, it can be said that our model closer to real space could be proposed. In this research, commercial distribution is derived without changing the distribution of living. In adapting to the real space, further expansion of the urban model of this research, such as a model having interaction including jobs, housing and commercial, is an attractive task in the future. Considering the system dynamics of the city could be an interesting future task. It should also be generalized to grasp more than one equilibrium point and consider thresholds while shifting to another equilibrium.
In the Tokyo Metropolitan suburbs, the clustering of retailers has resulted in highly densified commercial clusters around railway stations. These areas play important roles as the commercial center for the suburbs. However, recent observations indicate a trend of rising housing development spurred by increased demand for residential real estate within the proximity of the station. This paper clarifies the environmental issues faced by these commercial areas that have resulted from the increment in housing development. The analysis on the dynamic change of the number of households and housing development is conducted through field survey and statistical study on 87 sites. According to the National Census, the average number of households in station centered commercial area has increased. Although this increase is generally considered important for commercial revitalization, the number of retailers in these commercial areas has been witnessed to decline between 2005 and 2015 in 73.9% of the target sites. Apart from the observed “residentializing” trend, this phenomenon is further accompanied by changes in housing types. The proportion of household living in privately-owned houses and medium-to-high-rise housing is on the rise in all sites. Along with the increase in the number of households, the number of single dwellers and families composed of only elderly has been increasing significantly. The fluctuations in the ratio of production-age households and households including children has different effects depending on the site characteristics. Public facility developments for residents have not necessarily responded to the trend of household changes. Through the spatial data analysis of facility development between 2009 and 2016, it has been clarified that the ratio of welfare and medical facilities per household has been declined. The one fourth of target areas public parks has also been developed, but they are not sufficient to meet the growth of residential demand. Uncontrolled housing development without public facility development is an identified problem to be considered. This research also focuses on case studies of commercial areas around the Kashiwa station and the Motoyawata station to provide details on the “residentializing” process at the district scale. Housing development has increased remarkably by more than 25% over the last 10 years in these commercial areas. The comparison of the two sites indicates that there are three common housing development types in both areas: (1) Skyscraper condominium developments close to a station by urban redevelopment project, (2) medium-to-high-rise housing development in each retail site and (3) low-rise housing development situated at areas with poor road accessibility. Half of these developments are developed as strictly residential use housing and therefore do not contribute to the commercial activity of the area. There are also concerns about the negative influence for public facilities standards. In Japan, it is expected that compact city policy will lead to more and more housing developments in station centered commercial areas. In order to improve the residential environment in the future and encourage residents activity and diversity of activities in station centered commercial area, these areas should be redeveloped as mix-use areas, thus allowing public, commercial and residential to be more present.
Japanese cities have alleys (roads narrower than 4 meters) that are densely lined with small houses on both sides. These alleys serve as places for private activities that support local communities and facilitate transportation. Alleys are characterized by physical elements that overflow from private spaces, including potted plants, ornaments, cleaning equipment, and bicycles. Potted plants in particular are a typical and essential example of the self-expressive elements of private life that indicate the private space of residents, activate their local communities, and finally lead to their sense of security. The positive effects of overflowing potted plants have been revealed in the existing literature. A close relationship exists between the physical structure of alleys and potted plants. Previous studies have analyzed how the characteristics of houses affect the number and location of potted plants. They revealed that the absence of gardens, steps separating the alley and house, and sliding doors with windows promote potted plants. However, other characteristics of alleys have not yet been fully discussed, including the density of buildings and setback distance. To fill this gap, this paper analyzed the relationship between the physical characteristics of alleys and the distribution of potted plants. In order to select an empirical study area, we identified neighborhoods in the Tokyo Metropolitan area that contain many houses and alleys and selected the area around Nezu station. Then, we surveyed roads in this area and recorded the number and location of potted plants. The density of potted plants and the houses to which they belonged were estimated along road networks. In addition, we collected data on the following physical environmental indicators: road width, length, distance to wide roads, building use, setback distance, frontage. The effect of these indicators on the number of potted plants and the number of houses with potted plants was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. We found that the overflow of potted plants tends to be more abundant if the following conditions are satisfied: 1) the road is narrower; 2) the buildings are denser; 3) the setback distance is shorter; 4) the frontage is narrower; 5) the distance to roads wider than 6 meters is shorter; and 6) the rate of buildings that are three stories or smaller is higher. The first three conditions mean that there are more self-expressive elements in densely built-up environments, and consequently, it is supposed that the relationship among residents is better. Considering the function of potted plants as a territorial marker, it is suggested that in a dense environment, the residents initially establish their exclusive territory by placing potted plants, but these plants consequently nurture a better relationship among residents with their conciliatory functions. These results are possible generalizations for densely built-up areas; therefore, finding a way to apply as many of these conditions as possible in densely populated residential areas is recommended. For example, many of these conditions can be imposed by district plans based on the City Planning Act that allow for restrictions on land use, floor-area ratio, building coverage, setback distance, and the layout of community roads. Moreover, it is possible to preserve alleys as so-called “sanko roads” that are specially permitted to remain narrow according to Paragraph 3, Article 42 of the Building Standards Act. If Paragraph 3 is applied to narrow alleys, additional disaster prevention strategies are required. Considering the results of previous research and this paper, the community promotion and disaster prevention could be compatible if two-way evacuation and access to wide roads are satisfied.
In Japan, the era of declining population, the approach to realize compact city is accelerating. In doing so, maintaining the Area Division is considered important for these. However, the operation of the Area Diversion in the era of population decline is inconsistent with the purpose and contents at the time of enactment. As a result, there is concern about maintaining Area Division. On the other hand, from the movement to improve the downtown, the deterioration of the convenience of living in the suburbs will be feared in the future. Based on the above, we recognize that the way the future of the Urbanization Promotion Area marginal area looks from the viewpoint of living convenience is an issue. Based on this fact, this study focuses on living convenience, considering the relationship between the development permitted area and the living convenience in the Urbanization Control Area, and considering how to induce development in the Urbanization Control Area. In the selection of the target city, we set the conditions and target five cities of Ichikawa City, Kusatsu City, Funabashi City, Mito City, Yachiyo City, which satisfy them. First, we analyzed the living convenience situation of the target city. As a result, the existence of convenient areas with the same level as the Urbanization Promotion Area was confirmed in each city even in the Urbanization Control Area. Secondly, we will grasp the content of ordinance development in Urbanization Control Area and analyze distribution of development permission area. when arranging the designation of the area specified in Article 34, No. 11 of the city planning law, there are condition designation (Ichikawa city, Funabashi city, Yachiyo city) and specified designation (Kusatsu city). Also, in Mito city, both designations are used in combination. Next, we look at the characteristics of the distribution of the development permitted area in the Urbanization Control Area. Under the condition designation is to be seen that is development in enclaves from the urbanization area and cities where urban sprawl development is being done (Funabashi city and Mito city) . Specific designation is developed in a certain area within a certain area and is characterized by highly developed proximity to Urbanization Promotion area. It is consistent with the land use shown in the city Planning Master Plan. Thirdly, the living convenience of the development permitted area in the Urbanization Control Area was evaluated As a result, Kusatsu City has many developments in areas with higher convenience than the other four cities, and development in areas with low convenience is small. Based on the above, in Kusatsu City in this research subject city, As a result there are many developments in the high area of convenience. Because it does not specify standards in the ordinance, but considering the convenience as a social condition and specifying the developable area. In addition, the operation of Kusatsu City is strongly consistent with the land use policy shown in the Urban Planning Master Plan, so it can be said that the operation of the 3411 ordinance is different from other cities. Through these measures, by increasing the number of residents in the area with high convenience even in the Urbanization Control Area, we have stopped withdrawing the living-based convenience facilities from the suburbs, the sustainability of the suburbs has increased and the landowners in the adjustment area are raised I think that consideration can be made. As above, the way of development permission operation in the Urbanization Control Area, if the area with high convenience is seen in the Urbanization Control Area of the urbanization promotion area margin, I think that it is worth considering allowing development aggressively.
Activities related to community development are carried out throughout Japan. Since the Act on Promotion of Specified Non-profit Activities took effect, the leading role has shifted from local governments to regions involving local residents and experts. Moreover, the activities cover a wider range of fields. Focusing on region-based community development, this study examines the sustainability of community development activities based on the mutual relationships among people, activities, places, and time. This paper identifies trends in the activities carried out by certified NPOs in Chiba prefecture and the characteristics of the community development activities. It also examines the sustainability of the community development activities from the perspective of the consciousness of the activity organizations (operators) that play a central part in the community development activities. As a result, the following characteristics were revealed. 1) When examining the characteristics of the community development activities as revealed by the trends in the activities by certified NPOs in Chiba, the activities performed in connection with other activity fields and those performed solely as community development activities are generally equal in number. Thus, the community development activities are in good balance with other activities. 2) The community development activities include “events,” “revitalization,” “formation of landscapes,” and “cleaning and beautification.” There is a tendency for many of these activities to correlate with other activity fields. 3) One characteristic of the activity organizations (operators and general citizens) that promote the community development activities is that senior local residents (around 60 years of age) are involved in the operation of the activity organizations, regardless of whether or not the activities correlate with other activity fields. 4) The average activity frequency is higher when the activities correlate with other activity fields rather than carried out separately. Similarly, the total activity time (hours/month) tends to be longer when the activities correlate with other activity fields rather than carried out separately. Moreover, many community development activities are carried out within cities, which indicates that the community development activities are carried out in the regions in which the activity organizations are based. 5) The consciousness of the operators of the community development activities were studied from the aspects of the activity purposes, the significance of the activities, and the continuation of the activities. The operators have a positive attitude toward community development in the regions and are strongly aware of their connection with the local people in carrying out various activities involving the daily lives of the people. As a result, they have a sense that performing the community development activities has brought about beneficial effects and results. It seems that this attitude of the operators has led to awareness of the continuation of the community development activities. Thus, there is a tendency that the operators are aware that they will continue with the community development activities in the future while emphasizing their connection with the local residents and governments. The above findings indicate that the operators’ consciousness and thoughts about the people (primarily local residents), activities, and places (regions) will continue to greatly affect the sustainability of community development activities in the future. In a future report, we plan to identify the characteristics of the participants in community development activities and study sustainable community development activities by examining the involvement of the operators and participants.
Urban blocks and road networks are the basic spatial elements which compose urban form. Since urban blocks are the geometrical inverse of road networks, urban block patterns are regarded as the results of plane tessellations by road networks. In recent years, central government of Japan has promoted the land readjustment projects in order to meet the demands for large building lots in mega cities such as Tokyo. In the process of land readjustment projects, small urban blocks (less than 2,000 m2) are merged into a large urban block. However, we lack the theoretical basis for considering the effects of micro scale design (e.g. the edge length of an urban block and the length between the two consecutive intersections) on the macro scale design (urban block patterns and urban block sizes). This is the substantive motivation of this article. In the theory and practical applications of urban planning, complete grid patterns of road networks and urban blocks have been considered as the normative patterns. However, on the basis of complete grid patterns, it is impossible to analyze the relationship between the patterns of road networks and urban blocks and variation of urban block sizes. Although, as the results of land readjustment projects, patterns of road networks and urban blocks are changed, their effects on urban block sizes have not been investigated theoretically in the literature. Our research objectives are, by relaxing the complete grid patterns, 1) to investigate theoretically the effect of variation of urban block patterns on the variation of urban block sizes; and 2) to provide the theoretical basis for considering the micro- and macro-scale design mentioned above. In this article, we model urban block patterns based on 4 by 4 square-grid block patterns called a region, by relaxing the following two conditions: 1) all intersections are intersections of order 4 and 2) the intersection of North-South and East-West major roads is the center of this region. It is found that 1) urban block sizes follow a log-normal distribution; 2) under the latter condition, relaxing the former condition, decomposing a intersection of order 4 into two intersections of order 3 and making their locations random variable, makes the variation of urban block sizes smaller; 3) by relaxing the latter condition, making the location of major roads random variable, makes the variation of urban block sizes smaller. The last finding implies that a large scale planned road networks tends to make the variation of urban block sizes larger than unplanned ones. Also, as the result of empirical analysis based on the size distribution of urban blocks, it is found that, if average urban block size (gross) after readjustment projects is targeted to 10,000 m2, by setting the minimum criteria of the edge length of an urban blocks as 50 meters, almost all of urban block sizes are more than 2,000 m2. These theoretical and empirical findings contributes to provide the theoretical basis for considering the micro- and macro-scale design mentioned above.
This paper explores the stratification of multiple-property ownership within the context of Japan's post-growth society. In many mature home-ownership economies, increasing numbers of homeowners have invested in acquiring additional properties with expectations of accumulating real estate assets and obtaining rent incomes. This has been analyzed in relation to the concept of housing asset-based welfare. In post-growth Japan that is characterized by demographic and economic stagnation, however, high-income households often possess additional properties that produce rent incomes, whereas low-income households tend to suffer from burdens imposed by obligations to manage vacant properties that cannot be sold or rented out due largely to unfavorable location and dilapidation.
The paper draws on a questionnaire survey on owners of multiple-properties who live in big cities, in terms of investigating and highlighting divisions between those who own additional properties as ‘wealth’ and those who own vacant properties as ‘waste’. Rich households have tended to purchase multi-family housing properties in urban areas, augmenting assets and earning rent incomes. Lower-income households, who are often aged, have in many cases inherited single-family housing located in provincial regions where they were born and brought up and have faced difficulties in disposing of such properties due to demographic and economic decline in the region. In the field of housing studies, many researchers have considered multiple-property ownership to be the store of wealth. Therefore, Japan provides an important case study with regards to the division of housing properties into ‘wealth’ and ‘waste’, in light of developing debates on residential-property-based welfare.
1. Introduction When carrying out repetitive works in building construction, workers are divided into several work teams; then, each team is allocated its individual works to proceed with a whole process relaying works to other teams. For example, one team transports a component from a stockyard to a place to be installed, then, another team receives and installs it. In this paper, the author proposes a model for representing worker allocation in a group work process and a mixed integer program model to optimize the resource allocation of a group work process, and verifies its validity using a case study.
2. Group work process A group work process means a series of works in a specific work area, on a floor, or in a dwelling unit. To minimize the number of workers to be allocated to a group work process, workers should synchronize with their works by relaying their works to other works. In order to make works synchronize with other works, several alternatives are provided regarding the relationship between the number of workers and the duration.
3. Constraints of worker allocation planning in a group work process For the optimization of worker allocation in a group work process, the following constraints must be taken into consideration: (1) Precedences in a group work process (2) Relayed works and collaborative works (3) Assigned work process for free works (4) Relationship between the number of workers and the duration in each work (5) The maximum number of available work teams in an assigned work process (6) The maximum period permitted (7) The maximum number of workers allocated (8) The number of iterations The optimization has the following two objectives: (1) To minimize the period by setting the upper limit of the number of workers (2) To minimize the number of workers by setting the upper limit of the period.
4. Optimization of a group work process based on mixed integer programming Here presents a modeling method using a mixed integer programming. To obtain the number of zero-one integer variables of a model, the number of works should be multiplied by the number of periods to be assigned. In order to reduce the number of variables, modeling is carried out only for the first iteration in a group work process. Then, based on the work model, the author presents constraints of mixed integer programming model.
5. Application for a case study A case study is carried out on a group work process consisting of four assigned work processes to optimize the worker allocation planning. In a case study, the number of components is assumed to be 20, whereas the limit of the whole work period is set to be 350 minutes. As a result of modeling, the number of zero-one integer variables are 4,930, and the number of constraints are 13,934. The mixed integer programming model was solved using SCIP. The optimization requires about 13 hours. Based on the results by mixed integer programming, resource allocation scheduling is carried out. Then, the author confirmed that it is possible to optimize the work process with the number of workers and the period in a group work process.
6. Conclusion In a group work process, works deals with many components and usually iterates as many times as the number of the components. The method which the author presents would contribute to applying mixed integer programming to the optimization for planning of a group work process within available time range.
Mt. Oyama, also called Afuri-yama (rainfall mountain), is located at the east end of Tanzawa-sanchi mountains in the central west part of Kanagawa prefecture. The foundation and origin of the temple and shrine can be traced back as far as ancient times. In the early-modern times, the temple was revived under the patronage of the Tokugawa government so that a management organization was formed for autonomy, composed of Hachidai-bo (eight great monks) and Juni-bo (twelve branch temples). At the same time, Mt. Oyama was determined as a sacred precinct, so Shugenja (mountain ascetics) had to leave the temple to be "Oshi (priests)" and lived along the approach to the temple forming a Monzen-machi (temple town). The precinct and the temple town developed with the series of Tokugawa Ieyasu's "Sannai-kaikaku (precinct reformation)" until the end of Edo period. The greatest feature of Mt. Oyama in the Edo period was that "Oyama-mairi (visiting Oyama)" by Oshi and Danka (patron household) won popularity throughout the Kanto region. At its peak, around a million of people were said to believe in the mountain, organizing Ko (associations) in different parts of the region to make vicarious visits to the temple. They were called "Danka (patron household)" and traveled to the temple with the guidance of a specific Oshi. In addition to providing lodging, visiting Dankas' houses that were scattered throughout the Kanto region one by one to offer Ofuda (talismans) and prayers was Oshi's another function. They developed routes that connect different areas with Oyama, and stayed at a specific Dankas' house to make their round. In this way, both Oshi and Danka traveled over a wide area to make a dynamic social structure function. Oshi acted as an intermediary between the temple and the Danka. They served under the Oyama-dera temple and located between the sacred precinct and the secular society. This paper aimed to recover the outline and analyze the characteristics of the mansions of Juni-bo (twelve branch temples) in Oyama-dera temple precinct and the houses of Oshi in its temple town by collecting and comprehending relative historical materials. It focused on the second half of the Edo period, when "Oyama-mairi (visiting Oyama)" became prosperous, through the end of Edo and the beginning of Meiji periods to give a consideration from the perspective of architectural history. Consequently, it was indicated that the mansions and the houses had their own characteristics along with interactive elements. The Juni-bo mansions were divided into outward and inward parts. A midway area was also recognized. Three doorways of the front, side, and service entrances reflected the existence of each interior space. Several rooms joined the Butsuma (altar room), where Buddhist services were practiced, to the front entrance, and a Tamari-no-ma (anteroom) was also laid out in between. Spatial hierarchy was thus clearly set from the front to the back, and the configuration of the rooms regulated the approach route to control the path of flow. On the other hand, Oshi's houses contained a large kitchen space as an office to deal with pilgrims, and the entrance and exit were separated to ensure smooth and effective flow. Each function reflected the fact that the buildings were Shuku-bo (pilgrims' lodgings) that accommodated many visitors in a short period of time. At the same time, the Juni-bo mansions also had a large kitchen space and separate entrance and exit, taking pilgrims visit into account. Likewise, Oshi's houses also had a Zashiki (tatami room) at their innermost with several rooms joined to produce spatial hierarchy. Thus it can be said that the elements of the mansions and the houses interacted each other.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this research was to clarify the characteristics of the spatial structures of the Okura-syo owned by Takada Domain located at the Imamachi Port. Chapter 2: Previous researches and the procedure of this study are shown. Chapter 3: There were more than one Okura at the Sekikawa Riverside in the times of the rule by the Sakakibara Family, the third trimester of Edo period. One of them wasowned by shogunate. The name is “Zyomai-kura”. Other Okuras was owned by Takada Domain. The "Kenno-kura", "Kari-kura", and "Shin-kura" owned by the Takada Domain were surrounded by banks, were forming an Okura-syo. I called it "Shitokuji-okura-syo", and showed the spatial structures. Those Okuras were the same size and the front faced the river bank. The each door was connected to the river bank through the path. The gates of Okura-syo were opened to the paths. The Okura set at the lowland of the estuary was built on the podium because there was a risk of flood damage. For this reason, the path connecting the door and the gates wasa ramp. The inspection station was located at the river bank and outside the premises. Okura was a storehouse built by wood and soil, however it was covered with a "Amaya" that is a building to protect the Okura from rain. In the Okura, the window was opened for each partition in order to prevent damages to rice. Chapter 4: I compared Shitokuji-okura-syo with the other Okura-syo that had different purpose and built in different location. The first is the Okura-syo owned by domains used for collecting tax rice, the second is storehouse owned by domain at the rice market, the third is the Okura-syo in theTakadacastle.TheShitokuji-okura-syohadadifferentspatialstructuresfrom anyofthese.Fromthefactthatthe"Gogura"(The storehouse built by village) in the heavy snowfall area of the Echigo Province had the "Amaya", it was pointed out that the Okura had regionality. Chapter 5: In conclusion, I mentioned what this research revealed. The Shitokuji-okura-syo was different type of building arrangement from the other Okura-syo owned by domains that were used for collecting the tax rice. The following two things were considered as a reason of formation. The first one is management by wholesaler. The second one is the location of Okura-syo that was located on the estuary.
This paper is a study based on surveys conducted for Tokujin-do at Koishikawa Korakuen Garden, a site designated as a Special Historic Site and a Place of Special Scenic Beauty, located in Bunkyo Ward in Tokyo. Tokujin-do was reroofed and partially repaired from December 2012 to March 2014 during which time traces and marks left in the building were examined and historical materials were analysed. A separate study discusses Tokujin-do from a historical point of view while also investigating the changes made to the alcove and the images which it enshrined. However, previous studies which focus mainly on the early modern period have not examined changes that occurred thereafter. Furthermore, there is no reference to an architectural examination of the building other than its alcove. Since the latest surveys conducted for the building have revealed that parts of the roof and some of the fixtures had been renovated during and after the late modern period, this study will analyse the survey results and summarize the changes made to Tokujin-do from its construction to the present. Based on this study, the changes made to Tokujin-do can be summarized as follows. (1) Tokujin-do was constructed during the period of 1665 and 1669 (Kanbun 5-9) to enshrine the images of Tai Bo, Boyi and Shuqi. It is possible that vegetal materials were used for the roof covering. (2) During the period of 1700 and 1702 (Genroku 13-15), the building changed its name firstly to Koshi-do, then to Shaka-do. Tile roofing was used at this point. (3) After 1718 (Kyoho 3), the name was changed to Hachiman-do and the alcove was made smaller. This was also when the images of Tai Bo, Boyi and Shuqi were transferred to a different place. (4) In 1820 (Bunsei 3), when the building was renamed Tokujin-do once again, the frontage of the alcove was widened to hold the newly created images of Boyi and Shuqi. Thereafter, the building and images were partially repaired during the Edo period. (5) During the first half of the Meiji period (1868-1887), extensive repair works took place, which involved the dismantling of the roof truss, frame and its surroundings as well as the floor face. The roof covering was made with shingles. (6) From then on until this day, the building has been repeatedly reroofed using different roofing material such as iron sheets and copper sheets. This study examines Tokujin-do from historical sources as well as from surveys and an analysis of the building itself. The findings from the paper will not only help explain the importance of Tokujin-do in relation to Confucianism architecture, but should also contribute to further studies of garden design history as well as in the fields of politics, philosophy and religion.
This research is a clarification of the process of modern transformations to auditorium of the Yasukuni-Shrine-Nohgakudoh and a consideration of the Noh theater's auditorium. It focuses on analyzing the types of seating and their measurements, the social classes of the audience, and the changes in seeing style. To begin, this research has analyzed alterations to the seating area using the area's existing period 1 and period 2 floor plans. This consideration was based on the following five points: the number of seats in the seating area, the measurements of the seats, the number of seat rows, the number of aisles, and the number of steps. Firstly, it has been confirmed that the number of seats and seat rows, aisles, and steps in the seating area have increased, whilst the length and width of the seats has been reduced. Next, the area divisions of the seating area were analyzed. The area divisions are presently divided into the following sections: ‘Syomen‘, ‘Waki-syomen’ and ‘jiura’. In the period 2 remodeling plans, it has been established that only ‘jyariba’ section was planned. It can be seen that each area division has mutual boundaries which have a distinct mechanism, resulting in this analysis focusing on the aisle arrangements. Furthermore, because the location of the stage exit has changed, it can be established that this is the main reason for the diagonal arrangement of the aisles from the noh stage. However, because it was not clear why ‘jyariba’ section was planned in the above analysis, there is also a focus on analyzing the relationship between the seating measurements and the area divisions. In the period 2 remodeling plans, there is a connection between the seat measurements and the different area divisions, which is why ‘jyariba’ section was assigned the shortest seat length. Because the number of people per seat are influenced by the seat measurements, this prompted the stipulation of the number of people allowed into the performance. The result of this was that, firstly, the number of people allowed per seat decreased from five people to four. There also began a tendency to not limit the upper class seating to only audience members from elite social classes. These phenomena support the change in the aforementioned audience seating. Moreover, the introduction of individual seating further confirms the trend in the diversification of the types of audience. Consequently, there is a connection between the transformation of area divisions and the change in seat measurements, which was influenced by the decrease in the number of people allowed per seat. The most important thing that is demonstrated in the above trend is that the number of steps and the expansion of aisles, together with the ideology of functionalism and the homogenization of viewing environments, shows there have been attempts to deal with the diversification of seeing style and the formation of area divisions according to minor changes in existing seating. This trend, by introducing modern facilities such as the proscenium arch and chair seating, makes evident that the homogenization of the entire auditorium of modern theater, but also establishes a turning point for the distinctive appearance of the Noh theater.
The classical Doric temple of Hephaisteion at Athens, is one of the best preserved ancient Greek temples, and the remains have traces of conversion to a Christian church in later periods. This paper examines an intention of this conversion through an analysis of alterations carried out on the roof and ceiling which changed most parts them. To discuss the intention of those who carried out the alterations, this study focuses on the following points; the drainage systems of the barrel vault, the cross sectional shape of the vault and the routes of the drainages. Looking at these aspects, the following three points became clear. Firstly, after the conversion, the ceilings over the peristyles of the building were exposed to the elements. Secondly, the height and inclination of the vault was constructed with the notion of the original pediment. Finally, when constructing the drainage systems, the people who carried out the alternation dared to select ceiling beams with cross entablature and cornices for added structural strength.
This paper looks at changes over time in the construction procedure of ceilings of cross-in-square churches, one of the most common architecture in the Middle Byzantine period (9th–12th centuries), focusing on the three-dimensional characteristics of all churches within Byzantine territories. The churches are classified according to the arrangement of arches, floor plan, and the number of transverse arches on each corner bay. Two principal construction procedures are evident throughout the Middle Byzantine period: procedure likes a centralised church building and procedure likes a domed basilica building. Moreover, a mixture or hybrid of these two emerged in the 12th century.
Philadelphia Saving Fund Society Building (PSFS Building) is a high-rise office building constructed in Philadelphia, the U.S. in 1932, designed by Howe and Lescaze Architects. PSFS Building is known as one of the two skyscrapers referred in “The International Style” written by H. R. Hitchcock and P. Johnson and also known as the second overall air-conditioned office building in the U.S. However, since the introduction of overall air-conditioning was decided during the construction phase, two schemes coexisted: the scheme based on natural ventilation and day lighting and those based on air-conditioning. This indicates that PSFS Building has important characteristics for considering the history of development of high-rise buildings with the progress of engineering. Therefore this paper aims to clarify the relationship between planning/design and structural-engineering/air-conditioning of PSFS Building by investigation of the original architectural drawings and magazine articles published in the period of its construction and by comparison with the other high-rise building in the period. As for the relationship between structural engineering, planning and design, the followings were clarified. PSFS Building has four characteristics of the structural engineering: 1) the huge truss structure of the transfer floor, 2) the special column-beam connection of the east and west elevation of the tower, 3) the special framing in the lower portion facade, 4) the extensive use of knee-bracing to resist wind-pressure in the tower part. These are considered to have relation to features of planning and design as the followings: Firstly, the truss structure realized the stacking of the different functions such as bank demanding huge banking space and office demanding rational planning. Secondly, the extensive use of knee-bracings realized the rental office space without interior permanent walls and the expression of horizontal ribbon window of the tower part. Thirdly, the special framing in the lower portion facade realized the expression of huge planes. Among these, the use of knee-bracings in offices space was unusual method among buildings in that period. Moreover, this use of knee-bracings was related to not only the characteristics of the planning and design such as the placement of the vertical shafts to the south, the projection of columns to outside and the horizontal ribbon window of the tower, but also those of the structural engineering such as the huge truss connecting the lower portion and the tower part. As for the relationship with air-conditioning, the followings are clarified. The introduction of the air-conditioning in the lower portion was considered from the early designing phase and it had close relation to planning and structural engineering such as placing equipments on the transfer floor, where the huge truss was installed by the demand of planning, and matching them with the structural layout. Moreover, the expression of using the same finishing material to the exterior wall of the transfer floor as those to second and third floor was also considered. On the other hand, in the higher part, as the introduction of air-conditioning was decided during its construction, the followings were pursued: the T-shaped planning with operable windows resulted from the common method with other office buildings based on natural ventilation and lighting, the minimization of the space for equipments for securing maximum rentable floor. Especially regarding the lower part, it is notable that the space for equipments was intensively secured and integrated with the complicated structural engineering and that this integration led to the expression reflecting the aesthetics of the new age. Furthermore, the higher part, which was planned based on natural ventilation and daylighting, is suggestive even in the present day when natural ventilation and lighting are being reconsidered.
This paper aims to grasp how Tiananmen Square was used in the May Fourth Movement 1919 which is regarded as a landmark incident of modern history in China, as well as in repeated mass movements that occurred in 1920s Beijing mainly by using newspapers. The May Fourth Movement started with a student protest in Beijing on May 4th, 1919, and ended on June 28th 1919 when the Republic of China (ROC) declined to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The first place that the protesters gathered on May 4th, 1919 was Tiananmen Square. Previous research gives the following three reasons why Tiananmen Square was used as a gathering place: 1) convenience as a key traffic stop, 2) openness as a public space, and 3) closeness to foreign embassies. In addition to these three reasons, this paper pointed out that the speech events held by Peking University in November 1918 in celebration of the World War I victory can be considered as a fourth reason. But after the first day, the students who participate the May Fourth Movement did not use the Tiananmen Square and distributed flyers and speech at various places in the city area, because the Square was sealed by Beijing police forces. After the May Fourth Movement, mass movements began happening frequently in Beijing. By investigating two newspapers called "Morning Post" and "Shuntian Times", events occurred at Tiananmen Square total 29 in 9 years from 1919 to the end of the Beijing Government of the ROC, of which there were 23 mass movements. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the mass movements that happened in Tiananmen Square during this period, and shows that the Square began to be used not only by students but also by business groups and workers in Beijing, that the scale of the movements expanded, and that the movements were often hindered by government authorities. And some unique uses of the space were also discovered in Table 1. In these mass movements, the people temporarily installed a speech podium at the center of Tiananmen Square and used the Square as meeting place or last destination of the demonstration activities in surrounding city streets. Comparing the usage of Tiananmen Square before and after the May Forth Movement, it is possible to find clear differences. One example of use before the May Fourth Movement is the military parade by the first president Yuan Shikai on the ROC's National Foundation Day, 1913. Yuan's military parade was held by Beijing Government of the ROC, used Tiananmen as a viewing stage of the president, and used only the Square without using the surrounding city streets, and was quite different from the characteristics of the usage of the mass movements after the May Fourth Movement, which were led by students and workers, temporarily installed a speech podium on the Square, and used the square together with the demonstration activities in streets. It is interesting that the usage of Tiananmen Square sharply changed before and after the May Fourth movement, but the space structure of the Square is almost unchanged except for a railroad track laid in 1924. It can be said that such situation seen in Tiananmen Square before and after the May Fourth movement is similar to Tokyo's Imperial Palace Sqaure or Hanoi's Ba Dinh Square before and after World War II.
This study is about the architectural preservation tradition on the World Heritage site of Lalibela rock-Hewn churches of Ethiopia. The traditional conservation knowhow and skills, their role in the preservation of the heritages; and the local community's involvement on the preservation efforts from 1950s onwards, are the main focus of the study. Field research, key informants interviews and literature study were primary data gathering methods used. It is apparent that, there was a traditional architectural conservation know-how and skill that keeps the rock-hewn churches and the associated intangible cultural assets living intact under heavy manmade and environmental burdens. But, the arrival of the national and international conservation interventions estranged the local knowledge and skill. Thus, the local traditional know-how and skills began to disappear and the community to feel excluded from playing its rightful role on the preservation of the heritages, by and large, belongs to him.
1. Purpose More private nursery schools are needed because many children are on waiting lists. Private companies are, however, unlikely to open new schools in places that offer little profit. To boost the availability of nursery services, this paper looks into the factors that influence their locations. Our study region is the wards of Tokyo, where many private companies open nursery schools.
2. Methods and Results First, L, which is the standardized function of Ripley's K, is calculated to determine the degree to which nursery school locations are clustered. The L(ts) of private nursery schools is greater than that of public nursery schools (Fig. 1). This means that private nursery schools cluster more closely than public nursery schools. The L(ts) of private nursery schools has its maximum when ts equals 800 m; therefore, private nursery schools tend to cluster within 800 m. Second, kernel density estimation gives both the density of school locations and the density weighted by their capacities. The standard deviation of the normal distribution is set to 800 m from the L function result. The reference grid is generated at 15 m intervals. The densities are high around railway stations (Figs 3 and 4). Third, we use multiple regression analysis in which the dependent variable is the density or weighted density. The R2 is 0.632 and 0.577 when the dependent variable is the density and the weighted density, respectively. The F-test rejects the null hypothesis at the 0.001 significance level. The number of households is the most effective independent variable for explaining variations in density. The densities are positively influenced by the number of households and employees, and negatively influenced by the distance between private nursery schools and the nearest railway station. Private companies tend to open nursery schools in places that have many households and employees. The densities are high in the vicinity of railway stations, which is useful for leaving children in nursery schools. A nursery school close to a park can be approved, even if it lacks a playground. Multiple regression analysis also shows that the distance between private nursery schools and the nearest park has a negative influence on the densities. The law and the ordinance oblige a nursery school to have floor space according to its capacity. Multiple regression analysis also shows that land price has a negative influence on the densities. High land price lowers the densities. Zoning districts also significantly influence the densities. Private companies are especially reluctant to open nursery schools in industrial district in which the heavy traffic of industrial cars disturbs children's safety. Some residents in a quiet residential area feel children's voices to be noisy, and object to opening nursery schools. Multiple regression analysis also shows that the density weighted by capacities is negatively influenced by the category 1 low-rise exclusive residential district.
3. Conclusion The locations of private nursery schools are unevenly distributed. They are influenced by the number of households, the number of employees, proximity to railway stations, nearness to parks, land prices and zoning districts. Consideration of these factors is required in addressing regional demand for nursery services.
Housing and housing environments are the foundation of daily housing and it is important to foster the knowledge and recognition of children with respect to them. To that end, in school education, it is important to foster skills as an entity that realizes better housing and housing environments by conducting appropriate housing education about housing life, housing and housing environment. Therefore, in this study, (1) To clarify the contents of housing education and the actual state of educational effect received by the teacher himself, which is the background of the teachers, (2) To clarify the contents and components of housing education skills from the content and method of housing education skills carried out by home economics teachers who are the part of housing education in school education, (3) To clarify the conditions necessary for the making of housing education skills from the actual situation of housing education skills and teachers housing education and analysis of recognition and background. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was conducted in November 2014 for teachers of home economics in high school and junior high school in 47 prefectures nationwide. As a result, the following was clarified. 1) Home economics teachers have fewer credits for housing area in college days and less frequent participation in workshops in the housing area. 2) There are differences in the number of lessons per hour in the housing area, which is the ideal class hours studied by the teacher. And judge that it is better to increase time. In addition, the degree of confidence in each area is high for food, clothing, childcare and high housing, but housing education is important. Furthermore, there are many dissatisfactions with the environment of housing education. Also, there is high awareness of participation in the workshops. 3) There are few teachers who have a high level of housing education skills because of the number of lesson methods and the number of class contents and the analysis of housing education skills. Also, there is a relation between the confidence degree of the housing area and the housing education skills. However, when confidence is high but the housing education skills is low, or even when the housing education skill is high but the confidence level is low, there is a certain degree respectively. 4) When the confidence level of the housing area and the housing education skills are high, the educational effect is twice as high as in the case where it is not so. Higher degree of participation in class when housing education method skills are high, comprehension is high when housing education contents skills is high. 5) The confidence level and the improvement of the housing education skills are influenced by the number of credits for the housing area subjects in the teacher training course is 6 units or more. In addition, the number of participation of the workshops is 3 to 5 times or more. Teachers who are not conscious of the participation of workshops in the housing area are low in confidence and housing education skills. In order to improve the confidence of these teachers and the housing education skills, it is necessary to prompt participation in the workshops. 6) Confidence in the housing area, housing education skills and housing education importance awareness, housing and housing consciousness are relevant. High confidence and skills of housing education and high importance, housing and housing environment consciousness are formed with mutual influence.