This study examines the mismatch between the occupants' housing needs and the Transitional Public Housing program in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The survey results show that only 23 of 72 inhabitants could buy their own house or rent a better house after the program. This stems not from affordability but is related to occupants' characteristics such as age of household and type of job. This paper classifies occupants into 5 categories and shows the relation between categories and results of occupancy. The government must have sensitivity to care for the diversity of their housing needs.
This paper aimed to clarify the relationship between family communication and the structure of dwelling space in the period of growth and development (the 2nd grade of elementary school - the 2nd grade of junior high school). Consequently it was shown that 1) College students period: If the path of flow always passes through the family living space, a high percentage of families enjoy each other's company once a week or more, only for women and the total of men and women, 2) Growth period: there was no significant correlation between the structure of dwelling space and actual family communication, 3) Growth period: a relationship in terms of location between the parents' room (not the children's room) and the family living space correlates to the psychological distance of children to their parents.
After Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami 2011, local builders participated in building and supplying temporary houses although JPA (Japan Prefabricated Construction Suppliers and Manufacturers Association) had been responsible for supplying them for several decades. However local builders are considered to have less production capacity than major prefabricated construction suppliers. Based on statistical data and some interviews with the officials and the builders, this article clarifies how local builders constructed temporary houses in Iwate prefecture, and what challenges they faced during the constructions, focusing on (1) construction techniques and materials, (2) production scale and (3) construction period.
Recently the number of museum for manga culture has been increasing in Japan. When manga is regarded only as visual culture, and is exhibited, the building type of museum can be useful space to show pictures of manga. But manga is also linier media people read individually, like books in a library. In this situation, Kyoto International Manga Museum may be regarded as one of the “successful” manga museum in Japan, because this architecture has both spatial aspects of museum and library. In this paper, it will be discussed what is the museum building adopted to manga, comparing 3 museums or libraries for manga culture - Kyoto International Manga Museum, The Osamu Tezuka Manga Museum, and Hiroshima City Manga Library.
The objectives of this paper are to clarify the influences of the activity room arrangement and how the downsizing the living unit affects the interaction of the children. The survey was conducted in two institutions of different support scales, and the effects of private and shared-rooms were compared. Methodologies used were behavioral observation, interviews and questionnaire survey. The results are: 1) Children in a small-scale support institution have a tendency to stay in many areas of the institution mentioned., 2) Children in a small-scale support institution can have their privacy and enjoy their time alone., 3) Children in a small-scale support institution can occupy various spaces such as “personal space” and “common space”., 4) There is less social interaction of handicap children in both institutions. Hence, many children tend to interact individually with a staff.
In this study, the number and contents of notices and posters on the walls in and around classrooms were surveyed for 15 elementary schools with different types of school buildings. It was found that the number of notices and posters of the open space types are smaller than the one-side corridor types. In addition, a questionnaire on the use of wall space was carried out targeting homeroom teachers of 10 elementary schools with different types of school buildings. The result indicated that many teachers feel that the total area of wall space is small in the open space types.
Twelve distinctive daily work-styles concerning time-series working behavior were extracted from the result of the time-budget survey for knowledge workers by using a self-organizing map of the data mining technique. The extracted work-styles correlated with the workers' status. The workers tend to change and combine working place, content and co-worker based on the solo work on ones' desk particularly at the beginning and end of the office hours. The presented method of incorporating the time-budget survey and the self-organizing map has possibilities to restructure a conventional office layout or a manner of operation, in terms of contributing to the office planning based on an evidence of current working behavior.
The piloti, elevating the building above ground, is one of the most characteristic modernist structural types. This element also has spatial implications, as recognized by Le Corbusier's “Five Points” and exemplified in his “Villa Savoye (1928-31)”. After World War II a number of such houses made their appearance in Japan. Here we aim to illustrate and examine how Japanese architects of the time extrapolated a design theme from this model, based on a study of such work as it appeared in architectural publications. Initially, two aspects of the piloti concept were selected, and each scheme was then subjected to a “KJ-method” analysis (originated by KAWAKITA Jiro). First, we scrutinized the architect's intention in adopting a piloti scheme. Secondly, we attempted to assess each architect's distinct view of the spatial character of the prototype, as exemplified in his deployment of the piloti model. At this point, the composition of each house was assessed with regard to two aspects involving the relationship between building and ground, namely the interrelation of building to site and to its natural gradation. Finally, the mediation between each architect's thinking and the final composition has been plotted in terms of this dual classification.
In this paper, we develop a new tool for analyzing visual space along moving paths. Our analyzing method is based on the isovist theory which is known as one of the methods for describing visible space. In addition, our tool generates visual field data using a walk-through system. To calculate the visual field, our method uses z-buffer data that is three-dimensional graphics data for hidden surface removal. We apply this system to a real building for evaluation the applicability. As a result of analyzing the changes of visual field with the four walk-through paths in the Villa Savoye 3D model, the changing trends of the descriptive indicators were observed when columns, walls, the slope and openings come into the sight or disappear from the sight.
In this research, from aspects of policy, main method, and primary research, the transition of Chinese historic heritage which focuses on Plain Conservation after 1980 is reorganized, which is from urban conservation system of the Historic city (1982) and Historic district (1996), to rural conservation system of the Historic town and village (2003). Then, three model conservation planning cases which are Ping Yao City in Shan Xi province, Tun Xi District in Huang Shan city, Zhou Zhuang Town in Jiangsu province, are analyzed to explain the specific conservation approach of these three conservation systems.
Based on the investigation of urban villages (Chengzhongcun) in Guangzhou city of China, the study is aimed to clarify both the main policies associated with the formation of urban villages and the spatial evolution process of urban villages. Conclusions can be given as follows: 1. Due to the rapid development of economic and the system of compensated use of land carried out since 1988, the villages have been stimulated to increase urban land needs and accelerate the expropriation of land. The villages located in the suburban area have been dwindling and gradually brought into urban areas. Under the influence of industrial upgrading and immigration since 1990s, those villages brought the industrial transformation from the primary industry to the secondary and the tertiary industry, and a huge amount of housing construction for immigrants within themselves; 2. Meanwhile the territory of urban villages dwindled, their residential areas have expanded to become high-density in both population and buildings. On the other hand, based on the location and the influence of policies, urban villages still have their own spatial characteristics in their old residential area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristic issues of the "connected" and the "isolated" new towns for revitalization in local cities. The major conclusions are summed up as follows: 1) The new town can be classified under two types : the “connected” and “isolated ” new town, according to geographical continuity between the city center and the new town. 2) The situations of the "Isolated" new towns are more serious than the "Connected" ones on the points of the living convenience such as traffic and shopping as well as residents' consciousness for their lives. 3) The different approaches are required to revitalize the "connected" and "isolated" new towns; housing relocation, service providing method for elderly, and so on.
In this paper, we analyzed the changes in relationships between local residents and local builders through the Machizukuri activities of a built-up area. And the effect of the local builder's participation for Machizukuri are clarified. As a resuits are follows. Volunteer local builders launched a small voluntary organization and participated in Machizukuri by using own position properly, as local builder or as local resident. As a result, the partnership is formed between some residents and local builders. And by the formed partnership, local builders are able to perform public projects with the help of residents and it reduced the work burden. But on other hand, the continuous participation in Machizukuri and to use own position properly are difficult, for young local builders who have limited experience and achievements.
Recently, the importance of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) of cities based around railway stations is being emphasized. This study aims to evaluate and classify 152 railway station areas from the viewpoint of Transit-Oriented Development by analyzing the target areas located in a 30km circumference surrounding Central Tokyo. By using the Principal Component Analysis, 4 factors were consequently drawn to evaluate the railway station areas: 1)Integration of urban function, 2)Connection and serviceability of public transit, 3) Change-rate of urban function, 4)Urban self-reliance. As a result of typology, it is possible to classify seven types of railway station areas. Each type's characteristics and problems are clarified through the analysis.
This study aims to understand relationship between moving situation and balancing child care and job after becoming single father households. Single parents tend to have job problem because of childcare responsibilities. Therefore they have strong tendency to rely on private supporter like relatives. Seeking for private child care support single fathers who lived far away from their relatives' house tend to move out their marital house after quitting their job. They faced serious employment problem and some of them were in recipient of welfare. On the other hand Single father households who lived with (or near) relatives before becoming single father households tend to remain their marital home. However, some of them faced serious childcare problem and quite or change job many time because for insufficient of private child care support. Besides some cases couldn't move out of their marital house because they owned house, even though they couldn't balance job and childcare.
This study aims to make clear the factors and characteristics of people in communication activities responding to East Japan great earthquake disaster by focusing on the consciousness and actual condition of the communication activities in detached housing area, 1. Changes in communication activities of a normal time and after disaster People who were active in normal times have a tendency for exchanging with neighboring more after disaster. On the contrary, people who were not very active, have a tendency for specializing in communication with families and relatives. 2. Characteristics from the viewpoint of consciousness The type of “limited” limits their communication partner to “hobby and friend”. The type of “not” can not have communication due to “ Facility”, “Aging” and “Disease”. 3. Complaints and demands The current complains are “neighborhood association”, “the way of neighborhood association in disaster”, “response of city government of evacuation” and “construction schedule of ditch digging”. The demands are “restoration of citizen center”, “proliferation of meeting place”, “improving shopping center” and “evacuation drill in normal time”.
To better plan and control building construction wastes, exact patterns of waste emission in relation to construction process must be elucidated. Using survey data on numerous executed projects, the author has clarified that construction time governs the pattern, that more than half of the total wastes is emitted after the time when finish work is at the highest so that the crucial part of waste control to enhance 3R exists in how to deal with finish work mixed wastes amounting 80 % of the total and so on, all of which are fundamental to wastes planning and control methodology.
Recently, an aging, many elementary schools, middle schools, high schools have been closed down. Closed school overview for effective reuse, by school type, different types of reuse, use of the building were analyzed. It was found that characteristic, site area, gross floor area, floors, construction year, structure type. Repair work was done in about half of the cases re-use, categorized by type of repair work characteristics. About half of the remaining repair work has not been the type, re-use has not been enabled. Extensive renovation to make difficult financial situation of the government is difficult. Regional activation for efficient use, accurately capture the requirements, understand the characteristics of the facility, it is important to determine what works. Smoother for reuse, it is important to consider a wider range including multiple uses.
In giving an account of the restoration of Buddhist halls belonging to the Zen-style of architecture (Karayo) undertaken between 1911 and 1950, this paper attempts to clarify one aspect of the close relationship between the concept of architectural style and official restoration policy as pursued in modern-period Japan. Since the 1900's, the concept of Karayo had been formed by the 1930s, focused on certain elements of appearance, such as vertical proportions in elevation and ornamental curves throughout the building. This seems to explain why restorations executed in that period frequently removed later-added horizontal members, such as non-penetrating tie-beams (nageshi) or verandas (en), and reconstructed "original" high pitched roofs. Thus a more profound knowledge of the history of architectural technology engendered new perceptions of the style emerging during the 1930's, which in turn transformed restoration policy. Namely, the inventive and delicate medieval carpenters' manner (kikujutsu) was eagerly revived by preservationists grounded in an academic investigation.
Kamakura-wari (Modori-gane) and Touma-wari (Modori-wari) are the two major techniques for fan raftering in kiku-jutsu. The following were found by reviewing remains and bibliographic materials of fan raftering. 1. The inclination pitch in Kamakura-wari (Kamakura pitch) is determined by dividing the length difference between the hip rafter and the eave in the central part of the roof by whole numbers. 2. The value of Modori-wari in Touma-wari is determined according to the length of the Kamakura pitch. Given these findings, Kamakura-wari and Toukan-wari are not two different techniques, but are relevant to each other.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the realities of Heian revivalistic style of the court-noble's residence at the early modern period. In this paper, the residence of the Takatsukasa-family especially were taken up and the history of the residences at the early modern period was confirmed. The shinden had the Heian revivalistic style since the latter half of the 17th century. After conflagration Tenmei, this style was completed, and was realized by the following three factors: the investigation by Kozen Uramatsu, a strong commitment to the restoration by Sukehira Takatsukasa, and the execution design by Harima Kigo.
The scaenae frons, the facade of the Roman scene building of the Theater at Messene has been dated to between the middle of the 2nd century and the 3rd century A.D. by the excavator from uncertain evidences. The present paper demonstrates based on a stylistic analysis of the architectural ornamentation that the scaenae frons of the Messenian Theater dates not to the middle of the 2nd century but to the second half of the 1st century A.D. In addition, based on the same analysis, it is confirmed that the Roman theater of Messene was influenced not by the west including the city of Rome but rather by Asia Minor. The new chronology implies that the Roman construction boom of Messene belong to the second half of the 1st century A.D.
The Hellenistic sanctuary of the Asklepios at Messene has a square courtyard surrounded by the Stoas from its four sides. It has been considered by that the Asklepieion was built between the end of the 3rd century and the 2nd century B.C. Nevertheless, the recent studies of the buildings of the Asklepieion assigned that the construction of the sanctuary is dated as the first half of the 2nd century B.C. The stylistic analysis of the architectural ornamentation demonstrates that the Stoas are dated to the first half of the 2nd century B.C., which agrees with the recent dating of the other buildings of the Asklepieion and archaeological findings. It is also confirmed that the ornamentations of the Stoas belong to the traditional architecture from the early Hellenistic period back to the middle of the 4th century to the 3rd century B.C. The Corinthian Stoa was influenced by the trend of the founder, who is believed to be a king of Macedonia.
This paper derives Schindler's notion on “Space Architecture” from his writings, and following points are derived. 1. Contents of “Space Architecture” are composed of “importance” and “conditions to be fulfilled.” “Importance” is composed of “space,” “space form” and “new language.” “Conditions to be fulfilled” are composed of “life,” “dwelling,” “health” and “problem as shelter.” 2. Schindler defined “space” as a medium for his architecture and continued investigation, which had been followed with examinations on “space form.” 3. Schindler developed ‘Space Architecture’ as open shelters familiar to outdoor, and as collective possessions under the order of the world.