The task and ambient lighting system (TAL) was made one of the suitable methods for the partitioned office, which is still few in Japan. This study examined the psychological influence, which the partition gives the workers under TAL. The examinees evaluated the lighting environment after the office work in a test chamber under the various conditions of TAL. In the non-partitioned office, it was sensitive to take the suitable balance of task and ambient illuminance. It was suggested that the ambient illuminance of about 4001x and the dimmable task lighting would make a pleasant environment. Within this experiment conditions in the partitioned office, the ambient illuminance of 4001x and the task illuminance of 2801x got a good evaluation.
A factory introduced a new system of humidifiers in a room to reduce the static electricity. Air humidity and temperature in the room and the other rooms that did not use the humidifiers were measured every 20 minutes for three month in winter. The factory workers filled out a questionnaire after work every day. The workers were asked about the subjective symptoms of their health conditions, i.e. nose dryness, sore throat, and thermal comfort. A total of 4600 questionnaires were obtained. With the use of humidifiers. relative humidity in the room increased. From the changes in worker's subjective symptoms, we concluded that the use of humidifiers in heated rooms in winter could reduce health problems and thermal discomfort originated by dry mucous membranes. Although the ambient temperatures were approximately the same before and after the introduction, after the use of humidifiers, the workers felt warmer by 2℃.
Improvement of thermal comfort in a semi-outdoor space constructed with Passive Cooling Wall (PCW) composed of water-permeable perforated bricks was shown with evaluation of coolness. In the space surrounded by the PCW and outdoor shaded space, thermal elements were measured and evaluations of warmth/coolness by sitting persons were performed when the PCW was wet and dry. As the result, the improvement of thermal comfort with the wet PCW was shown. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the evaporative cooling function of the PCW contributes to the improvement of thermal comfort by the cooled air without wind and radiative cooling.
Cross-ventilation is a valuable tool in achieving comfortable indoor temperatures in humid areas with high summer temperatures. Howevever, the simplified design procedure for utilizing cross-ventilation is a not estabilshed yet, because the interaction of the internal flow with the envelope flow greatly complicates the flow characteristics inside a room. The wind tunnel is the best way to account for wind effects and measure directly ventilation flow rates. In this study, split-film probes measured the directional velocities and turbulence levels inside and outside a cross-ventilated model. The penetrating flow entered the inlet opening at steep declining angles due to the front eddy and the downwash flow along the upwind face. The penetrating flow flowed downwards the floor. Internal turbulence spectrum of the main stream remained the same as that of the oncoming flow, but the spectra of other components were produced by the inlet and internal turbulence. The ventilation flow rates decreaded until 45° ≦ θ. The Pitot tube was set for the incidence angles of the penetrating flow obtained by the split-film probes at the upwind opening. The pressure loss coefficients for the inlet opening were calculated from the pressure difference between the total pressure and intermal pressure. It was found that the pressure loss coefficients greatly depended on wind directions and incidence angles of the penetrating flow.
The purpose of this study is to accumulate long term field-measurement data of the concentration of formaldehyde(HCHO) and volatile organic compounds(VOCs) found in indoor air, and to investigate the behavior of these concentrations. In addition, we studied the lifestyle and any symptoms of the occupants. The duration of the field measurements was 1996-1999(HCHO) and 1996-1998(VOCs). The results showed that a higher concentration of HCHO was detected during the heat of the summer. decreasing as temperatures decreased. While each summer showed a fluctuation in these levels, over a four year period, there was an overall decline in the concentration. A high concentration of total volatile oreranic compounds (TVOC) was detected in newly constructed houses. All of the TVOC concentrations exceeded the interim target level and the VOCs components were influenced by the habits and lifestyles of the occupants. We did not find any association between the concentration of HCHO or the VOCs in the indoor air and the symptoms experienced by the occupants.
The removal efficiency against hydrogen chloride (HCI) of KOH-added activated carbon, which was developed to improve removal efficiency aeainst acid gases in atmosphere, was examined by comparison with that of an untreated activated carbon. The removal efficiency of KOH-added activated carbon aeainst HCl was superior to that of an untreated activated carbon. Furthermore, a prediction method for breakthrough curves by numerical simulations was studied. The simulated breakthrough curve agreed well with the experimental result of KOH-added activated carbon. And breakthrough curves were predicted on a condition of atmospherical concentration.
The purpose of this research is to analyze MVOC emissions from microorganisms in HVAC systems and to survey their effect on indoor air quality. MVOC emissions from fungi sampled in HVAC systems were measured in the laboratory. 2-methyl-2-Propanol, 2-Pentanone, methyl isobutyl Ketone and others MVOC were emitted from Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Alternaria. MVOC emissions from each fungus were different according to the fungi genus though some MVOC were emitted from all fungus. And it was found from the field measurement that MVOC thought to be from fungi emissions such as 2-methyl-1-Propanol, 2-Pentanone and methyl isobutyl Ketone, were emitted by some HVAC systems to indoor. For these results, it is suggested that MVOC emissions from fungi in HVAC system became one of the indoor pollution sources.
Many measurements were conducted to grasp actual status of indoor air pollution by chemicals in residential buildings according to the increased awareness of so-called "Sick House Syndrome", or SBS in houses. But most of the data obtained by such measurements were usually discarded or locked up in the files of health center after checking the compliance to the guidelines defined by the Ministry of health, Labor and Welfare. We have therefore proposed a new database systems, called AFoDAS (Automated Formaldehyde Data Acquisition System) and AVODAS (Automated VOC Data Acquisition System), which can build-up such data mentioned above since the number of such data would be enormous and the data will be accumulated by themselves. However there are lots of problems which should be overcome. As the first step of solving these problems, we made an attempt to build the above-mentioned database systems on the internet, and input the data obtained from the measurements conducted, in advance, in more than 1,000 houses with the cooperation of the regional health centers all over Japan. We also made questionaire survey about the database to staffs of thc health centers who cooperated with us. Surveyed results show that expectations of the health center staffs to the database were far beyond our anticipation. We must therefore provide more useful contents in order to respond their expectations. The data base systems will be open to the general public later after overcoming the matters emerged through the surreys.
The measurement of the pollution and a countermeasure are important in the indoor air pollution by the chemical substance. The bake-out is one of the indoor air pollution countermeasures. The bake-out is a root-like countermeasure because the chemical substance contained in the building material is reduced. However, an examination about the effect of the bake-out isn't sufficient. A miniature bake-out device and emission quantity measurement device were made for this study. Then, the bake-out examination of the building material was done, and effect on a decline of the chemical substance was examined. It was confirmed that the emission rates of formaldehyde and TVOC decreased by the bake-out.
For the economical operation of the floor heating system that is constructed latent/sensible heating storage materials with using off-peak electricity, the authors analyzed the prediction control system of the required thermal energy using neural networks considering the optimum temperature range of SET^*. (1) We determined the optimum temperature range of SET^* from results of the sensational responses from age. (2) We authors could construct neural network models that predicted the target SET^* at the beginning of the opening hours. (3) As result, SET^* had been kept within the optimum temperatuer range during the opening hours. And SET^* had been reached lower limit of the optimum temperature range at the end of the opening hours.
The authors have carried out the field measurement of outdoor thermal environment in summer in order to collect the measured data of outdoor thermal environment for evaluating the prediction accuracy of a method developed by the authors to assess the outdoor climate with the aid of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Spatial distributions of wind velocity, temperature, humidity and radiation are measured within courtyard canyon space around apartment complex located in Tokyo. The values of physical parameters which affect outdoor thermal environment, such as albedo, convective heat transfer. moisture availability, leaf area density and so on, are estimated from the results of this measurement. It is also clarified that the effects of tree planting on outdoor thermal and wind climates.
The purpose of this study is to estimate how green has been changed in Kyoto city using remote sensing. As for estimation of green, we use two methods. 0ne is quantity of greenery and the other is quality of them. In this reserch, we define change of the rate of water in leaves as vegetation vigor, the quality of vegetation has been grasped using Vegetation Vigor Index(VVI'). In that case, VVI' which is Vegetation Vigor Index was created by measuring the reflective characteristic of leaves. At the same time, green cover rate which is a green quantity has been grasped using a land cover classification. The results are as follows: (1) By using VVI', we were able to distinguish vegetation vigor with vegetation cover rates. (2) We were able to check that VVI' shows change of Vegetation Vigor from the drought in 1994. Therefore, we could catch quality of green in addition to quantity of green by using VVI'.
The purpose of this study is to designate a comfortable design for ralway stircases, particularly for the elderly, based on pedestrians' visual perception. In order to know the differences in the subjective evaluations of stairs between the elderly and the younger subjects, interview investigations and the evaluation experiments were conducted in regard to visual perceptions. 25 color photographs of stairs in subways were evaluated. 21 elderly subjects and 25 young subjects were participated in our experiments The following conclusions were obtained; (l) by direct interviews with subjects, 5 factors such as feelings of spaciousness, care-free, usability, exertion loads and design were classified, (2) by factor analysis three major factors were derived. where were mainly connected with a feeling of spaciousness, esthetic sence and exertion sence, (3) a feeling of spaciousness was the major factor to evaluate stairs for the elderly subjects, and design was the major factor for the young subjects, (4) between age groups, there were distinct differences between the factor of feeling of esthetic and the exertion of stairs, and but there was no differences concerning the feeling of spaciousness. Both age groups evaluated the perception of stairs mainly by a factor of a feeling of spaciousness. It became clear that in regard to factor of the feeling of preferences, the young subjects' evaluations were based on both factors of the presence of an escalator and the length of stairs, while elderly subjects' evaluation were based only on the presence of an escalator.
Green of detached houses area is one of important elements for creation of good living environment. We focus on the detached residential area in scenic zone of Sapporo city for the study. The situation of site use is made clear, through the detailed research for typical detached houses site. And through questionnaires and hearing, the people's positive view of the scenic zone is recognized. As a result of analysis, three points of fallowings are important to create and maintain the living environment with rich green in scenic zone of Sapporo. 1) To make use of residents' love for green. 2) Intensive use of setback space limited in it's use by snow. 3) Keeping space for green by intensive use of daily life space.
The aim of this study is clarifying the suitable private room by recording the layouts of the residents' properties, finding out necessary conditions making private room close to dwelling by comparing the living condition at home and that in facility. The results are as bellows. 1.Most of residents consider their private rooms as bedrooms, develop their activity outside their private rooms variously. 2.Most of residents' careful carrying to private room gives a sign of keeping a relation with their residences. 3.The difference between facilities and personal dwellings are appropriation, boundaries and scale. These are related to care efficiency.
This paper, as a case study on three projects of public facility, aims at manifesting the structure of decisionmaking, through analyses on the structure of the planning organizations. The main conclusions are as follows: l) Citizen's organization is formed early and with leaders and division of task, etc. inside, is of great importance. 2) It's hard to resolve conflicts at citizen's level, which prevents citizen from participating in decision making, therefore 3) Professionals should play multiple roles simultaneously in the process. 4) The organizational structure should be flexible to changes.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the transaction between the residents' life and staffs' care in Group-living. The method of this study is observations of behavior and interviews with staffs. Behavior maps were drawn every 5 minutes from morning to night. The survey was repeated 3 times at the period of 2 months, 4 months and 6 months after the opening of the home. Some results show as follows: (l)Arrangement of the spaces plays an important role in forming of unconcernedly watching from staffs to residents. (2)As the time went by, not only residents' life but also staffs' care were changing in a quality. (3)Not only a bringing-out but also care behind-the-scenes were supporting residents' life.
This paper investigates locational changes of public facilities such as stores, nursing home, etc. between 1970 and 1999, north of Chuo Line between Kichijoji station and Mitaka station of Musashino City. Twenty-eight types of facilities located at various places totaling 98 in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 1999 were investigated using telephone directories and residential maps. We estimate the density distribution function for each facility using the kernel estimation method and compute distances between distributions as a proximity measure of locational pattern. Six clusters are obtained by the hierarchical cluster analysis using distance matrix. Ninety-eight locational patterns are plotted on two-dimensional space obtained by the multidimensional scaling and periodical changes of facility location pattern are traced.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial composition of contemporary Japanese urban houses in terms of relations between interior rooms and exterior rooms. Exterior rooms are defined as exterior space limited by architectual compositional elements. First relations between fellow exterior rooms are analyzed in two levels of composition: arrangement and connection of fellow exterior rooms. Secondly relations between interior rooms and exterior rooms are analyzed in two levels of composition: arrangement and connection of interior rooms and exterior rooms. Then we found 13 types of comnosition. Comparing every type, characters of composilion are clarified From these considerations, we found that expression of composition, which network interior rooms and exterior rooms in three dimensions, formed in contemporary Japanese urban houses.
This paper's aim is to clarify the characteristics of integrational form in spatial comoosition by analyzing typologically contemporary buildings with separated blocks with disposition and connection. Initially, the dispositional compositions are analyzed in terms of disposition of blocks and articulation of exterior space in the sites. Secondly, the connectional compositions are analyzed in terms of connection of blocks at exterior spaces with corridors, garden paths, and etc., Thirdly, typological compositions are found by analyzing the dispositional and connectional compositions all together. Finally through comparing those compositions, the integrational form is structured with the functions of disposition and connection such as grouping all blocks with enclosed exterior spaces.
In daily life we can find an aspect a human being percept 3-D space which surrounds him/her in using properly demonstrative pronouns "KORE, SORE, ARE". By this study, we did the life-size experiment and made clear the three-dimensional form of domains of demonstrative pronouns "KORE, SORE, ARE". A result of an experiment is as follows. 1) Height of the domain of demonstrative pronoun "KORE" was about 2400mm. 2) Height of the domain of demonstrative pronoun "SORE" was about 2800mm. 3) There was the domain of demonstrative pronoun "ARE" in the outside of "SORE". 4) The domain of demonstrative pronoun "KORE" was related to the movement of the body. And then we illustrated form of 3 dimensions of demonstrative pronoun "KORE" and calculated the capacity. It was about 10 cubic meters. We were able to get a result of demonstrative pronoun "KORE" to be quantitative expression of the psychological self domain. And it was suggested that the domains of demonstrative pronoun "KORE" was one of the psychological unit space in spatial planning.
This study aims to clarify the effect of change in spatial characteristics on voluntary greening by rebuilding of multiple dwelling houses. We investigated the actual conditions of voluntary greening both before and after the rebuilding by the questionnaire survey for the residents in rebuilt rental houses. The results are as follows: 1) Voluntary greening in balcony tends to be induced by increase of balcony area and connection with habitable room. 2) Voluntary greening in the common use corridor including in, space around front door tends to be deterred by return after the rebuilding from terraced houses and disconnection with habitable room.
In recent years, some risk analysis methods were proposed so that the quantitative evaluation of risk has been available. 0n the other hand, the treatment of the quantified risk has not been considered sufficiently, though it is important for carrying out the effective risk management. In this paper, seismic portfolio risk analysis method consistent with the existing seismic hazard analysis was proposed. Using this method, portfolio of 10 buildings was analyzed from the viewpoint of risk management, followed by the following findings. (1) Seismic risk can be reduced by diversifying assets. (2) In case of diversifying assets in multiple sites, the examination of seismic hazard in each site is necessary. (3) Effectiveness of strengthening work can be measured using risk curve. (4) Contribution of risk of each asset to the portfolio risk is identified so that the rational strengthening work can be done.
The purpose of this paper is to compreshend the hollow phenomena of new inhabitants' residential zone connected with development in rurban area, by the case study in Sanwa-town, Ibaraki pref. The result are as follows. 1. Planning development of residential zone tends to raise the settlement rate. 2. No planning development causes hollow phenomena in residential zone. 3. The core of the small-scale residential zone suppress hollow phenomena in residential zone.
This study aims to grasp conditions and clarify the consciousness changes of participants' in life environment by the proiects. We conducted questionnaire surveys to 10 municipalities, classified them by the results and extracted 4 areas. Also we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1081 owners who appliecid to the projects, and of 437 inhabitants. The conditions of participation by owners and inhabitants are different from the types, but in all area, the effects on both owners and inhabitants have represented high consciousnes to life and environment and mutual interaction.
The purpose of this paper is to considering planning guidelines in urban fringe area for local cities planning. The guidelines were based on intention of experts living in Obihiro urban area and comprehensive plan of Obihiro city. We pointed out that three main frames for planning guidelines: environment of a city, environment of a farm village and environment of nature, and pointed out five planning processes: assessment, individuality of the district or area, land use, district environment and design regulation. They are important for the planning guidelines.
The purpose of this study is to examine how to manage a community by inhabitants from now, taking into account each intention of living. We research the social units composed of social functions, spatial soheres and human relations. And we can get the following important points for social system: 1) Maintaining functions by inhabitants 2) A flexible composition of social roles each other 3) Making the best use of the spatial spheres gathering community activities and the human relations including children 4)The former inhabitants' union as a chance that they can promote the understanding for their community
When a big earthquake occurs, a local government excepts many useful actions issued by Community Organization for Disaster Prevention (CODP). Thus, in the fact, most of local governments do not know the real ability of CODP. The aim of this study is to establish the evaluation rule for the CODP's ability. For that aim, a simulation for the evaluating the CODP's fire fighting ability has done in June 2000. In the simulation, we test the fire, fighting ability using fire extinguisher and bucket water handling by the CODP menders. The model case study area is Kasuga CODP area in Kyoto City. The results of this study are as below; (1) calculation system to scale the CODP's fire fighting ability (2) an advice for the disaster management planning based on the sensitive analysis form several the simulation results.
This report is case study about the improvement works of the traditional residence (following parts; the roof, wall, floor. fittings, eaves), dozo (warehouse), fence, waterway and so on, in San-machi preservation district for groups of historic buildings. By researching the actual state of the improvemet, and the change of the construction cost, since 1979 - when San-machi area was designated as a preservation district - , to 1996 - the previous year when preservation district was enlarged - , it suggests that the government should subsidize for the owner of the traditional residence to improve not only the facade but also the interior, to maintain the building function as the element of the vital town scape.
From the middle of 1980's, in order to protect the historic environment from regeneration projects, a peculiar conservation administration was established in Harbin city. With the maturity of this conservation administration, several new methods of traditional urban regeneration have been carried out actively. The purpose of this paper is to make 3 points clear which are: l)to study the present condition of historic environment conservation, and the developing process and feature of the conservation administration in Harbin city. 2)to analyse the change of the traditional urban space due to the regeneration which is considering the historic environment. 3)to study the effectiveness of conservation administration on traditional urban regeneration projects and to show the subjects of the conservation administration.
This paper clarifies the present conditions of Colonel Light Gardens(Mitcham Garden Suburb, Adelaide, Australia), which was designed by Charles Compton Reade following the Ebenezer Howard's idea of Garden City, and discusses the significance of the planning idea and method concerning the evaluation of international Garden City Movement. Adelaide is known as the only existing city Ebenezer Howard cited in his book "Garden City of Tomorrow", and C.C. Reade is well known as one of the missionary and oreanizer of the movement. The major objective of this article is to review the idea and method of the planning of Colonel Light Gardens for the future development of Japanese town planning. Firstly, we summarize the C.C. Reade's idea of Colonel Light Gardens and analyze the process of its development. Then, we will reveal the present layout of Colonel Light Gardens based on the field survey. Comparing the original layout with the present one, we can evaluate the validity and possibility of the planning idea and method of Garden City planning. We would like to appreciate the commissioner system on decision making process though the original layout of community facilities was not necessarily implemented. The original plan had to be changed by Thousand Homes Scheme', but the internal reservations and utility ways are thought to be useful for the flexible planning.
In this point of Tokyo, there are many condominiums building all over the city because of the politic policy of raising population. This study aims to clarify the way of negotiation between inhabitants and the developer at the urban living area. Firstly, I understood the process of the architectural dispute. Secondly I understood the basis of the argument from the view of 1.Landform Condition, 2.Sharing Infrastructure, and 3.Key person by interviewing the inhabitants. And at last, I clarified the process and agument in negotiation between inhabitants and developer
The purpose of this paper is to consider the roles of consultants for the rebuilding projects of suffered condominiums in THE GREAT HANSHIN EARTHQUAKE. The results are following: i) The consultants are town planners, redevelopment co-ordinators, architects, engineers and so on. ii) Their main services are planning, inner co-ordination and outer co-ordination. Engineering and architectural design are often served by other experts. Secretariat services were given by residents and consultants. iii) According to the types of project methods, we found the differences in the scales of condominiums, consultants attributes, services sharing and self-evaluation to the consultants types.
Though application of IT to construction project management have potential to improve performance of business, specific conditions of projects, such as management organization and stuffs' compouter literacy, diversify lead time of management activities. In order to establish the methodology to minimize lead time respecting on the specific conditions of project, the paper proposes the model to simulate leas time by visualizing various factors and elements of lead time. The model is composed of' activity' and' logistics of information'. It also includes the concept of' idle time' and' hidden time' that represent the loss of time. The roles and the comouter literacy of each stuff are expressed as attributes in the model. The involvement of these attributes enables to compare lead time of several alternatives of business processes. The model also has potential to assist to find the way to use IT based data repetitively in various phases of business processes in specific projects.
1.序論:本研究は、「バンコク大都市における運河沿い居住地の変容に間する研究」の一部であり、時期別変容過程の諸段階における物理的空間変化を整理し、ライフスタイルと水環境に関連する居住地構造の関係を解明することを目的とするものである。2.結果:現地4地域の調査と住民インタビューに基づき、以下の結果が導かれている。1)4地域間で低所得世帯の違いが見られないが、居住地の位置がCBDに近ければ近いほど高所得世帯の割合が大きくなる。2)居住地の位置がCBDに近ければ近いほど、車利用、電気製品、建物類型などの生活様式に、近代的生活要素が多くなる。3)新しい住居・古い住居、住居正面は運河か道路か、CBDから居住地の距離といった違いから、水環境に対する意識の違いが見られる。3.議論Discussion : 1)生活の近代化を測定するいくつかの指標を用いて調査した結果、CBDに最も近いMahasawatコミュニティは他の3地域に比べ、最も早く近代化された地域である。2)居住地がCBDから遠ければ遠いほど、住民が日常生活に運河の恩恵を受け、運河へのゴミ捨て行為が少なくなり、水環境がより良くなる。3)運河に面している住居が多ければ多いほど、水環境に対する住民の意識が高くなる。4)浸水を防ぐための工夫として、伝統住居(杭上住居、柱上住居)は水環境にほぼ影響を与えないのに対し、CBDに近いマハサワット地域では堤防が建設され、道路が水路より重要視されている。5)水環境浄化活動に基づいた水環境の取り組みが、Sai Gong Dinコミュニティに見られ、コミュニティによる水環境改善の可能性を示している。4.結論:ライフスタイルと運河沿い環境の関係に関して、以下の知見が得られた。(1)4調査地域に、ほぼ同等な近代化意識が発生しているが、CBDに近ければ近いほど、より近代化されたライフスタイルが発見された、(2)CBDから遠ければ遠いほど、水辺環境を大切にする生活行動がより多く見られる、(3)建物正面が水辺に面している住居の住民は、道路に面している住居の住民より、水辺環境に対する意識が高い。(4)環境に対して実際の行動を取り組んでいる住民がいる地域に、水辺環境をきれいにする住民の行動が見られる。
Housing policy in Korea focused more on expanding the physical volume of national stock, rather than the housing welfare itself. Now the housing shortage is alleviated, and as per copita income grows, it is time to reorient the housing policy needs to focus on the housing walfare of the low-income class, who are unable to take part in the housing market, by themselves. Goverment has offered various public housing programs. However, one may not deny that these measuers were important for expanding the total stock rather than for the improvement of dwelling of lower income class. There may be no public housing units surely contibuted to rise dwelling of the lower income class, even though the beneficiaries are spread over vagious strata of income classes. In this paper, it is examined that own needs of low-income classes are investigate the household in the public housing feel and the household characteristics influencing the burden of housing expenses.
This paper aims to clarify the change of the city's organization through the city's formation of the feudalistic castle and castle town. In 1645 Asano Naganao became the ruler of Ako Clan, and he repaired the castle and castle town. This paper clarifies the method and process of the repair of the castle and the castle town's content after the repair. As a result, Ako castle and castle town was renovated in accord with the social position of Daimyo, the site for Samurai town. civilian town and temple town. The renovation continued longer than the registered period. After the renovation. the house's distinction of Samurai according to the social position became not clear by expanding its area. In general, Samurai's social position is reflected in the area of the house, but it is not strict for middle and low class in the era of Ikeda and Asano.
This paper seeks to clarify the spatial composition of Onshi-yashiki (dwelling place of the exorcist of Ise shrine) in Uji Religious town around Naiku of Ise shrine during the early modem period through an analysis of surviving archival material, especially "Ujigo-no-zu" drawn in 1861. In result the spatial composition of Onshi-yashiki was classified into 3 types. First type was the upper class Onshi-yashiki which had been established in the late medieval period and had the large dwelling place with an approach. So it was located separating from the main street and generally holded several frontage buildings for subordinate habitants (Maeyashiki). Second and third types had Tanzaku (like a strip of paper) type dwelling places which were aligned with the main street and increased during the early modern period. Second type was also the upper class Onshi-yashiki which had the large frontage with a gate. 0n the other hand, third type was the common Onshi-yashiki with the narrow frontage like a Machiya.
The aim of this research is to clarify the characteristic of the design and construction of beam svstetn in the main halls of the Esoteric Buddhist temple in TOKAl district in the Edo period. The conclusions are as follows. 1) There are some common distinctions of the beam svstem in "Gejin" (the outer chamber) of the Buddhist halls in this district in the Edo period, by which these Buddhist halls can be classified. 2) Some Buddhist halls adopted the Rainbow-beam of 3-pillar spans in the lengthwise direction of it, especially in the eastern part of MIKAWA and TOTOUMl areas. 3) These beam systems has developed still more in the Edo period, inheriting technical skills from the Medieval period. It has become more comnlicated with gigantic beams, in structure.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze specialization of puppet play in rural community theaters with Funazoko-butai forms; temporary and permanent. We set Katsuura River basin area as the object of the field survey. As a result, it was found that the forms of the Funazoko-butai exist and the rural community theaters can be classified into three types; Hira-butai. temporary Funazoko-butai, and permanent Funazoko-butai. We revealed the changing mechanism of five elements within each theater type. In spite of becoming exclusive for puppet play, rural community theaters continued to maintain five elements to make spatial changes in accordance with each use of plays and annual events.
It is a known fact that tile making in Hokkaido got underway in 1872 at Moheji, Kamiiso-gun under the guidance of then Commission of Hokkaido Colonization (KAITAKUSHI). However, there has been no reference record available what so ever as to how the roofing tile manufacturing began in Sapporo. The author in this study intends to describe the tile making which has since become a clue to the brick manufacturing in Sapporo.
1. Masaharu Furuzuka was borm in Hyogo prefecture. He was a freelance architect, who established his office at his local city. One of the well-known buildings designed by him is Takarazuka hotel. 2. Kanesuke Hachiuma, a rising capitalist, patronized Masaharu Furuzuka all his life from entering a high school to establishing an architectural office. 3. He designed the public facilities monopolistically the area between Kobe and Osaka. 4. He had the idea that architectural design should be based on the use of buildings.