The purpose of this study is to propose living space planning suited to the needs of the elderly. In this paper, the analysis focuses on the sleeping mode, the place in the daily living space and the contact between elderly couples living in collective housing in Dalian and Harbin in China. The main findings are as follows. 1) About half of the elderly couples want to have separate bedrooms. The actual situation and wishes regarding sharing a bedroom or having separate bedrooms are related to family structure, the number of rooms and area of every generation in a family. 2) The place husband and wife take in the daily living space is related to whether they share a bedroom or have separate bedrooms, what they want to do in the daily living space and the choice of the seat. The form of contact is affected by their actions in contact and the elderly couples' age and health condition. 3) The sleeping mode changes according to the age and the health condition of the elderly. The elderly couples take a middle way as a transition from sharing a bedroom to having separate bedrooms. Moreover, they take the middle way too even after they change to having separate bedrooms because of the consideration of their physical condition and the necessity of nursing.
The aim of this study is to consider the methodology of Dutch housing developments. This paper focuses on characteristics of ambiguous exterior spaces of semi-enclosed building blocks which are designed in different ways. Firstly seven types of semienclosed building blocks are classified by integrated analysis of disposition of housing buildings, access and functions. Secondly the relation between the characteristics of exterior spaces and urban surroundings is clarified. As the result, it is revealed that spatial continuity in and around housing blocks tends to be designed according to the types of surrounding housing blocks, and quite a few housing blocks make up continuous exterior spaces in heterogeneous urban surroundings.
The paper is concerned to clarify the supplying processes of private rental apartments through interviews with employees in charge. These processes are among significant elements of residential environments. Our analysis demonstrates that their attitudes towards residential environments differ diversely in the spectrum from one end "large-area-spreading standardized manufacturers" to the other "community-based architect offices." The latter are more concerned with individual business owner's considerations for communities and with contribution to the residential environment formation. Accumulation of rental apartments with these attitudes, resulting from the latter's attempts to distinguish themselves from the former, is promising to endow to rearrange residential environments.
This study aims to clarify the needs for remodeling the dwelling unit in SI housing by examining the way of living of the family through the term of the experiment conducted in the experimental housing NEXT21 and contents of the arrangement between the family and the planner of the remodeling. Particularly in this paper we are reporting about the needs for remodeling the dwelling unit caused by infant-childcare. As the result, we identified the following three types of needs caused by childcare. 1. Relating playing field 2. Relating safety for chileren 3. Relating the coexistence of child-play and family life
This paper attempts to examine the relationships between area characteristics and the changes of building shapes by newly constructed mid-to-high-rise apartments. We suggested the application of building morphology indexes, which enabled us to describe the changes of building volumes and open spaces quantitatively. The results can be summarized; 1) these indexes are effective in describing the actual conditions of extent residential areas. 2) The differences in building morphology derive mainly from original city block and site conditions. 3) In city blocks of smaller lots, mid-to-high-rise apartments will be constructed to the maximum volume, which is not sustainable. 4) In city blocks with larger lots, gigantic or high-rise apartments might disturb the existent residential conditions.
The USA has many immigrants and low-income peoples, and The Full Service School serves the many kinds of services on learning and life to students, their families and communities in mainly such areas. This study aim to clarify the content of service, the composition of management organization, and the method of making the school based service center as The Full Service School. It is the new type of community schools to solve the many school and family problems. The results are as follows. 1) The student support include the learning supports on after school etc, and the life supports for keeping the active learning on the health, meal and delinquency prevention etc.. The family support also includes the learning support on English, skill education, and exchange activity and the life support on health and improvement of home problems. 2) The public and private service organizations respond the many kinds of needs on community in collaboration with the university, business and hospital etc. 3) The service organizations make up the service center by repairing the vacant space or setting the portable units at schools.
This study aims to clarify the effect of the introduction of the bathing corresponding to the individual care for the elderly. The results are as follows; 1) After reparing the bathrooms and dressinng rooms, the circulation was dispersed and the number of the elderlies in the same rooms reduced. On the other hand, the elderly's waiting time became long and the care worker's care patterns didn't improve. 2) Afterward by introducing the individual bathing care system, waiting time became short and the care appropriate to the eldely's situations was brought into practice.
Improvement of the quality of the environment and improving the quality of life by the individual care, etc. are being attempted nursing home for the aged. However, there is some actuality that type of facilities or the form brings differences of life and nursing care. For four facilities, by grasping the actual condition of each life and nursing care from the relation with quantity of care-worker, the purpose of this study clarifies it. Investigation carried out at one traditional-model nursing home for the aged, two new-model "unit-type" nursing homes and one group living for the elderly with dementia. Space usage and action observation of the residents and nursing staffs have done away with main research method. In the following, got conclusion is summarized. (1) There was not large difference in the physical situation of the user at each facility. (2) In the traditional-model facilities, there are many stays in the bedroom, and unit-type facilities, the proportion of the common space increases, and in the group living, the tendency increases more and more. (3) There is no change on the quantity of the basic nursing care in which facilities. (4) The quantity of the care workers is greatly influenced on the quantity of the nursing that support and improve the life. This fact shows that the number of staffs must be caught as a very important element that affect quality of life of the residents.
This study aims to analyze how the environmental elements are used as an anchor point. Therefore, we paid attention to the eye fixation behavior on the environmental elements such as windows and nameplates in the repetitive wayfinding, and analyzed it about the anchor point. As a result, the followings are made clear. 1) A part of the choice of information in the wayfinding was clarified. 2) There are sign type and structural type in major eye fixation point. The sign type is used for early stage of route search. The structural type is used for later stage of route search. 3) In the object facilities, one of the anchor point is that the major eye fixation point has sign and structural type near the node. The second is the major eye fixation point included the Window that can be foreseen.
This study is to clarify differences in evaluations of exterior spaces in typical multiple dwelling houses using seven patterns of CG simulation. This study shows the followings. (1) Psychological evaluations are possible by using eleven measures such as amenity factor, design factor, and openness factor. (2) There is no significant difference in the evaluations among architects, students studying architecture, and other students. (3) This study found quantitative differences in the evaluations among seven exterior spaces.
In the Downtown Area in Osaka, many people have been living for a long time and there are various neighborhoods being consisted with units such as streets or blocks. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the attractions of urban residence. First we investigated about the changes of neighborhoods in downtown area in Osaka. Second we took a questionnaires survey about the environmental recognition to the residents. All these things make it clear that the transfer residents recognized the scene of the people make living in neighborhood to the attraction of urban residence.
This study aims to research residents' profile in Shin-Nagata station south area where urban redevelopment programme has been carrying out, and to elucidate residents' evaluation of current redevelopment programme and local community. Some residents have lived before the earthquake and others are new comers who have started to live since new condominium had been built. 76% of all residents lived in the condominium are new residents and 80% of all tenants lived in rented housing are old residents who have lived before the earthquake. Most of them satisfied with housing and intend to live there permanently. At the same time, they feel anxiety of evacuation when earthquake happened because they live in high-rise buildings. In addition, they feel dissatisfaction to strong winds blowing through the tall buildings, less greenery and many empty commercial spaces. In Shin-Nagata station south area, currently 19 buildings have been completed and 4 buildings are under construction. Another 17 buildings are planned to build from now on but 26% of commercial floor spaces in existing buildings have already been unused. The redevelopment programme should reflect the residents' evaluations clarified in this study in the future.
Our research intends to analyze the making process of Korean communities in Japan. Especially, this paper aims to find characters of the transitional process of landownership by the Korean in Higashi-Kujo area of Kyoto City. The all the factors, it was the Land Readjustment project by a public organization which most attracted the Korean to come to settle in this area. At the result of this study, we founded that Land Readjustment Project practiced in there accelerated the gathering and subsequently settling process of Korean people in the quarter. The approval of article 13 in the former City Planning Law enforced Land Readjustment Project that provided infrastructure to the quarter, hence caused an increase in land price. For the financial benefit from the development, previously stayed landlords sold their lands to any newcomers. So that, Korean people living in Japan could take an opportunity for obtaining landownership with ease. The process of acquisition of landownership by the Korean people from related authorities such as the Ministry of Finance and Kyoto City via public organization has very distinctive features.
The purpose of this study is to show how Dutch urban design has played strategic roles in its spatial planning. Dutch urban design ('stedebouwkunde') has evolved over the 20th century. The trajectory of urban design can be divided into four phases. In the first phase, 'independence', urban design was derived from architecture and became independent as a profession. In the second phase, 'expansion', the field of urban design became wider to deal with large districts and cities as a whole. However the absence of participation processes forced urban design to change its role. In the third phase, 'turning point', emphasis was given to the planning processes, through which urban design became a useful tool. In the 'integration' phase, the issue of spatial quality required to manage spatial design and negotiation process simultaneously, and this shift gave urban design a new role as a driving force and steering power. As a result, in the process of negotiation on spatial quality among various stakeholders with different interests, urban design came to play a key strategic role.
This paper aims to clarify the spatial characteristics of Chin-Dei (the typical open space in Macao in front of buildings) in the old district of Macao. Focusing on the continuity of both uses and inclination of Chin-Dei and the adjacent streets, the spatial characteristics are classified. Firstly, the boundary of Chin-Dei is continuous to the adjacent streets without change of uses and inclination. Secondly, the boundary of Chin-Dei is distinct from the adjacent streets because of the change of uses correlate with the inclination of streets. This indicates the effective types of open public spaces to adjust the mixture of urban functions for the high-dense city.
Photo taking at an actual job site provides a very useful tool for the record of construction progress and the inspection of built-up members. The photos are also utilized as essential data to carry out the control of construction progress in virtual space. Besides, the situation of construction progress at an actual site might well encounter a conflict with the construction plan that was prepared before the beginning of construction. This invokes the importance of use of site photos in VCS(Virtual Construction Site) that enable the real time construction control by comparing themselves to the images from virtual reality. In this study the comparison between the site photo taken at an actual job site and the virtual images corresponding to them was carried out to estimate validity of the proposed VCS. Particularly this paper demonstrates the possible troubles during development of a prototype system by acquisition of the site photos from an actual job site.
The purpose of this study is to explore periodical housing situation of Single Mother Househoklds in Japan. Recently, greater rates of divorce or separation caused by changes in lifestyles and social awareness for women has been contributed to the growing number of Single Mother Households. Gradually, their owner occupation rate has been decreasing on the other hand the rate of living in public housing, private housing, or returning to their parents or relatives, has been increasing. Each Single Mother Households who were left as a widow and were divorced have different structure of housing tenure. These changed often caused by the change of quality of single mother households.
On the transition process of the ceremonial places for the Fujiwara family in Heian period, the following points were clarified: 1. Fujiwara-no-Michinaga(藤原道長) lived in much residences, in these residences, Tuchimikado-den(土御門殿), Konan-dai(小南第), Nijo-den(二條殿) were used as ceremonial place. 2. It is characteristics in the Michinaga(道長) age to use Konan-dai(小南第) and Nijo-den(二條殿) as a ceremonial place. This characteristics were possible by the Sekkan(摂関) system. 3. Nijo-den(二條殿) was built from the necessity of real ceremonial place which should replace Konan-dai(小南第).
This study aims to clarify the details of uniform townscape in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. This paper deals with the meaning of "mushico" about machiya (town house) in Kyoto. Many dictionaries tell the meaning of this ward is lattice or latticed window. But, these meanings are quoted from essays in previous term of Edo period. In later term of Edo period, the meaning of "mushico" is lattice door or mud coated lattice. After that, the meaning centered round one point that mud coated lattice in Meiji period. Anything but, After the pacific war, "mushico mado" which means mud coated latticed window have general tendency in 1945-55, because the meaning quoted from dictionaries.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of resort development in Unzen under the Policy of Tourist Industry during 1930s. Nagasaki Pref. had developed Unzen as a resort for foreign tourist after 1910s. In 1930s, the Government and Nagasaki Pref. planed Unzen Kanko Hotel to construct summer resort for foreign resident in East Asia. and tourist point for foreign tourist who traveled all over the world. Such developments were caused by the Policy of Tourist Industry promoting Western-Japan route for foreign tourist and resort all season.
Department of Social Welfare in Ministry of Health and Welfare organized the Housing Corporation in 1941. Just before it, the department held a conference and made 'the designing standards for housing and its surroundings.' Until now we have considered the house types of the designing standards to be lacking relationship with family members. This study reviews the plans for designing standards in the conference, and clarifies that they were planned based on family members and uses of rooms while asleep and made to determine the designing standards.
As compared the architecture of Kaitakushi with illustrations of the architectural pattern books from overseas published in the middle of the 19th century, and former owned by Kaitakushi, there are robust similalities between them. First, the architectural engineers of Kaitakushi began to study the western-style architecture by copying out illustrations of the pattern books to build a house of Kaitakushi in 1873, later, they mastered the western-style architecture through the pattern books. Finally, they dealt with the illustrations as elemnts to compose architecture by harmonizing with the architectural skill they had cultivated. Those architecture could be said 'early western-style architecture.'
We analyzed the exterior design of 500 houses designed by Amerikaya housing company that contributed to a development of free-standing urban housing, appeared in the architectural magazines and female magazines in the time period from 1909 to 1943. Analysis points are: exterior wall (finish), roof (shape, material, incline) and window (shape, grille) of the entrance facade showed in the photographs and drawings in the magazines. Analyzing the exterior design allowed us to make the following conclusion. 1) In Meiji and Taisho era, there were three types of finish. In particular, 'wood siding on the first floor and plaster wall on the second floor' 'steep gabled roof' 'square grill in the window' were typical. 2) In early Showa era, particularly after 1932, 'Plaster finish' 'Gently inclined gabled and hipped roof with Spanish tile' were typical. This shift from the former (1909 to 1925) to the latter (1922 to 1940) matched with the styles from Bungalow to Spanish. Both styles were brought from the United States. This study clarified strong influence of American housing on the development of Western style modern urban detached houses in Japan.
Housing studies in Japan was born as a new branch of science when "new universities" were founded. It stemmed off from home economics that was introduced to Japan from Western countries in the Meiji era to exclusively study the "shelter" (as opposed to food and clothing) aspect of homemaking. The previous paper outlined how the concept of "housing/dwelling" in the field of home economics was formed in modern Japan under a great influence of the "housing concept" in American home economics, the transformation and the current problems of which are discussed in this paper. In addition, in order to shed light on how the "housing concept" has been developing in modern Japan since its original formation, this paper examines the history of housing studies in Japan by analyzing the relation between the "housing concept" of home economics and architectural design during the period from late Meiji to early Showa based primarily on the ideas introduced by Koichi Sato and other architects who actively incorporated the "housing/dwelling" concept in their architectural designs.
The aim of this paper is to clarify how the urban space of the Central Seoul, especially the Jong-Ro area and Kwoang-Hwoa-Mun District, was changing during the early colonial period. Newspapers and official records of the Governor-General of Chosen are the primary materials. The analysis consists of 2 distinct dimensions: (1) extension of business hours (2) the relation with the vibrant districts. Under the first category, the appearance of "Jong-Ro Night Market" and the Governmental Market is described. Under the second category, the analysis examines events held in Jong-Ro and the exposition in Chosun King's Palace. The analysis shows that in the early colonial period the Governor-General of Chosen chose soft policies rather than strict ones, in order that Korean Nationals should accept Japan's governance over Korea.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the characteristic of educational activity time in each room and space of kindergarten. Research methods are based on observations and descriptions of 56 children's behavior in seven kindergartens. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. 1) Free playing is important for all classes, especially enough time and space should be ensured for younger class. 2) Nursery room is a primary base for educational activities. In addition, playroom is a secondary base for older class, and playground for middle or younger class. 3) Group unit is composed of small size at a terrace, corridor, outdoor equipments for playing, and middle size at a playroom or playground. 4) Children's playing are activated with undulation of site, attractive setting of play corner, closeness and continuity to nursery room. Consequently, not only securing nursery room for programmed education, but also setting various indoor or outdoor spaces for free playing, the subjects on architectural planning and design of kindergarten would be resolved.