This study focuses on the comprehension of internal condensation behaviour in wall parts of buildings. In this paper the internal moisture behaviour in Calcium Silicate Board under the processes of condensation and reevaporation is studied. Properties of this material regarding moisture transfer were measured. Experiment and analysis of the condensation and re-evaporation processes were conducted. The results and the effects of variations in properties and conditions on the analysis are also discussed and are compared with those of Cellular Concrete Board. lt is proved that the effect of the variance of material properties and the air conditions on internal condensation, in higher moisture content region, is larger than in lower moisture content region. It is also proved that in the conditions used in this paper, the moisture content of Calcium Silicate Board reaches a low moisture content in a steady state during the condensation process while that of Cellular Concrete reaches a high moisture content.
Problems related to humidity are usually treated as an equilibrium moisture transfer phenomenon at the finite element in the ordinary building materials at recent studies. For porous materials, it is required that the problems are discussed as a nonequilibrium transfer phenomenon at the element within. We defined the local moisture transfer coefficient as the nonequilibrium transfer and developed the procedure to identify it in this study. The coefficients are obtained experimentally for a wood board under the step-up condition of moisture absorption. Furthermore, variations of moisture absorption rate by numerical simulation with simultaneous heat and moisture transfer equations considered the local moisture transfer agree with those by experiment closely.
Chemical potential is an index of a mass equilibrium condition in the equilibrium thermodynamics system. In this paper, a new function (water potential) based on chemical potential is proposed as the driving force of moisture flux. Thermodynamics functions are introduced and the chemical potential of a component of mixture gases is presented. They are applied to moisture phenomena, and then water potential is defined. The water potential is established by the Onsager's reciprocal theory to be the driving force of moisture flux, even in case of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics system (the non isothermal field). Furthermore, the propriety of the water potential is discussed by heat and moisture transfer experiments. The model room which is airtight and composed of two rooms, divided by a moisture permeable partition wall, is used for the experiments. As the result, if temperature is different between two rooms, absolute humidity is also different among those rooms and the partition wall in moisture equilibrium state, while the water potential is the same in them. It is suggested that the water potential is proper as the driving force of moisture flux.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the suitable heat insulation level which the detached houses in the Hokuriku District must have from the viewpoint of dweller's comfort based on the thermal sensation investigated through the questionnaire to 3000 houses. In this paper, 1101 answers were collected and analysed. Consequently, following points were clarified: 1) the present conditions of wall insulation, window performance, heating and cooling equipments, 2) relationships between the dweller's comfort and the heat insulation level of houses in winter and summer seasons, 3) dissatisfied points of present houses and important points to be thought when dwellers build new houses.
Performance of a ventilation system used to be evaluated only by air change rate. But now it is possible to evaluate it by ventilation effectiveness, which is determined by such conditions as the distribution of tracer-gas concentration and an air flow in a room. This paper describes the results we got from the field measurement of air change effectiveness (i.e. local mean age of air and local air change index). The measurement was carried out on three wooden detached houses equipped with different kinds of ventilation system. The results are as follows: (1) The value of local mean age of air (τ_<P1>), based on the definition of AIVC and measured by the step-up tracer-gas method, is twice to fifth times as large as the value got through the step-down tracer-gas method, because of the infiltration of the houses. (2) The value of local mean age of air (τ_<P2>), based on the definition of Sandberg, is nearly the same through both the step-up and step-down methods. (3) The spatial distribution of local mean age of air (τ_P) and local air change effectiveness is very large when a circulating fan is not operating, but when a fan is working the distribution of τ_P and ε_P is relatively small.
A calculation technique using overset grid coordinate system has many benefits on airflow analysis around buildings, especially when the buildings have complicated configurations. In this research work, a fundamental calculation algorithm for incomppressible viscous flow was studied and a 2-dimensional test program was developed using SIMPLE algorithm and fortified solution method. As the result of test solutions, it was found that this program enabled steady and time-marching calculations for incompressible viscous flow using plural grid coordinate systems.
This study aims at analyzing thermal Performance of the mixed water-brick walls as a thermal storage wall for Passive building to promote energy conservation and to maintain indoor comfort level by thermal design of buildings. The experiments were carried out by constructing a container (3m × 6m × 2.4m) with water and brick walls facing to the south. The computer simulation programs were used to analyze the thermal performance of the model for long-term base. The results show that the water wall performs well for high stable temperature variation and the brick wall works as an effective means of the thermal radiator for maintaining a better indoor condition.
The purpose of this study is to propose a estimation model of multi water supply system in urban area. The theory of mathematical programming applies to the water supply planning, which includes water reuse systems and rainwater treatment systems. Application of multi object programming can estimate both environmental impact and equipment (water reuse systems, rainwater treatment systems) impact, which are in conflict with each other.
To find a relationship between subjective Preference and α-waves on The left and right cerebral hemispheres, an attempt is made here to analyze the autocorrelation function (ACF) of α-waves in relation to the delay time of single sound reflection. It is assumed that a similar repetitive feature of the α-wave range (8〜13 Hz) in terms of the effective duration of ACF is related to pleasantness or subjective preference. The results show that the effective duration of ACF from the left hemisphere is significantly changed according to the preferred delay (35 ms) or the echo disturbance (245 ms) condition (p < 0.01), but not from the right hemisphere. These effects reveal the left hemisphere dominance when one of the temporal factors of the sound field, the delay time of reflection, is changed (p < 0.05).
The relationships between the indoor thermal environment and residents' behavior in 15 houses in and around Kyoto city were investigated during winter. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Residents controlled the indoor thermal environment just in those limited areas of the house in which they spend the majority of their time. (2) The air temperature in the living room was found to be dependent upon seating type. This was observed most clearly al the level just above the floor surface. When residents are resting in the living room, those who are sitting on the floor without kotatsu need the air temperature higher than 18℃, while those who use chairs need higher than 14 ℃.
Over the past years, a number of studies on post-occupancy evaluation have carried out laying stress on dwellers' and workers' opinion. Although, little is known about the viewpoints they stand on when they evaluate their living environment. The purpose of this paper is to clarify following two points; (1) Viewpoints of evaluation, (2) Effect of viewpoints on the evaluation item structuring. An investigation using a questionnaire with 60 items and 8 viewpoints of evaluation was done on 120 persons in order to catch their attitude to living environment. The following two main results were obtained. (1) By factor analysis, 3 independent axes to structure different viewpoints were shown; satisfaction found in the living condition, importance attached form a social standpoint and priority given from a personal standpoint. (2) The meaning attributed to items as well as the expectation felt by valuer give a reason for the different style of grouping of items.
This paper reports the investigation for ski resorts to study differences on preferences for environments between areas. To compare criteria for preferences quantitatively, conjoint analysis was adopted. In Tokyo, Paris and Sendai, the subjects were recruited and asked to rank order the stimulus cards prepared. As for one-day ski trip type, there were few differences between Tokyo and Sendai, while as for several-day ski trip type, there were obvious differences between Tokyo and Paris. The subjects were divided into sub categories according to similarity of preferences by cluster analysis. For one-day ski trip type, the composition of categories were similar for Tokyo and Sendai. As for several-days ski trip type, there were distinct differences yet some similarities between Tokyo and Paris. A cause of the major difference was the existence of a category, that stressed the importance of accommodation.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate post-occupancy evaluation in dwelling environment and clarify some factors influencing the evaluation. A series of questionnaire investigation carried out on 2095 persons living in 19 multiple dwelling houses. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) ln detached houses, residents have relatively high satisfaction about "sound", "moisture and condensation", "smell" and "light", and in multiple dwelling houses, about "warmness" and "energy consumption". (2) The evaluation is mainly influenced by both the life stage and preference of housing style and location.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify thc relationships between physical behavior of the spatial distribution of light and user's psychological response. The authors considered that the spatial distribution of light was based on "light source arrangement" and "interior reflective surface composition". From this viewpoint, a series of experiments with scale models on "interior reflective surface composition" was carried out, and then another series of experiments in actual living spaces on "light source arrangement" was done. In consequence of these experiments, the following results were obtained. 1) It was shown that total quantity of light and optimal allocation of light characterize visual perceptional response in lighted environment. 2) It was confirmed that above-mentioned properties effect on atmosphere evaluation in actual space such as livingroom.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristic of utilization of family medical facilities by the aged who live in urban area. This is done through surveys the kind, location and number of family medical facilities. This is based on the results of questionnaire given to the aged living in high- rise housing and in the surrounding residential areas within Tokyo metropolitan area and Nagano City. First we found that the living conditions of the aged such as working and health, the density and location of facilities are important factors affecting utilization of facilities. And then, we were able to clarify differences of utilization between Tokyo metropolitan area and Nagano City.
The object of this study is to set up the guide line on the regional planning of palliative care facilities for the cancer patients. The first survey was carried out on the all cancer patients in Tohoku region etc. by annual epidemiologic statistics. The second was on admitting, surgical, operating and dying of cancer patients in hospitals by annual cancer registration report of Miyagi Prefecture. The third was on the cancer patients in the district central general hospitals. The main results of this study are abstracted as follows ; (1) There are differences in mortality rate and number of death by cancer in each catchment area of health care. (2) In general, terminal care patients are admitting to district central general hospital in each catchment area of health care, in where they are living. (3) Palliative care facilities ought to be set to in each catchment area of health care. (4) Area-wide planning of palliative care facilities were showed as actual several cases in Tohoku region.
In this study, we report about erection and its information of two traditional timber houses designed and built by MOMIYAMA master carpenter at ASUKE AREA. MOMIYAMA master carpenter has excellent technique and knowledge about structure design on traditional timber house. Our target is to describe the master carpenter's knowledge of structure design on traditional timber house. Major contents of survey are drawings and specifications, TEITA, detail drawing, SHAKUZUE,process of erection, time-schedule, joint, tools, festival, and etc. On this paper we report about feature of structure and erection.
'FUKUYAMA KUUSYUUNO KIROKU' is collected writings by bombed out people of Fukuyama city by the U. S. Army Air Forces at Aug. 8 in 1945. Through descriptions of Fukuyama-city's landscape in bombed and flamed disaster, I try to make explicit reality of a landscape of the city. In such abnormal disaster, we may face to an unordinary but uncovered landscape compared with a daily familiar landscape covered by our own view. I characterize the later as 'actuality' of a landscape. The actuality of landscapes is in very close interrelation to knowledges and our representation. From zero degree of actuality to the extreme degree of actuality are discriminated in landscapes of the disaster by articulating writings of the disaster scene. Beyond and apart them by doubting them there seems to catch a glimpse of a landscape itself, namely 'reality of landscape' expressed as double exposured landscapes.
Researched the usage of Hoists, Table lift, Stair lift, and Home elevator used in homes. Recognized that those equipments not only reduce the physical workload of a family, but also help reduce the mental burden of both a disabled person and his or her family. Those are used in daily life and improve the quality of life. However, since the houses must be remodeled to install those equipments, most user currently own their own houses. Therefore, it is difficult for the people who need these to install immediately. Also, the number of accident while using those machines is low, and no serious accident has occurred. Yet most people worry about the safety of using those machines, except home elevators, so better safety measures for those are required in the future.
We need to develop the participant community design that is individual and autonomous with the living values of residents. By the way there are 43 parodied states which are called the "Minidokuritukoku" in Hokkaido (1992). The parodied states have the freedom, enjoyable and autonomous spirits. We evaluate activity of these states from the view point of the current community design, We show that residents who participate in the activities have open mind, and grow up to community planner step by step. The communities and regional culture are rising, and so on.
Japanese master-builders "DAIKU" usually construct timber houses by their own design without design by architects. The design drawings consist of "ITAZU", "SHAKUZUE", "KANABAKARIZUE", "TUKAJYOUGI", "KITYOUMEN", "KOYADANMENZU" and the main drawing is "ITAZU" which illustrates the basic timber structure planning. This report aims to clarify the function of "ITAZU" and the characteristics of the design system through analyzing the planning process of Japanese traditional timber houses.
This report will show that Juntaro Yamaokas' concept of housing management which played the large part and he made various contributions to the business world in Osaka and in the modernizing of Japanese residential areas in the early twentieth century. He enthusiastically conducted a campain to better the houses through Osaka Jutaku Keiei Co. Ltd. What is more, he provided office workers with cheaper houses, which lightened the burden to them through Osaka Tennoji Tochi Co. Ltd., Bisho Tochi Co. Ltd. as well as Osaka Jutaku Keiei Co. Ltd. This shows that Yamaoka carried out his concept of housing management as social work to satisfy the middle classes', especially office workers' standards. The concept, which he insisted on, was consciously based on the British system of housing developement.
From late Heian to early Kamakura periods. "baba-dono", facilities for spectators of horse racing were built in the ex-emperors' palaces. The spatial characteristics and architectual developments of "baba-dono" in the ex-emperors' palaces are analyzed in this paper. It is pointed out that "baba-dono" was introduced to the ex-emperors' palaces built in the suburbs of Heian-kyo as a space for the events of amusement. As its existence gradually became popular, it was introduced to the daily space of the ex-emperors, and was transformed to a facility for ordinary meeting of amusement.
We surveyed "Shinsenju", "Shinsansui", "Ginpa", and the other remained buildings of Nakamura Yukaku, in order to analyze the characteristics of city planning and modern architecture in the age of Taisho to Early Showa which germinate modern urban thought. The urban planning is modernistic although follow basic urban structure of historic Yukaku, in consideration of anti-disaster, hygiene, etc. The floor plan of almost all buildings is typed 3 patterns according to functional matters on urban planning. "Shinsenju" and "Shinsansui" which are Japanese style have adopted western style everywhere, while "Ginpa" which is western style have been sukiya style at the interior.
The Kingdom of Champa had been located in the middle and the south region of present Vietnam and enjoyed its glory during 2 to 15 century. This study shows a result of field surveys on the Champa remains. The edifices of Champa were built by masonry construction. Main building material is brick and sandstone is used as the member of reinforcement. This study analyses its construction-technic; Brick works and Corbel structure. Both Brick works and Corbel syructures are able to distinguish into 3 types according to differece technics.
In this paper, the chronology of building techniques in Pompeii is examined on the following points. 1) Re-using of building stones and techniques. 2) Building techniques provide a terminus ante quem for the date of the construction. 3) Post work carries the weight of upper structures. In the first century B. C. rubble work containing re-used stone ashlars were simultaneously with brick and block works. This work formed the post, which lend assistance to walls in sustaining the weight. Conclusively this work does not directly mean the construction before the building containing brick and block works.
It is the intention of this paper to depict the place of human dwelling as it is, based on an analysis of the novel Ashikari. Tanizaki Jun'ichiro said that he was inspired to write Ashikari by his love of the views of Ogura-ike, Yodo-gawa, and Minase. The intimate relationship between the place and human being is here considered in the light of an interpretation of the use and significance of these three locations in the novel. It is suggested that natural topography holds meanings latent within itself, and that these meanings are grasped by one's subjective experience of places.
According to Quatremere de Quincy, the type is a "preexistent germ', a "core" that enables all the mouvements of historicity. The type works as a vertical axis of all the phases of idiomatic stratifications of meanings of the urban architecture. The nature of the type is the intertextual specificity around the historicity. To become conscious of the intertextuality of type is to reconfigure all the relations of sedimented meanings after their reactivation. It is the invention that is to deconstruct the typological sedimentation reconfigured by the reactivation on the intertextual structure of the type. As Argan, different from Quatremere, could not sufficiently take account of the relation among the nature to imitate, the type, the imitation and the invention, he could not understand it precisely.