Experiments were conducted to investigate into vertical travel time of the front of buoyant plumes induced in open space and shafts by ignition of methanol fire sources. Two other existing full scale experiments available for this purpose were also analyzed. It is found that the time for the front of a buoyant plume to reach a given height is negatively proportioned to 1/3 to the heat release rate and that proportional to 4/3 to the height in open space or region near fire source in shafts, while the time is proportional to 2/3 and 2 to the height when roof shaft is open and closed, respectively. Results of the experiments in different scales were well scaled by heat release rate and scales. In vertical shaft, a boundary at which from fire plume behavior (Z/D) differs from open space is 5.0, 2.5 for with and without a roof, respectively. Based on the experiments the equations to predict vertical travel time of fire plume front were proposed.
Theoretical analysis method on a sound radiation from plates deals with only typical vibration states like as piston vibration, modal vibration and diffuse vibration. In this paper the numerical calculation method newly developed on acoustic radiation impedance is presented. This is a discrete method, that is, the vibrating plate is imaginariry divided into the discrete parts and those are dealt with as individual sound sources. This method can be then applied to every vibration states of the plates and also suits for in situ measurement. The influences on the sound radiation impedance of vibrating points, size of plate, boundary condition, damping coefficient and stiffeners are investigated using this method. Furthermore, acoustic radiation characteristics of concrete slabs under diverse conditions are shown.
By using actual sightlines of desk worker, we investigate mounting positions of the lighting equipment on ceiling and the contrast rendering ratio of task on desk. The results show that we make wrong estimates of visual conditions of desk worker if binocular condition is not taken into consideration and a fixed eye point is assumed. Luminance difference threshold measured under binocular condition differs from the one under single eye. However, if there is significant difference in stimulus between left and right eye, the visibility may be almost determined by an eye that has better sensitivity.
It is necessary to evaluate quantitatively the thermal performance of doors during the design stage and reflect it to their specifications. Calculation method is more appropriate than test method for the evaluation. In Japan, however, no method is established nor recognized officially for the calculation of thermal transmittancc (U-valucs) of insulated doors. Although the methods responsible for the purpose arc currently discussed in ISO and ASHRAE, they are not always applicable to the details of the doors manufactured in Japan. In this report, the calculation method which covers the various kinds of insulated doors developed in Japan as well as is compatible to that in the ISO draft is proposed. To examine the accuracy of the proposed method, U-values are computed for recently developed doors and comparisons are made with the test values together with the discussion on the discrepancies between the values.
The air circulation wall is a triple envelope and double air layer system of outside walls and roofs. Its midst envelope is a thermal insulation board and divides the wall into two air layers. Since its outer air layer works like as a solar collector, this system increases indoor air temperature in winter under closed air circulation. In summer, its open air circulation exhausts hot air to the outdoor. Many Japanese wooden houses with this air circulation system have been constructed. However, many problems are remained for its optimum designing such as the precise prediction of thermal characteristics and air distributions in the layers. This paper investigates the air distribution and thermal performance of the air circulation wall through real-size model experiments and numerical analysis by means of computational fluid dynamics.
The objective of ventilation is to maintain the indoor air clean for the occupants.To achieve this in airtight house with mechanical ventilation system, it is essential that the outdoor air is efficiently distributed to each room and contaminants within room are effectively expelled to the outside. Measurement of age of air is useful to identify the outdoor air distribution to each room.However, this method has not enough reliability yet in field measurement.This paper deals with measurement method of age of air in a test house with three different types of ventilation systems, such as mechanical supply and exhaust system with and without return air, and mechanical exhaust system.The purpose of this study is to examine the items as follows : (1) Reproducibility of measurement result. (2) Difference between the step-up and the step-down methods. (3) Influence of infiltration on age of air. (4) Comparison between three different types of ventilation systems.
A Recent researches show the thermal load prediction using Neural Networking (NNW) models are more accurate than other methods. However.those results are conducted by simulation under specific building conditions. Network architecture such as input parameters and a number of hidden layer units influences the prediction accuracy, yet they have so far been decided by the trial-and-error method. In this paper, we examined several methods proposed for constructing NNW models theoretically and evaluated effect of heat load characteristics on the accuracy of heat load prediction using NNW models under the experimental analysis.
The change of industrial development in the Kitakyushu Industrial Zone(KIZ) and intheEmscher Zone (Germany) has been investigated The industrialization process in both areas has changed the environment from an agrarian landscape into a density built industrial landscape. This process has resulted in the change in structure of employment by sectors, the expansion of industrial location in both areas, as well as the increase in built area, industrial area and infrastructure. The change in industrial development in the Kitakyushu Industrial Zone took place in a very short time and in the Emscher Zone on the contrary was very long.
In this study, the relationship between the form and materials of urban blocks and sensible heat flux from the total surfaces was analyzed for the case of 'Tama New Town' which is one of the largest housing estates in Japan and is now under development. First, urban blocks were divided into 5 categories from the point of plot types of buildings. The characteristics of the form and thermal properties of each building, as well as land cover condition (area of vegetation, bare soil, asphalt pavement, and built area) of each category was considered. Furthermore, 6 urban blocks were selected for numerical simulation of heat balance of the total surfaces, and sensible heat flux from the total surfaces of each urban block on clear sky day in summer was calculated. It was clarified that the influence of buildings' directions and floor area ratio was as great as buildings' materials upon the amount of sensible heat flux in each urban block.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate particular problems from the application of the logistic analysis to the case of multiple responses for the thermal sensation votes, and to find general solutions of them. The authors suggest that the logistic function should apply to the probability of a vote corresponding to environmental temperature, because the logistic model is considerably simpler than other binary models. Observed the probability of either zero or 100 per cent, the modification rule of Berkson is found to be efficient. The test of Cochran-Armitage is recommended using on extremely small or distorted samples before the regression analysis. The analyzer should choose between two types of the graph of logistic curves according to aims for the thermal sensation studies.
This study aimed to propose the expecting visual image based on the mechanism of appraisals. The mechanism of appraisals was represented how to make judgments. The useful information for expecting visual image was obtained from the rules for making judgments. A series of interview using repartry grid method was conducted to obtain the mechanism of appraisals on harmony of townscape. We tried to make a checklist for expecting harmony of townscape based on the mechanism of appraisals. Subjects estimated harmony of townscape using SD method to examine the usefulness of the checklist. The linear relation between the harmony estimated and the harmony expected using the checklist indicated usefulness of the checklist as an expecting harmony of townscape.
Relationships between Cerebro Vascular Disease(CVD) mortality and monthly mean outdoor temperature were analyzed to obtain some information for the thermal environment design, in 7 regions in Japan. CVD mortality was observed to be minimum at ca. 22℃, the monthly mean outdoor temperature, in Hokkaido, at ca. 25℃ in Kyoto city, Tokyo, Ishikawa, Wakayama prefectures and at ca. 28℃ in Okinawa prefecture. This mortality-minimum outdoor temperature varied according to each average air temperature. It was considered as the thermal neutral point for human and discussed in connection with the goal of thermal environment design to secure safety before comfort.
Kampung Improvement Program(KIP) is a well-known project for improving living environments in urban residential area in Indonesia. One of the most important concerns that has come about as a result of KIP is the need to establish a new urban housing model considering the redevelopment plans for Kampungs in the next stage. This paper tries to evaluate the outstanding example called Rusun(Rumah susun) Sombo which was designed and organized by Prof. Johan Silas(ITS) for the future development of the urban housing model, based on the analysis of utilization of common space. The dwelling units in Rusun Sombo were provided in two steps using the skeleton-infill system. The inhabitants decide how to use the inside of their dwelling unit after moving in and construct the infill walls themselves. As well as planning the buildings, a totally unique approach was taken through the whole process of the project.
To grasp building conditions of small scale workshops for disabled persons in Japan, we made questionnaire survey in 1995 and examined following 11 indexes ;(1)promotor of establishment, (2)experience of moving or rebuilding, (3)process of possession, (4)process of borrowing, (5)condition of borrowing, (6)condition of independent building, (7)condititin of rented house and public facilitiy and private builiding, (8)estimation of building area, (9)estimation of equipment, (10)estimation of barrier free design, (11)future plan for building improvement. And we try to clear the characteristics by "main constituent of organization" , "location" and "kind of disability".
The number of people with dementia in Japan is increasing due to change of aging population structure. As a model for alternative care form for people with dementia, group living is regarded as worthwhile to be considered. The aim of the paper is to clarify the basic characteristics of life and utilization of residential space in group livings. Four units in three group homes were selected as survey fields. Behavior maps were drawn every 10 minutes. Major results are shown as follows : 1. Daily activities and the usage of spaces are largely influenced by the care program and the operational policy of each group living. 2. Common spaces such as living room, kitchen and day room plays an important role for their daily activities, because that most of the residents stay there for considerable period during daytime. 3. Layout of each private room and common space seems very crucial point in designing these kind of facilities, in order to enable people with dementia to live their lives more independently and voluntarily. 4. Careful organization of a group mixed with different levels of dementia results in therapeutical good effects on severe damaged group in verbal communication or other activities.
The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between exhibit order and visitor's recognition. This paper discusses the cognitive map of the Linear Exhibition space in Pacifico Yokohama. The study was approached using Semantic Differential Method and distinction-photographs. We analyzed the results and attempted to make better planning of exhibition space. The purpose of the first investigation was to grasp the relationship between fourteen adjective scales we selected and fourteen photographs on exhibition spaces in Pacifico Yokohama. The purpose of the second investigation was to see how well visitors could grasp and understand the photographs of their plan. Visitor's cognitive maps are categorized into 3 types, this is dependent upon the patterns of recall. As a result, we named it '3 types of recall', as follows ; "Consencutive-recalls", "Successive-recalls" and "Scat-recalls". According to the results of these investigations, (1) We confirmed the serial position effect at the Linear Exhibition spaces. (2) Visitors grasped the meaning that they collected from succesive exhibits. (3) Visitor's recall-rank conjectured the interaction between exhibit order and exhibit evaluation.
The condition of a high-quality environment is showed by a cultural factor which consists of four elements : place, history, climate and poetic-imagery. In poetic-imagery, not only is comfort given, but delight and pleasure as well. Poetic-imagery means a special and environmental element which gives rise to a strong impression and activation of consciousness. It is thought that poetic-imagery is obtained by making the best use of place, history, and climate. In order to create an ideal urban environment, it is necessary to find the way to realize the environment of poetic-imagery.
This paper presents the results of finding the basic structures and the transition of Korean traditional spatial village in Sangman Village. Jindo Island. It concentrated on the analysis of the system of Munjung which maintains and administers the village and the graveyards. The paper also described the cause of gathering of residence place by analyzing the process by searching the history of the resident place, according to the formation of the stages and the utilization of the streams and common wells. The results are that the Kirns first developed the prototype which was the core of the village surrounded by the four T-shape crossroads. Then two families, the Lees and the Parks, in the 2nd stage expanded to the West and to the East along the contour line of the core, respectively. Later in the 3rd stage, to the North and to the South sides, each Munjung continued to expand their living places. Again, the descendants in the 4th stage further developed to the all south sides of the old stages. The cross-shape road was then formed. From the view point of the development of the stages and the graveyards, the conclusions are that the graveyards were the ground of community consciousness for deaths, and were the place and the device of the mediation for lasting the community where a death and a life could meet together. Also Munjung strongly affected the formation and administration of the village, and reflected all aspects of a village formed by individual family.
This report is a result of investigation and analysis concerning land use pattern of the old category I exclusive residential district. From the result of the multivariate analysis, a correlation with "building coverage and floor area ratio", "station surrounding region", etc., was suggested as an index that is possible to induce a mixing of land use. Also, the state of affairs where different factors are related compositely depending on areas, such as a correlation with strip zoning system, etc., was made clear.
This study completes our researches about change of inhabitant's living behavior and consciousness in process of urbanization at Tsukuba new town through 23 years. Conclusion are as follows : 1)The difference that emerged between PRA and POL till 1986 is going to disappear. 2)The change which be utterly different from inherited trends happened between 1988 and 1995, therefore, Tsukuba New Town is going to entered a new stage of urbanization. 3)Change of living behavior happens suddenly also quickly, on the other hand, Change of inhabitant's consciousness is late and slow. 4)Convenience on daily life and progress of urbanization contributed to a rise of inhabitant's consciousness about stable settlement.
By means of computer, colors ofbuildings in a cityscape were changed systematically, andsubjects evaluate each cityscapes. Two different methods were used to analyse the results. One is multivariate analysis using average of evaluation of data, and another is focusing on distribution pattern of the data. The conclusion of this study areas follows; l)The factors which influence evaluation are'harmony', 'brightness' and'warmth'. 2) Subjects's evaluation concentrates in lowvalues, and frequently divides into lowandhigh values in case that cityscapes are evaluated by the items such as 'harmony' and 'unity'.
The study is aimed at establishing the method that can describe the attributes of sequential street landscape according to its numerical data and verifying that the numerical data includes plural factors of the landscape. The idea of fluctuation is introduced to make the "fluctuation-wave" identify the attributes of landscape in digitized images of the video-recorded street. Results from the analysis of wave patterns revealed usefulness of "fluctuation-wave" to describe shape of skyline, scale of buildings, irregularity or regularity among building facades, density of buildings, repetition of facade pattern and rows of trees that exist in front of facades.
The aim of this paper is to get accurate date of continual actions in short time and succession of visual-perceptions of pedestrians while they experience the sequences of the spaces. We used some improved psychological devices and analized the changes in the continual and successive circumstances. As a result.it is cleared that at the corner which has variation of space-construction, the actions and responces of pedestrians make many changes. As there are may standard deviation and variation of the light-shade and outline.the actions and responces increased.and the walking speed decreased. Actions maked differences as the changes of open degree, too.
As the form composition of cities is considered as the materialization of the spatial image, this study attempts to comprehend the characteristics of the urban spatial image by analyzing it's form composition. The Block Component Model is proposed to de- scribe the urban street blocks. By calculating the Block Component Model, the assembly of plane forms and volume forms of street blocks in Japanese city central is analyzed. And by quantifying the formal characteristics of them, the existence of their spatial domain is examined, and the formation of their image of mass is discussed. As a result, the commonness and peculiar coexistence of space in the city central are pointed out.
In this study, the research by questionnaire on guide sign, mainJy tactile warning blocks constructed in welfare town planning was enforced for local government as constructors and the blind and partially sighted as users. As a result, this research showed the new problem that different plans and principles of the tactile warning blocks constructors gave users the wrong effects.
At the beginning stage of building construction, architects and engineers can not provide enough information to contractors and suppliers to begin their work. Therefor contractors and suppliers have to make shop drawings to start their actual works. Approving those shop drawings by architects and clients is just decision making process of detail design. Sometimes approve of shop drawings tend to be delayed because of a client and architects' endless re-examination of design. In this paper we want to clarify above process, and develop collaborative working system among a client, architects, engineers, contractors, and parts makers that makes them to continue to pursuing optimum detail design and construction method during construction term.
This paper analyzes characteristic of housing type proportion change between 1983 to 1993 in Tokyo metropolitan area, using Correspondence Analysis method. Result is as follows; 1. By Correspondence Analysis eight axes which explain almost variance of housing type were discovered. 2. Concentration to middle class space housing, especially to private rental housing was progressed in young generation family sector. 3. Change from wooden rental housing to non-wodden rental was rapidly progressed, especially in young single household sector. 4. Housing ownership diversified in middle class space housing.
The impression of architectural space is affected by the state of maintenance as well as the form and materials of architecture. The extent of maintenance and the user's awareness to maintenance are closely related. In order to verify this relationship, we conducted researches at multiple housing communities, namely Townhouse-Nagayama and Ibaraki prefectural housing. There were differences in the degree of dirtiness among different housing complex. The cause mainly due to the difference in architectural layout. It was found that rules such as a dirty place gets even dirtier holds true , and higher the sense of one's territoriality, less dirty the space becomes, compared to spaces with lower sense of territoriality.
This paper deals with urban dynamics of Kyoto via the example of Seiganji Temple's front in the Sengoku and Oda- Toyotomi era. There were some houses at the top of Ogawa river which flowed in front of the Temple. The Temple was destroyed on fire and rebuilt from 1467 onwards, but the houses kept on the river with no lot in 1567. It was after the fire on 1573 by Oda Nobunaga when the houses began to enclose the land behind them. The paper concludes that the each house on the river was changed into premise with houses and a lot.
This paper refers to the actual condition of religious donation system, called Waqf among 46 existent wakala-s in Cairo, based on some findings of a field survey in 1994/95. Under the State Control of Waqf, the wakala-s in Cairo have lost the proper values and functions in present economic activities. Reviewing the outline of enterprises for waqf since the Mamluk period, their purpose and character have been changing gradually. In the framework of the system of waqf, however, these projects which were with constructing wakala-s as the central figure, have remained to play an important role in rehabilitating the stagnant districts by equipping with urban facilities.
How could the court intermediate? The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of both the internal system of the form of the ho use and the connection between ho use and nature. The analysis of the form of the Stern House will be in two parts : part 1 illustrates the mo di fie at ion sofformoverthe fourversions. Part 2 analyzes the mean in g in the pro cess of form mo dification; the form of the third version incorporates the meaning of both the first and second versions. Th e twof o Id meaning of the court of the Stern Ho us e is analy zed through three diagrams deriv ed from Kahn's sketches.