The residential-industrial mixed use area inside the urban city where remains contrary to modern city planning continues more than half a century. It has been estimated negatively up to now. However, for the population decrease society, hollowing downtown and weakening of a community, it is looked for the urban and space planning of mixed use now.
This study aims to clarify significant and characteristics of mixed use in that area. In particular, we survey to the space and how to dwell in a small factory containing a house and the community network of in Kujo area in Osaka city.
Kujo area is a typical mixed use area by small factories and small houses for a long time in Osaka city. Then, we research 4 surveys in around this area, 1) the questionnaire about how to use factory space, community network, factory pollution, and evaluation of community for all factory (n=98, collection73.7%), 2)the questionnaire about community network, factory pollution, and evaluation of community for all house (n=98, collection77.8%), 3)the survey of plan and how to use of space for 21 small factory containing a house, 4) the interview survey about lifestyle in community, community network, and evaluation of community for the entrepreneur and the employee of factory.
The small factory containing a house divided into 4 types by spatial structure of factory and housing. A factory and housing are in same building; (A)type of common access, (B)type of add-in entrance. A factory and housing are separated building in community area; (C)type of adjacent building, (D) type of closely situated building. In type(A)(B), the dining room functions as a connecting point of factory and housing. The type(C) has some mixed use spaces (parking, storage, second dinning room) by the space expanding. The lifestyle of type(D) is based on a factory base and housing base. They live in job-housing network residence belong to 2 communities. In use of space, it has some mixed use spaces too. The lifestyle is opening to area as composition changes from type(A) into type(D).
The community network of residential-industrial mixed use area based on 3 relations, relative-relation, occupational-relation and community-relation. The relative-relation consists of that the family members work in the factory and that the family lives in the neighborhood. The occupational-relation spreads over a private relation base on dealings of work. The community network function to understand and permission for factory pollution. The mutual interaction of 3 relations making relieved stable life environment, coexistence of factory and residence, and the endurance of the community.
This research focuses on the development of the residential environment by residents in Kakuma Camp in Kenya. Kakuma Camp was established in 1992 to accept refugees from South Sudan and the number of refugees are still growing because of the continuous conflicts among the tribes.
We conducted the survey at Kakuma 1 (since 1992) and Kakuma 4 (since 2014) and done interviews and measurements to 17 households in both camp.
Refugees are tend to live closely within the same tribe community and call relatives to the same plot. It is obvious especially among the minor tribes which all the members of the tribe in Kakuma try to live in a same block or plot. This phenomena is one of the reasons why the Kakuma 1 is becoming congested.
Also, the congestion affects to a management system of the land. In Kakuma 1, as the block became congested, people started to construct fences along the border of the plots to protect their property. It divides the plot and the path clearly and create the narrow and winded pathway inside the block. It is a transition process of traditional management system to modernized management system.
There are limited support for constructing houses from international organization. The UN provides shelters for refugees and advise them to renovate to permanent structure. Once the residents renovated the wall, the UN provides the super structure. However, most of the further construction works are planned and done by the residents. They utilize given materials or used materials to reduce the construction cost. They construct kitchens, shades, shops or rental houses for their better living environment and for their business. Observing those additional construction, we can understand the needs and potentials for the further planning for the refugee campes.
Rational characteristics and change of traditional snow removal systems along the street fronted by townhouses with deep eave (Gangi) in Takada were examined. By carrying out the comparison between before and after the mechanical snow removal in the 1960s, it was found that Gangi was not just a protective arcade during winter, but the generating factor of the snow removal system relating to things from instruments, shape of roofs, housing in the premises and spatial composition of the town.
Before introducing the mechanical means, snow removal systems at a house level and at a town level were spatially linked by inhabitant's adjustment of fallen snow on the street.
The system at a house level was based on including the street in front of the house within the stock area of fallen snow removed from roofs. Width of the street, height of Gangi, shape of the roof, area of the backyard and three instruments worked together as parts of the snow removal system. It enabled each household to remove its snowfall on the roof independently.
The system at a town level was created by accumulating each inhabitant's adjustment to the fallen snow on the street. The gap between the neighbouring Gangi roofs was guideline for each inhabitant to pile fallen snow independently. The continuity between the neighbouring Gangi roofs brought the connected gaps of snow masses on both sides of the street. The gap between snow masses, canals behind the street, width of the street, area of backyard in the premises, shape of the roof, height of Gangi worked together as parts of the snow removal system at a town level. It enabled each household to remove its mass of snow from the street without help of other household. It also enabled a retail shopkeeper to carry goods into each house. Gangi street along the bank of snow masses enabled inhabitants to have a tea party reciprocally among neighbouring households. A few of inhabitants laid a hydrant beneath the Gangi floor, so as to connect the hose to the fire pump drugged by the firefighters through the continuous gaps. It is found that mutual assistance between a household and the neighourhood was the principle of the snow removal system at a town level.
After mechanical snow removal system was introduced to all public roads, conventional snow removal system at a house level survived in each private land. As a result, two different types of snow removal system have existed in the same neighbourhood. Inhabitants of townhouses have been compelled to shovel the snow off their roofs during the short time designated by the local authority, because piling snow on the public street in front of the house was forbidden after the mechanical means. Mechanical snow removal systems on road, including road sprinkler system and laying snow melting gutter, have put unexpected heavy burden on inhabitant's daily life.
However, traditional snow removal procedures have continued within the private land. The snow removal system before the mechanical means were found to be originated in daily life in Takada.
Japanese upper secondary schools have two educational systems: “Grade system” and “Credit-based system”. The grade system requires students to meet the given credits every year. The credit-based system requires students to organize their own class schedule within tertiary years. Japanese future upper secondary school education is expected to change due to appearance of schools on the Internet. The credit-based system is important for spreading independent learning or diversifying students. Moreover, there are two course systems in Japanese upper secondary school: “Full-time course” and “Part-time course”. “Full-time course” is organized during daytime while “Part-time course” sets multiple short time period from morning to evening. In architectural perspective, “Full-time course” provides classrooms where students spend most of their time for classes, "Homeroom", and the other “lecture room” except the "Homeroom". “Part-time course” does not have “Homeroom” because students always move from one lecture room to another. There might be helpful knowledge in facility planning of “Part-time course” if flexibility in education of upper secondary schools expands. The knowledge would be useful for future whole schools planning. In school architectural plan field in Japan, the studies of elementary and junior high schools are researched with great efforts. On the other hands, 15 years have passed since the same category’s study of upper secondary school reported. In addition, the study focus on flexible operation of part-time course has never been conducted.
Therefore, to obtain the knowledge for the future facility planning, objectives of this study are followings.
1) To grasp current educational contents of both of the courses in credit-based system
2) To uncover usage states and problems of each kind of classrooms
3) To consider how to provide the other required functions such as teacher’s space and the corridor width
Results of the study by interview with teachers and analyzing materials of 20 schools, which was published on architectural magazine, are below. 1) Full-time course, there are many subjects to choose from subdivided general subject. 8 schools out of 10 prohibits to have vacant time in students’ class schedule in order to secure learning time of students. “Part-time course” provides special technical subjects, even though the schools are general course. Among “Part-time course”, 7 schools out of 10 allows vacant time of schedule for self-study of students. 2) The utilization ratio of 12 schools that shares the data of usage of classroom were analyzed. In full-time course, attaches great importance to “Homeroom”, if its regulation prohibits the vacant time, the result shows that “Homeroom” was high utilization ratio more than 80%, however the other lecture room except the "Homeroom" was low value. Part- time course does not have the "Homeroom"; the utilization ratio of lecture room of part-time course was within range between "Homeroom" and lecture room of full-time course. It suggests the surplus of classroom in full-time course and the flexible use by part-time course. If full-time course might correspond even more student’s diversity and various interest by increasing small group teaching, rather than staying students in “Homeroom” in the future; then behavior of student will change to be spread. Current low utilization ratio room will be also able to reconsider the usage. 3) Teacher’s space: when the vacant time is allowed, the decentralized arrangement enable the teacher's eye could reach student and do immediate response. The corridor width: the 6m width corridor as open-space is seen from in the latter part of 2000’s in some schools of full-time course. However, these common space are not used effectively. It suggests the importance of realizing to follow up recognition and usage of spaces.
In islands, there are few choices of elderly welfare services because of geographic isolation and surrounding seas. A day care facility has a large role as the facility supporting the elderly’s daily life, because there are few nursing homes in the islands. It is an important issue to continue providing elderly welfare service in islands that has geographic disadvantages and few population supporting the elderly.
So, this paper aims to clarify the effects of establishment of satellite type’s small-scale facility by the municipality, based on analyzing the effects of sharing use sphere and function between the regional nucleus facilities and satellite type facilities in Suo-Oshima town.
2. Process of facility establishment
In the early 1990’s, the local governments established two day care facilities with special nursing homes managed by the social welfare corporations and entrust management to the social welfare corporations (in Towa and Kuka town). And, the local govern ments established two special nursing homes and day care facilities, and established social welfare corporations for entrusting management (in Oshima and Tachibana town). Therefore, one day care facility was established as a regional nucleus facility each towns.
In the late 1990’s, the local government established the small-scale day care facilities, because the local government recognized the importance of integrated community care system (in Oshima town). And, the local government established the small-scale day care facility, life support house and home-visit care because of supply of equal welfare service and measures against increasing solitary elderly (in Tachibana town). In addition, the local government established three small-scale day care facility because of reducing transportation time of the regional nucleus facility and securing the base for the helpers (in Towa town). Therefore, six satellite type facilities were established in three old towns.
3. Effect of small-scale facility establishment
50% use spheres of almost facilities are less than 2.8km, and don’t overlap. And, share of the facility function is clarified, when two facilities are close. On the other hand, share of the use sphere is clarified when two facilities are far. In the estimation of only regional nucleus facilities, 50% use spheres expand in Oshima and Towa town, so the effect of shortening use sphere has been confirmed by satellite type facility establishment in two old towns.
The user’s pickup time by staff is short in almost facilities, because staffs exercise ingenuity of transportation method such as allotting cars by the areas in the facility with large use sphere. On the other hand, user’s riding time is long in the facility that the number of riding users in one car is many. So, the time is different by the transportation method and use sphere.
The establishment of satellite type facility is effective in the area of scattered settlements such as the islands, because this paper has confirmed the effects of sharing a use sphere and reducing a pick-up time by the establishment of the satellite type facilities in addition to the regional nucleus facilities in each district after the merger in Showa period.
In buildings, light is a primary element which constitutes space. As light has a strong relationship with architectural design, the act of design is that of creating a space by light. When designers design buildings, they create habitable environmental ambience by focusing on various treatments of light. However, the interpretations of light depend on designers, so the method for expressing the interpreted light in architectural space and the resulting influence given to it varies. In this research, the objective is to reveal how architects see light in their design processes, and embody it in buildings through analyzing their text descriptions.
The flow of this research is as follows
1. Subject of this research is 849 samples from the text descriptions where architects refer to architectural spaces with their interpretation of “Light” in architectural magazine, Shin-Kenchiku during 1950-2011.
2. Extract the sentences that contain 5 kinds of key-elements: Type of “Light”, Disposition, Design, Design Target, and Effect. Type of “Light” is the word described as light focused by the designer. Disposition is the word described for the role and the state, inherent in the “Light”. Design is (a description word for the intention of building by the designer) the word described as the act to building by the designer. Design Target is the word described the component of the building subject to design. Effect is the word described an action caused by design.
3. Cross Tabulation is performed in Design and Design Target. Design Method is derived from a combination of Design and Design Target.
4. The relationships between Type of “Light” & Disposition, Type of “Light” & Design Method, and Type of “Light” & Effect are analyzed in correspondence.
5. Based on the tendencies of correspondence analysis contents are derived, and a matrix is made to identify aspects of “Light”, which are then categorized into types to provide insights.
Through the investigation of the matrix between Type of “Light”, Disposition, Design, Design Target, and Effect, 22 different types of poly- morph of “Light” were derived. As a way of dealing with “Light” by designers, there were four main points; attenuation that weaken light, convergence that intensifies light, indetermination that makes light change, and stabilization of the state of light. From the above, designers deal with light as confrontational existence such as increase and decrease of light quantity due to attenuation and convergence, or indetermination and stabilization of the state of light. In addition, designers use dual character of light, such as attenuation and indefiniteness utilizing the natural properties of light, and control, such as convergence and stabilization, by intentionally operating light.
Designers deal with light as confrontational existence such as increase and decrease of light quantity due to attenuation and convergence, or indetermination and stabilization of light. And this contradistinctive concept about light is expressed strongly on the design method by designers. Light has a wide range of influence through the buildings, even to the extent of imaginary and reality within human beings. On the wide range of influence, designers create the fluctuation and equilibrium of light. Many of events can adjust the influence from outside or exist as a special state being inside. From these events, this paper focuses on the light that necessarily causes the original phenomenon through primary behavior of design, like placing a column or a roof on an empty space. Especially on figure 4 and chapter 6, a large number of feasible aspects form the light, is derived as much as possible and the discussion about light is enhanced.
The present study analyzes the visual phenomena experienced while walking through each of the following three underground spaces through the perspective of ecological geometry: the Ekimae-dori underground walkway, Crysta Nagahori shopping arcade, and Tenjin underground shopping mall. Through this analysis, the study aims to clarify an aspect of the relationship between the quality of the user experience provided by each space and the physical characteristics that construct these qualities.
Prior to the present study, to investigate the visual perception of the above-ground and underground spaces of Sapporo Ekimae-dori, a comparative analysis was performed on the visual occluding phenomena experienced while walking through these above-ground and underground spaces. Based on these previous studies, the current study positions itself as an embryonic study that attempts to describe visual experiences realistically using an ecological approach, with the ultimate aim of exploring the design possibilities inherent in the fact that underground spaces provide long-distance, indoor spaces specific to pedestrians.
The underground spaces selected for investigation were chosen based on the following three conditions: (a) the total length and shape of the space are similar to the Ekimae-dori underground walkway, (b) the ground and underground routes run in parallel and the underground space has facilities for introducing light from above ground, and (c) the space not only functions as a commercial facility but also has the characteristics of a passage space. The visual phenomena in each underground space were converted into data by filming videos with a wearable camera while walking along pre-determined routes. While filming the videos, the horizontal and vertical angles of the camera were set at ~120° and ~70°, respectively and the height of the center of the lens was set at 150 cm from the ground to mimic the human field of view.
In the analysis, the variations in the edges and textures constituting the series of visual spatial experiences obtained in each space were interpreted quantitatively in terms of pixels. Then, descriptions were written for scenes in which these variations had resemblance; in other words, scenes that provided experiences of similar quality. A scene was defined as a visual experience of 10 s, corresponding to 150 frames of continuous images taken at 1/15 s intervals. The degrees of similarity of the obtained scenes were visualized, and the characteristics of the visual experiences in each underground space were clarified.
(1) The visual experience in the Ekimae-dori underground walkway constituted the following three elements: “building, ” “passersby, ” and “appearance of stores, ” and was of similar quality to the visual experience arising from the “building” element in the Crysta Nagahori shopping arcade. Thus, the “building” element in the Ekimae-dori underground walkway was simply compared to that in the Crysta Nagahori shopping arcade.
(2) Unlike the Ekimae-dori underground walkway, the Crysta Nagahori shopping arcade and the Tenjin underground shopping mall are similar such that both sides of each walkway are lined with stores, and the widths of the walkway in a section of each route are similar. Thus, the visual experiences formed are of similar quality.
(3) The visual experience in the Tenjin underground shopping mall, characterized by a narrow, dimly-lit, tunnel-like walkway, is of similar quality to that in the wide and thoroughly-lit Ekimae-dori underground walkway. From this fact, it is inferred that the walls of the Tenjin underground shopping mall, which are lined with shutters, and the walls and columns that line the Ekimae-dori underground walkway create visual experiences of similar quality.
In the last few years, navigation signs at railway stations in Japan have drawn more attention because of the complicated spatial configuration of these stations and increasing numbers of foreign visitors. Most Japanese railway companies have established their own signage plans based on government guidelines. However, during surveys of railway stations, we found “official signs” (Fig. 1) conforming to signage plans, as well as “additional signs” (Fig. 2) made by the staff at local stations. Our previous user evaluation study identified the positive and negative factors of additional signs, using an online survey focusing on the amount of information and the design elements in these signs. In this study, in continuation with the previous report, we assess the positive and negative elements of additional signs, based on user evaluation focusing on installation location.
An online questionnaire survey about additional signs was conducted among 3, 446 station users who expressed an interest in station signs. The respondents evaluated several station signs on a five-step scale (Fig. 3), using the semantic differential method, with nine evaluation items selected by the authors (Table 1). The images used for evaluation were created by the authors to represent different locations encountered in the process of transferring trains in the station premises. All images were drawn with lines to prevent environmental factors from affecting the evaluation. The images show five different locations: platform (Fig. 4), stairs up to a concourse from a platform (Fig. 5), stairs down from a concourse to a platform (Fig. 6), concourse (Fig. 7), and ticket gates (Fig. 8). Each evaluation image presents additional signs in three or four different locations.
Table 4 summarizes the negative and positive factors affecting the user evaluation.
1) Three groups of response trends Based on a hierarchical cluster analysis, response trends were clustered into three groups: above eye-level, floor, and narrow space (Fig. 14). The respondents evaluated the group “above eye-level" higher on the scale compared to the group “narrow space". Typical official signs are located in this “above eye-level” area. The evaluation of the group “floor” was intermediate; however, elderly respondents evaluated this group slightly lower than younger respondents (Table 3).
2) Evaluation trend based on attractiveness Among the five questions on attractiveness (Group A), respondent evaluation of “appropriate position” and “expecting to be there” were the same. Meanwhile, “readable while walking” and the other two questions showed a different evaluation trend (Fig. 16).
3) Influence of viewing angle between user and sign The signs facing perpendicular to the user's line of sight were evaluated higher than the ones that were parallel (Fig. 17).
This study reveals both positive and negative elements regarding the location of additional signs. The findings are expected to be utilized to aid in the setup of additional signs and to improve signage plans for railway stations.
The purpose of this research is to make clear the initial action system of all the hospitals in the whole country that have not yet experienced an earthquake disaster. A questionnaire survey and verbal survey were put into effect to realize the purpose. The main result were summarized as follows.
A difference in the levels of the initial response factor of disasters prevention system was recognized between disaster base hospitals and general hospitals.
The disaster base hospitals were higher ranking than general hospitals for an initial action system at the time of an earthquake disaster.
Compared to large-scale hospitals, small scale disaster base hospitals ranked low in terms of, for example, details of disaster training being put into practice and methods of safekeeping patient records.
Details of disaster training being put into practice tend to decrease as the scale of general hospitals decrease.
Specifically, the field of information and communication were behind, and there was a low percentage of safekeeping of patient case records through digital media.
Regional differences were seen in the introduction rate of Earthquake Early Warning systems and dealing with evacuees outside hospitals.
From a geographical viewpoint, the maintenance of initial response systems to an earthquake tends to be developed in prefectures on the Pacific coast.
The initial response system of the disasters base hospitals were mostly the same throughout the whole country, regardless of whether or not an earthquake disaster had been experienced.
On several points, general hospitals that had not experienced an earthquake disaster had higher disaster prevention levels than those that had.
When factors were restricted to the formulation of an Earthquake disaster prevention manual, actual rate of earthquake disaster prevention training, and the deployment of staff to the triage area, then general hospitals that had no earthquake experience were at a higher level than those that had.
The full field investigation of graffiti was conducted in Chikusa-ward in the city of Nagoya, and has revealed the following results.
・ Graffiti can be classified into five categories as follows: (in descending order of points): Tagging(Type-C), Graffiti(Type-B), Seal(Type-E), miscellaneous(Type-D). Artistic-type Graffiti(Type-A) was found the least, which accounts for 4% of total.
・ Wall surfaces and urban objects, which holds a certain amount of surface areas, tends to be chosen as a base/background of graffiti. The type of graffiti is relevant to the characteristic of surface types. Especially, the artistic type of graffiti can be found the most on the large wall surfaces.
・ Graffiti is likely to be found at commercial-use districts with business activities, where it is highly visible to draw people’s attention. In residential-use districts, where people hold a high attention toward their local safety, graffiti tends to be removed.
・ Type of Graffiti is linked to the street widths. Most graffiti are found along the wide heavy-traffic streets, to draw people’s attention. The artistic-type graffiti, in particular, is located along the wide streets in order to capture their eyes.
・ The number of graffiti, located on the sidewalk with the pedestrian-oriented view, and the street with car-oriented view, is almost the same. This result bears out that the purpose of graffiti conduct is not limited to show off to a specific viewer, but is more likely to attract people’s attention in general.
・ Graffiti is deeply associated with the shape of the surface to be drawn. Majority of graffiti is drawn on the flat and/or outer-corner surfaces, whereas the inner-corner is likely to be avoided, due to the less visibility. Especially the artistic type of graffiti is found on the flat and/or outside-corner of spaces, which accounts for about 80%.
・ The most relevant factor, which relates to the type of graffiti, was proved to be the shape of the surfaces, in connection to the visibility. It also revealed that the type of graffiti is associated with the local attributes and the characteristic of urban spaces.
As can be seen, the detailed analysis of graffiti, following the full investigation and documentation, enabled us to grasp the main purpose of graffiti conduct, in relation to the spatial characteristics. The close observation suggests that, it could be a possible planning approach in an early phase, to incorporate some uneven surfaces in the urban areas with high visibility, and/or try to maintain a certain distance physically, to reduce the high risk of graffiti.
In addition, as a countermeasure for the tagging and seal types, it would be effective to try to avoid, from a planning phase of design, an inner corner with low visibility. Taking into consideration the characteristics of graffiti types and putting a deal of thought into the planning, would lead to reduce the risk of graffiti in order to create a safe city environment.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the positions of Jizo by spatial analyses to contribute to the historical succession in future urban formation.
In this paper, we clarified the basic position form of Jizo in Kyoto in pre-modern period from the historical materials, and the basic position form was street-based and crossroad-area position. In addition, for 50 cases that can be traced in Cho-ezu, that was drawn by Cho, the local community, under the direction of the government, we examined the changes of the position and its factor through the comparative verification of the positions of Jizo in pre-modern period with in the present, and the hearing survey conducted in 2014. The results of this study are as follows.
In the middle Edo period Jizo was placed beside the wooden gate on the crossroad without a shrine. In 19th century Jizo was covered in a shrine, but this basic position form was not changed by the early modern period. This position form was not derived from Cho-based, the boundary of the community, but street-based cause, and Jizo was placed relied on the crossroad-area rather than the boundary-area.
The government order to quit worship of Jizo, to take Jizo away from the street, to sell them and to donate the money to the elementary school, was issued in 1871. Following this order, it is said that most of Jizo was replaced from the street. Under existing situation there are 3 patterns of the positions of Jizo affected by this order, vanished, replaced to the other position and set on the same position. Replaced cases are accounted 82%. To compare with the situation before the order, the cases of crossroad-area positions are widely reduced, but the cases of middle-area positions that was not exist before the order come into existence.
Before the order most of Jizo was placed on the street, but now most of Jizo was placed in the private land, in the common land such as in the alley or half private land such as in the temples. In pre-modern period it was allowed to place the shared facilities on the street and there was the character of shared space on the street. Through these changes of the position of Jizo, the reality has emerged that the communal character of the street has been lost because the pubric-private limit has been got clear.
The main factor of the changes of the position of Jizo in early modern period were derived from the order, and after the order the main factor had been turned into the land-use change (the building evacuation, land deal, rebuilding), and there emerged the another factor of road-widening as the part of city improvement in high economic growth period in Kyoto. There can be seen not a little affection on the changes of the position of Jizo by this minute readjustment on the public-private limit.
We also pointed out the factor that caused the change from crossroad-area position into middle-area position, is depended in part on the change from street-based position into open space-based position after 1990s.
In recent years, large-scale natural disasters occur frequently, and the catastrophic event destroyed scenery of the communities. During recovery and reconstruction from the devastating impact, a method, restoring the memory of the area before the disaster, is required to maintain the local lifestyle and culture. Such method has not been well studied because the approach has newly started with the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami (GEJET). "Town of Memories Workshop (TMWS)" is a workshop to craft a pre-disaster local scenery model of the area lost by the disaster. In the workshop, volunteers such as architectural students listen to the memories before the disaster from the victims. Then, volunteers together with participants will express the scenery of the memories heard in the model. The workshop is an example of such a method which was carried out in the afflicted area of the GEJET.
The purpose of this study is as follows. (a) Through organizing the seven-year transition of the method of the TMWS, to extract what kind of perspectives have been emphasized when implementing the TMWS, and (b) To consider the future direction of the TMWS practice based on the relationship between those perspectives.
(1) Based on the various materials (TMWS’s report and photo etc.), authors organized data which have changed method in the TMWS during 7 years practice into a table in chronological order. (2) With reference to the table in (1) etc., we extracted the changes and its intentions and factors in the TMWS method have found in 7 years of practice. (3) We organized each intention and factor (with each change) and extract important perspectives about implementing the TMWS. (4) We considered the future practice of TMWS, through organizing the contradictions between each perspective.
The critical perspectives on the TMWS are  Responding to multi-hazard,  More restoration of regional space with more residents’ participation,  Physiological consideration to residents,  Ease of understanding and sharing,  Economic efficiency,  Technique, and  Utilization for town planning. It is difficult to take a balance these perspectives at the same time. In particular, if the TMWS is implemented with an emphasis on the , ,  and  perspectives in the future, it is likely that doing so will lose other important perspectives. Therefore, it turned out to be important to balance according to the objective and the situation. Also, it is necessary to consider how to resolve such conflicts.
After Yolanda typhoon hit Tacloban area on November 2013, around 40.000 homes were damaged and 20.000 completely destroyed. The municipality of Tacloban tagged reallocation of residents in the North area of Tacloban. This research aims at clarifying whether those settlements provide residents with minimum standards for a decent living, according to the recommendations by international organizations. 8 temporary settlements were surveyed, and their present facilities were assessed against those recommended by international organizations. The results show that there is great disparity between settlements and that none of them comply with all the minimum living standards in case of natural disaster.
This paper investigates whether the “paradox of choice” is applicable to town walking. We conducted an experiment by developing three types of experimental smartphone applications (apps) with different forms of intervention for town walking. We compared the results obtained to identify the types of walking behaviors that would increase the participants’ levels of satisfaction, expand consumption in an area, and make people interested in revisiting a town.
Material and Methods
The apps developed for this study involved three types of intervention, as follows: 1) Type A intervention, in which the app shows multiple designated destinations and does not finish running until all of these have been visited; 2) Type B intervention, in which the app designates a single destination and finishes running after this has been visited, after which the participant is free to walk wherever they wish for a set period of time; and 3) Type C intervention, in which the app finishes running after the person walks wherever they wish for a set period of time. In the experimental design, we ensured that none of the participants knew which form of intervention they were using. In all cases, the apps were set so that the experiment would last at least 30 minutes.
Comparison among the apps with the three types of intervention the following significant effects. First, the Type B intervention generated more new discoveries during town walking the than Type C intervention (p = . 007). That is, the app that allowed people to walk freely after visiting a single designated point was more likely to result in discoveries than the app that allowed people to walk entirely freely. Second, the results suggested that the Type A intervention was more likely to make people want to visit the town again than Type B (p = . 043). That is, that app that allowed people to walk freely after visiting a single point was more likely to make them want to revisit the town than the app in which they visited multiple designated points.
The results suggest that a “paradox of choice” may exist that is unique to town walking. Specifically, the likelihood of generating the desire to return to a town was lower with the Type A intervention (where multiple destinations are specified) and, furthermore, the likelihood of people making discoveries may be reduced as a result of unconstrained walking, as was the case for the Type C intervention. Based on these results, it is proposed that the most effective method of app assistance for visitors to towns is the Type B intervention in which a minimum number of destinations are visited, after which people are encouraged to walk freely for a set period of time.
Monitoring of the spatial distribution of vacant houses across broad areas for vacant house measures by Japanese local governments requires substantial labor, time, and money because the main survey method is visual inspection via field surveys. Therefore, we developed the method for estimating the spatial distribution of them using various municipal public data and sample field surveys in the paper of part1. This paper aims to improve our previous method and increase the estimation accuracy. The target area was the whole area of Kagoshima city and Asakura city shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
In chapter 2, we detected the spatial distribution of vacant houses via field surveys by visual inspection in the sample field survey areas in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, and developed the vacant house database for developing the estimation method of vacant house distribution. The vacant house database has results of field survey shown in Table1 and attributes shown in Table2 of each detached building. Municipal public data included the database are the basic resident register (BRR), Hydrant consumption amount information (HCI), and the building registration information (BRI).
In chapter 3, we developed the estimation method of vacant house distribution. The method first developed crosstab tables with the attributes of Table2 as explanatory variables, secondly calculated the vacancy rate for each combination, and finally estimated the vacancy rate of each building by allocating the vacancy rate of the table for each building. At first, we developed the crosstab tables by cell splitting of each explanatory variable shown as Table 5. Second, as shown in Table6, because of comparing the number of vacant house every 250 m square grid with the true value while decreasing the number of used variables, it was revealed that the estimation result by the crosstab table using all the variables is the most reliable. In addition, it was also revealed that the HCI has high interpretability shown in Fig. 4. By comparison with estimation result of the method in the part 1, it was confirmed that estimation accuracy improved considerably as shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. Third, as a result of estimating Asakura city by the crosstab table developed from the field survey result of Kagoshima city, there were some grids with large error although the high estimation accuracy was obtained as shown in Fig. 7. Therefore, we estimated using a crosstab table developed using the results of field survey conducted by both cities. As a result, high estimation accuracies were obtained in both cities: the correlation coefficient was about 0.95, and the mean absolute error was about 1.0 as shown Table7. From this result, it was expected that by collecting the field survey results and public data of more municipalities in the future, it is possible to estimate vacant house distributions with higher accuracy in various municipalities.
Finally, we accomplished to estimate the spatial distribution of vacant houses in arbitrary spatial unit in Chapter 4. Fig. 8 to Fig. 11 show the estimated results of the number of vacant houses and rates aggregated into 500m square grids of Kagoshima city and Asakura city. The results estimated that 7, 361 detached buildings were vacant of the 270, 631 detached buildings, i.e. 2.72% of houses were vacant in Kagoshima city, and 2, 299 detached buildings were vacant of the 44, 005 detached buildings, i.e. 5.22% of houses were vacant in Asakura city.
When a large earthquake occurs, it is presumed that there will be various property damages (e.g., bridge collapse, soil liquefaction, street cracks, building collapse, and utility pole collapse). Moreover, these property damages will obstruct emergency activities (e.g., firefighting activities and ambulance services), and cause the expansion of secondary damages. For securing the smooth and rapid emergency vehicles' activities, many local governments specify emergency transportation roads and are promoting the disaster mitigation strategies such as seismic retrofitting of roadside buildings. It is needed, however, to evaluate the effects of quake-resistant-conversion of roadside buildings on improving the accessibility of emergency vehicles quantitatively, because they are still unknown. In this paper, by evaluating the accessibility of emergency vehicles on specific emergency transportation roads (SETR) and the effects of quake-resistant-conversion of roadside buildings, the transportation function of SETR after a large earthquake is discussed as follows.
First, we construct a simulation model, which is consist of the following two sub-models. The one is the road blockage model that describes the collapse of each roadside building based on the Is-value (Seismic Index of Structure) of each building, and describes the road blockage based on the estimated effective width of each road in front of collapsed buildings. The other one is the emergency-vehicle-movement model that describes movement of emergency vehicles from neighboring prefectures to large scale rescue activity bases (LSRAB).
Next, performing the simulations, the accessibility of emergency vehicles using SETR in Tokyo Metropolitan Area is evaluated using accessibility indices. "Accessibility rate" is the percentage of LSRAB which can be accessed by emergency vehicles. "Increase rate of travel distance" is the ratio of the increment of the movement distance caused by the road blockage to the movement distance without road blockage. We examine the simulation results using these two indices for the following two cases.
Case 1 (the accessibility evaluation only using SETR): When emergency vehicles access LSRAB using highways /other roads of SETR under the current situation, the accessibility rate is 70.4 % / 27.3 % respectively. Moreover, the effects of seismic retrofitting of roadside buildings on accessibility is analyzed by assuming three scenarios. When the seismic retrofitting of 2.0% of roadside buildings in the order of lower seismic index of structure is achieved, the accessibility rate is improved from 70.4% to 92.6% / 27.3% to 64.0% respectively. This fact indicates that it is very important to promote seismic retrofit of buildings with lower seismic index of structure.
Case 2 (the accessibility evaluation using SETR and GETR): When emergency vehicles access LSRAB using SETR and GETR, the accessibility rate is 97.3 % under the current situation. Compared with case 1, the accessibility rate is significantly improved by 26.9 %. This fact indicates that GETR plays an important role in securing the function of SETR. Hence, it is important to conduct seismic diagnosis to roadside buildings located along GETR as well as SETR.
In the construction process, as there are many uncertain events, such as weather, ground condition, and work productivity, construction works could rarely progress according to the plan which has been made before the construction.
In this paper, the author proposed the methodologies of modeling uncertain events and a plan modification function in the construction process model and developed a proto-type system, then the author clarified that the validity of methodologies by applying them through the implementation to a case study.
2. Uncertain Events and Plan Modification
To simulate uncertain events at a construction site, we usually investigate only the influences on the completion period and the productivity of activities. However, in an actual construction project, when the delay has occurred, it would be made up by modifying the plan so that the delay would rarely last till the completion time.
3. Modeling Uncertain Events
The uncertainty of weather has specific seasonal trends, so the weather should be considered as time serial data. The uncertain weather is modeled by the event “SiteWeather” with the attributes such as the rainfall and wind speed. The uncertain weather is modeled using the past twenty-three-year weather records published by the Meteorological Agency, Japan.
The uncertainties regarding activities, resources, and spaces are represented as the uncertain attribute values, such as duration and workforce, which are generated using probabilistic random values.
4. Modeling for Plan Modification
In the case that any delays and defects are recognized in the construction process, the initial construction plan should be modified to recover them. The plan node modifies the plan by changing the activity sequences or activity contents such as work methods and input resources.
The alternative processes to be applied are modeled into a plan node frame in a construction process model. As the construction process model includes multiple alternatives, it is possible to make up for the delay by selecting the suitable alternative. Thus, using the alternative, the project with uncertain events can be completed within the mandatory period in simulation.
5. A Case Study of Simulation
A building used in a case study of simulation is an eight-storied apartment house with a floor area of about eight thousand square meters, which has been built using pre-cast concrete components.
The following three factors in simulation that affect the construction progress are: (1) uncertain duration of each activity, (2) uncertain weather, and (3) plan modification. The author investigated the four cases of simulations to clarify the properties of these uncertain events and the effects of plan modifications to be adopted for the delay.
The results of simulation case studies showed that construction period simulated using the average duration of each activity turned out to be shorter than the period obtained by simulation using uncertain events. Even if there are many uncertain events in the construction process, it is not so difficult to ensure the mandatory construction period by monitoring the difference between the target time and the actual time of each work and by adopting the suitable alternatives in later construction process.
Through a case study, author analyzed the impacts of uncertain events on the construction progress and clarified the effects of the plan modification function. The author confirmed that the methodologies which are proposed for modeling methods should be competent to make robust the planning of construction project which has many uncertain events.
Up to the previous draft, by comparing the price of Japanese nail in the estimate in “Kaiti-gakko” building in 1875 and the price of the Western nail from 1892 to 1911, I considered the conversion from the Japanese nail to the Western nail in terms of price. Specifically, by comparing the Japanese s and the Western nail, which have the same length, it was revealed that the price of the Western nail in 1911 had fallen to about 1/50 of the nail of 1875. Also, from 1892 to 1911, it also showed that the Western nail moved prices from 1/29 to 1/50 against the Japanese nail in 1875. By the way, although this paper showed the change in the price of the Western nail during this period, I could not show the change in price of the Western nail from 1877 to 1891 due to restrictions on the materials. Therefore, in this article, considering the relationship between the trend of the Western nail and the price of the Japanese nail in 1882 to 1891, etc., based on the business situation published in “Tyugai-bukka-sinppo etc. The following points were obvious.
By examining the business conditions during this period, we can learn the price fluctuation of the Western nail and compare it with the price of the Japanese nail. In 1882, the Western nail became 1/21 of the price of the Japanese nail in 1875, 1/25 in 1891. The price of the Western nail in this period can be confirmed raising and lowering. However, looking at the price of the Western nail throughout the Meiji era, prices rose to some extent gradually and gradually changed from 1/20 to 1/50 with respect to the Japanese nail. Looking at the price of Western nail in units of one year, the price dropped in the summer and the price went up from autumn to winter. The reason was due to the production of buildings and wooden products since early spring. In addition, the change in the Western nail price over the several years was greatly affected by global syndication and purchase by nail businesses in Tokyo and Osaka.
In the previous manuscript, it was revealed that the stone survey of the Diet building by J. Condor was carried out from September and December 1887, this survey was carried out with Keisuke Kato accompanying mineral experts all the time. Although Condor belonged to The Temporary Architectural Bureaut (Rinzi-kentiku-kyoku) during this period, it has not been pointed out in the past what kind of purpose this survey was conducted. The purpose of this article is to clarify the relationship of J. Condor to the Diet building, what kind of background the stone survey of the parliament had been carried out and the relationship of Condor and Wilhelm Böckmann. The following points are revealed.
Two drafts had been transmitted to the Architectural Institute of Japan, for the design drawing of the building of the Diet by Condor. Regarding the building plan of the Diet building, "Tokyonitinitisinbun" dated March 17, 1886, since Condor has produced 3 drafts, it can point out the possibility of the third proposal. In addition, this plan may have been considered at The Temporary Architectural Bureaut in mid March, 1886 after The Temporary Architectural Bureaut was organized.
Böckmann submitted the postulation consisting of the following five items on June 18, 1886 after his arrival in Japan.
① Establishment of brick factory
② Discovery and processing of natural stone
③ Education of craftsmen and architects in Germany
④ Completion and establishment of urban design
⑤ Invitation of water supply and canal engineer
⑥ Japanese decorative art and its application for our purpose
Among these, the Diet building's stone survey by Condor was based on item ②. It can be thought that the Stone Survey of the first time by Condor was made for the first proposed the Diet Building carried by Ende in May 1887 from the schedule. In addition, the second stone survey by Condor was considered to be from the schedule to the second proposal which was regarded as finishing stones with Japanese and Western cuisine. Meanwhile, Condor’s Europe trip from 1886 was realized with Condor's request to Böckmann with advice from Böckmann to Kaoru Inoue.
Incidentally, the description of the quarry, etc., which Böckmann told the "Deutsche Bauzeitung" paper, was in agreement with a series of stone surveys by Condor. And, an European who lives in Japan where Böckmann was influenced in the design of the Diet building can be considered J. Condor.
In 1955, Italian architectural culture witnessed the dispute on the concept of tradition between Italian architects, especially Giancarlo De Carlo (1919-2005) and potentially Ernseto Rogers (1909-1969), who tried to continue the Modern Movement while adjusting it to new conditions of the postwar period, and the students of the faculty of architecture in Politecnico di Milano, including Aldo Rossi, whose main reference was nineteenth-century architecture. This dispute triggered Rossi's following research on Neoclassical architecture, focusing on the notion of tradition.
In the architectural culture of Italy in the 1950’s, the recognition that the Modern Movement faced crisis was widespread. Rogers, De Carlo and Rossi commonly called the crisis “formalism”, meaning a lack of any real content, and emphasized the importance of the concept of tradition for overcoming the formalism of the Modern Movement.
The dispute began with De Carlo's denunciatory article published in the magazine Casabella Continuità, the editor of which was Rogers. His article accused a Milanese architectural student group of designing a project with columns, capitals and pinnacles, and gave this group a catchy name: ‘the column kids (i giovanni delle colonne)’. After several months, De Carlo was countered not by the group that designed this project, but by a wider group of students from the Faculty of Architecture of Milan, including Rossi, at the meeting entitled “the discussion on the tradition in architecture”.
The argument of Rogers and De Carlo on tradition is mainly based on the historiography of the Modern Movement, where academism is its first enemy, and formalism its second. In its birth, the Modern Movement presented itself as a revolutionary and isolated episode in order to defeat academic eclecticism, whereas in its second phase, or the battle against its formalism, the movement had to pay attention to the variety of places where common people live. The notion of tradition means spontaneous and local architectural elements, and is understood as a new content or theme. For Rogers and De Carlo, the notion of tradition serves to maintain the myth of the Modern Movement and poses as its essential question the choice of a norm to follow and continue.
Rossi and other students understand the concept of tradition as a certain attitude towards reality or a method to represent it, which requires architects to judge contemporary society from a historical view-point. They refer to nineteenth-century architecture, not as norm to follow and continue, but as a model which shows the ability to judge and represent reality. For them, traditional architecture means an architecture whose form shows an architect’s critical judgement on the reality, therefore not including spontaneous architecture arising from common people without any conscious responsibility for reality.
In spite of its simple appearance of opposition between old and new architectural styles, the dispute consists of the conflict in understanding the term of tradition. The discussions of the students at the dispute suggest a new possibility to interpret the concept of tradition, and supply the clues for comprehending Rossi’s following research on neoclassical architecture developed in the second half of the 1950s.
Aldo Rossi (1931-1997) wrote the idea of “Città analoga”, before a the two tableaus titled Città analoga (Analogous City), one drawn in 1973 by Arduino Cantàfora and the other tableau collaged in 1976. On 22 May 1969, Rossi first wrote the idea of “Città analoga” in his diary, and Wittgenstein’s Propositions urged him to develop the idea from 1968 to 1970.
This study revealed that the birth of idea of “Città analoga” was impacted and developed with Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-philosophicus, through The volumes of I quarderni azzurri (The Blue Notebook, shown as QA), the reprinted diary on which Rossi started writing from 19 June 1968.
It was argued that Rossi was attracted by Stonborough Villa designed by Wittgenstein before foundation of the idea of “Città analoga”. In the beginning of his diary, the whole pages of the volume 1 of QA written on 19 June 1968, he tried self-analysis of the terms that he had proposed as theory and recalled the similarity of design between Loos and Wittgenstein. Also, in the essay titled “Architettura per i musei”(1968), Rossi mentioned Wittgenstein’s villa and he noted the impact from Adolf Loos on Wittgenstein’s design. Then Rossi supposed that it would have been Schinkelian style if Hegel had designed architecture, as Wittgenstein designed Loosian architecture”. This assumption showed the analogical way of his theory. From 1968 to 1969, in the last page of volume 2 of QA, Rossi noted Proposition 6.54 in Tractatus Logico- philosophicus, “a ladder that must be thrown away after one has climbed it”. It was connected the idea of “Città analoga” shown on 22th May 1969. The birth of “Città analoga” was assumed in that day, for the He underlined “Città analoga” and reflected the idea that would have expected the collage in 1976 in that page. On 2 December 1969, he connected the idea of “Città analoga” to the fragments of urban landscape of De Chirico and Mario Sironi, and cited Manifeste du surréalisme written André Breton. This meant that Rossi discovered the idea of “Città analoga” and threw the ladder of logic inherited from Wittgenstein. On 31 March 1970, in the volume 4 of QA, Rossi associated the idea of “Città analoga” with two proportions of Tractatus Logico-philosophicus. There, Rossi cited the Proposition 6.522 ("There is indeed the inexpressible. This shows itself; it is the mystical") and that of 6.4 ("All propositions are of equal value"). These citations meant that fragments of image for architectural design included “the mystery” and that the fragments had “equal value” and constituted logical process in the idea of “Città analoga”. For the conclusion, Wittgenstein’s architecture and theory encouraged Rossi to develop the idea of “Città analoga” from June 1968 to March 1970. In other words, Rossi counted the idea as constitution of fragment of scene. The collage gathered with pieces of scene like autonomous proportions enabled the architect to brand the process of thinking in “Città analoga”.