This paper delineates how housing is reached to the poor through housing microfinance. Taking housing program of Grameen Bank (GB) as a case study, this article portrait the GB's simple, conventional and efficient concept of house design employable by the rural hands. To reach the poor, GB's strategy for housing microfinance includes simplicity; flexibility, available, affordable and speedy disbursal of collateral free loans at rural communities in Bangladesh. Construction of houses is on self-help basis, incrementally developed and adopted vernacular construction. The study recognizes that housing design and lending terms perfectly matches with rural people's livelihood and it brings success to GB's housing program.
This paper describes the state of pharmacy service and equipment for the re-formation of the planning of central pharmacy in hospital to correspond with recent its change of function and service. We have clarified the following points. 1) "Dispensing", "Drug Information Service", "Storage of Packaged Drug" and "Individual Set of Injectable Drug" are served in many cases. 2) "Dispensing", "Individual Set of Injectable Drug" and "Storage of Packaged Drug" are served at same zone in almost cases that supply-zone unite with prepare-zone. 3) Automated powder dispensing device, automated tablet dispensing device, printing device for drug bags, autoclave and clean bench are equipped in many cases.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of Kagoshima Park Planning enacted in April 1933. In the planning process, an original planning standard was prepared. This precedes the national standard provided in July, 1933 by the Ministry of Interior. This standard focused on the children's parks, while the urban area of Kagoshima was surrounded by natural green area on steep cliffs. Planners who worked on the planning also intended to distribute children's parks in the built-up area, not only to keep the historic and scenic places under this park system. The park system relates to the street planning, and parks are systematically arranged with considerations of effective radius.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. Through the analysis of the colonial maps authors discuss the Spanish Colonial urban process in the Hispaniola Island. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, approximately thirty two colonial cities were established in Hispaniola Island. This study on these cities has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period. As cartographic database, 916 images and maps from AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), are used for analysis. In the analysis of the colonial maps, we classify them into several types according to the criteria of urban and territorial items such as geographical maps, city maps and architecture maps, and we discuss the characteristics.
The purpose of this study is to identify urban unities by using the Space Syntax Theory in terms of building location Ogi city, which is located in Saga Lowland area, is composed of 4 areas, including Ogi area, Ushizu area, Mikatsuki area and Ashikari Area. Ogi area and Ushizu area is designated city planning area, the others are out of city planning area and agricultural promotion area. However, developments have progressed in not only city planning areas but also agricultural promotion area by farmland diversion. At first, we clarified the development trend of Ogi city. Then, we described boundary of system and analyzed urban configurations in each area. Finally, we clarify the meaning of boundary in terms of building location and identified orderly systems. As a result, we described urban unities based on the relationship with building locations and orderliness of systems in each area.
This paper aims to clarify the roles and challenges of the university's organization established to preserve and utilize green space in the campus in partnership with the neighbors, analyzing the actual conditions of activities and the progress of the collaborative formation by "Satoyama Nature Scool : Kakuma of Kanazawa Unversity"(the School). The findings are as follows. 1. It is evaluated highly that the School have progressively organized the activities and the relationship with neighbors. 2. "Sotoyama Mate" was organized by neighbors during the activities, and has led them currently. Enhancing to empower neighbors and citizens is one of the important roles of collaborative organization, even if it is established by a university. 3. The full-time staff and the stronghold "Kakuma no Sato" have also played an important and an effective role to deepen the relationship. 4. Regarding with the notice by "Satoyama Mate", the way to position collaborative organization with neighborhood as well as green space in the university's long-range plan and the organizational structure is one of the important challenges. 5. In addition, since the School has been substantially operated by the subsidies from Ministry of Education so far, there is also a concern of how operational fund would be secured continually.
I construct the models in which the urbanization trend is decided in two factors of urbanization in the each area and urbanization by the effect from the circumference. In the first model, the urbanization of the each area is assumed in logistic-growth. The solution of this model becomes front-wave and the urban district boundary does not stop by moving. The second model satisfies the Nagumo equation, and the urban district boundary in the model is stationary. It is indicated that a balance of forest and farmland and urban district is necessary in order to become compactly the sustainable city.
The purpose of this study is to show which scenic views are protected with priority, judging from the new idea of the risk of losing the scenic views. The study area is Kobe City. This study consists of three parts. 1. Evaluating the existing condition of the characteristics of the scenic views. 2. Judging the risk of losing the views by the possibility of losing the viewpoints and blocking the views, and the existing condition of blocking the views. 3. Confirming the validity of the evaluation of characteristics of the views by fieldwork, comparing to others' evaluation.
The Concept of Cultural Landscape has not been yet established because it is difficult to have conservation of Scenic Heritage Elements related to occupation and occupation itself compatible in the conservation system. Therefore, the aim of this study is to clarify the challenges of conservation and creation of the Cultural Landscape, through clarifying the condition to sustain traditional industry as an occupation and understanding the influence on the landscape from pottery industry in SARAYAMA. Findings of the study are that people in SARAYAMA have been inherited the values as intangible heritage in its potter through combining new protocols with traditional protocols and that each Scenic Heritage Element used in pottery has only one style and layout. The challenges for the conservation and creation of the traditional Cultural Landscape is to complete the Cultural Landscape model which is created by residents with advices from experts and tourists and to create the landscape by the residents. Especially, the considerations on the landscape models for kilns with stepped chambers, KARAUSU, IZE and shore protection is important.
Adjusting land use zoning and open-spaces formed by roads and buildings intervals to leverage the cooling effect of naturally occurring air temperature gradients that form due to proximity to the ocean can be an effective method to regulate urban temperature profiles. Based on temperature readings taken in August 2006 using 20 primarily train-station mounted thermometers in Kanagawa, Japan, this paper analyzes links between 1) air temperature, 2) distance from the ocean, and 3) five simplified categories of land cover: buildings and vegetation (two 3-D elements); plus waterways, roads, and “urban-space” between buildings (three 2-D “void” spaces). Of the three types of voids, a cooling affect was seen from urban-space in areas close to the ocean, but not inland, whereas significantly lower temperatures were observed from road voids in inland regions with comparatively high housing densities.
In China, there is a tradition of using the park with variable activities by inhabitants in early morning, and we found that it was an important opportunity of social communication, by the investigation of the users activity in Huangpu-park, in 2005. In 2008, we did another investigation through questionnaire, observations and deep interviews with the users. By the survey of social background and the comparison of the results of two investigations, we clarify the following facts: 1. According to the transitions of main groups, we found four turning points of the users activity in recent years. 2. There are four types of user group, and the type of each group may changes to another by the influence of the passage of time. 3. The composition of user groups and the conscious of most users, such as the purpose of activity and the relationship in group, have changed. 4. There seems to be a correspondence between the type of user-group and the social property of the area they use.
In Japanese pre-modern period at Sagami-koku and surrounding area, Mt.Oyama and Oyama-dera is one of the most famous mountain and tample. Edo-bakuhu bad been constructing its buildings continually, but main executive organ was shifted over from Edo-bakuhu to Oyama-dera. A technical expart named Myouo-taro lived at the foot of Mt.Oyama. He had taken action each time to acquire a managerial position of construction, and his purpose materialized finally. This was the unusual case compared with other construction of temples that Edo-bakuhu took lead. The primary factor of it consists in the peculiar context of Oyama.
In previous studies, there were many discussions about typical style of town house in screens in and around Kyoto of 16th century. Yet, there was no discussion about farm house in screens. This paper deals with styles of farm house in folding screens, and points out that these are look like farm house style which is called Iwakura type. The plan of Iwakura type is considered of four chambers and dirty floor. This arrangement is featured by Nando in front of dirty floor. By the way, there is possibility of old Iwakura type which is considered of two chambers and dirty floor.
The Principal Tower of Nagoya Castle was restored on a large scale from 1752 to 1755. This paper evaluates and analyses the restoration process of the tower based on the drawings and specifications which have explained about the temporary constructions, such as: scaffolds and bridges that was built inner and outer of the tower. The historical materials that are connected to the plan of the temporary constructions as mentioned above as a large scale restoration might be limited, particularly in Edo Period. By this paper, those historical materials will be explained in detail.
This paper examines the Noh space that is located within the modern industrialist's residence. With the arrival of modern times, Industrialists had become very interested in certain sophisticated aspects of their culture. Most Industrialists were very interested in traditional Japanese culture, especially with regard to the aspects of Tea and Noh where two particular aspects of traditional Japanese culture that interested the most industrialists. They practiced Noh dancing, and also built Noh spaces in their private residences. This paper will examine how these Noh spaces were built, the building process and analyze the character of these spaces.
This Paper examine the works and activities of Yukichi Kouno (Ryouichi Kanou) within the movement of 'The International Architectural Association of Japan' founded in 1927. Kohno became a member of 'The Association' around January 1932. It was at the turning point for the activity of ‘the Association’ and the enrollment of Kohno was a part of it. He worked on the edition of the periodical of ‘the Association’ and introduced the architecture of Soviet Union and tried to advocate the new architecture by a method of the social science. Since he has involved in 'the Association', the group converted to aim the new architecture by a method of the social science based on the theory of communism. 'The Association' stopped their activities in May 1933. He seemed to have already left the Association before May 1933. His withdrawal from the Association seems to be one of the causes of the demise of the Association
The purpose of this study is to consider the implication of the term “instaurare” that Alberti used as the title of De re aedificatoria Liber Decimus. In this paper I examined the use of "instaurare" in literary works likely to have been read by Alberti, such as Vitruvius, Cicero, ‘Vulgata Latina’, Isidore of Seville's ‘Etymologiae’ and Flavio Biondo's ‘Roma instaurata’. In particular, ‘Vulgata Latina’ plays an essential role in this study. As a result, it is reasonable to suppose that "instaurare" is a biblical and Christian word, and the title of Liber Decimus “operum instauratio” does not merely mean "restoration of buildings".
The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature of Viollet-le-Duc's theory of goût, through the analysis of his thought from the angle of the architectural ideas under the entry “Goût” in Vol.6 of Dictionnaire raisonné de l'architecture française du XI e au XVI e siècle as well as some related discussions in the first series of Entretiens sur l' architecture on philosophy, aesthetics and architecture. Moreover, on the basis of the comprehension of the notion of goût which is defined as the rational development of intellect faculty by Viollet-le-Duc, to understand Viollet-le-Duc's theory of goût is conducive to avoiding the loss of style for creating new architecture in our era.
The aim of this study is to clarify the particular spatial characteristics of the loggia in residential architectural works, as viewed from the behavior of sunlight. Initially, by using selected case-study houses, sunlight diagrams derived from 3D models are made, and sunlight patterns begin to emerge. These patterns are revealed to be the basis for a particular "loggia space", whose character is defined by its sunlight behavior. The loggia's adjoining rooms are also considered, so to better understand the behavioral patterns of everyday life in loggia space. Here the layout of the loggia as a single component in the house is investigated in order to analyze its relative placement as part of the larger composition. As a result, the various typological characters of loggia spaces are generated by the combination of sunlight patterns, adjoining rooms, and compositional layout.
To elucidate Mies's design principle as a means of achieving the successful relationships of the parts to each other and to the whole, the unique interior perspectives by collage technique connected with Mies were investigated from the viewpoint of geometrical relationship. It was derived that not only the main elements in the perspectives were interconnected with each other by collinear relationships, but also the collinear relationships diagonally crossed each other on the perspective. The result shows that the geometrical relationship was a means of achieving Mies's successful relationships.
This study aims to grasp the changes of before-after retiling a roof on Fukushima district in Yame. Through the analysis of waterproofing material, construction method and accessory of tile, the following five things have become clear. (1) Combination between accessory of roof tile and plaster is the specific character of a roof on Fukushima district. (2) The rule of the Agreement and The Preservation Plan provides form and material of a roof, not accessory of roof tile and plaster. (3) After-retiling a roof, form and size of accessory of roof tile is different from before-retiling a roof because of almost replacing Joujima tile with Awaji and Sansyu tile. (4) The number of a roof a smoked roof tile has increased through the Agreement and The Preservation Plan. But accessory of roof tile is similar to form and size of before-retiling a roof, but different. (5) In case of retiling a roof, it is unnecessary to use plaster to fix a tile because of replacing wet construction method with dry one.
Recently, the expectation's for an oceanic architecture rising to use an oceanic space effectively, and revaluing an architectural characteristic and structural utility become important in a new societal demand and a new business. On the other hand, why constructed the building in “Sea” is not clarified in an existing oceanic architecture. Then, it aims to understand the shade of meaning of clarifying the background that becomes construction of an oceanic architecture in the sea, the plan condition, and the construction details including the conception of the planner, and the construction of construction in the sea in the present study. The reason for the factor that an oceanic architecture is constructed is as a result that a sea and deep relations each other had been maintained on a climate, historical, cultural side in a premeditated background.