Noting the effect of tone quality variations of received sound in providing speech sound source using a multi- loudspeaker system on "ease of hearing," one of the subjective evaluation method for speech transmission quality, from the standpoint of evaluating speech transmission quality in a room sound field using electroacoustic systems, we conducted a basic study of the effect of factors on "ease of hearing" based on the results of tests in a sound field with the addition of direction of received sound, delay time gap and other directional parameters to variations in frequency characteristics of provided speech sound source. The results indicated that variations in the frequency characteristics of provided speech sound source have a strong effect on "ease of hearing." This furthermore suggests that, when designing the electric sound reinforcement system taking speech transmission quality into consideration, it is necessary to conduct comprehensive examinations taking the direction of received sound, delay time and other parameters into account as well as the tone quality of provided speech sound.
The reflection of solar radiation is considered the diffuse reflection on thermal environmental simulation though it has the directional characteristics. The purpose of this study is to make clear reflective characteristics of solar radiation quantitatively for more realistic thermal environmental simulation such as heat load and sensible temperature calculations. In this paper, we examine how to analyze directional characteristics of the reflection of solar radiation quantitatively by measuring the reflection of the long wave solar radiation by using the radiant energy thermometer.
This paper provides projected area factors for each part of the human body to allow the radiative heat transfer between the human and surrounding surfaces to be calculated. We first describe ways of calculating angle factors, effective radiation area, radiative heat transfer coefficients, and the mean radiant temperature for each segment of the human body. Then we describe an approach to measuring projected area factors using a manikin. Projected area factor distributions and other important elements for radiation analysis are presented and compared with other studies.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of the clothing fits on the effective radiation area and the configuration factor. Clothes with different clothing fits were made based on the body surface area of three female subjects. The clothes were a blouse with long sleeves and a skirt of length under the knee. The effective radiation area and the configuration factors for 3 young female subjects at sedentary posture were measured by the photographic method. As a result, the effective radiation area factor was found to be 0.73 for the unclothed, 0.76 for the clothing No.0 with not ease, 0.80 for the clothing No.3 with normal fitting and 0.83 for the clothing No.6 with loose fitting.
In our previous paper, we reported on the amount of energy gained from the ground, using the cooling tube system with natural ventilation. In this paper, we presented 3-dimensional thermal model of the cooling tube system and proved the accuracy of that to apply thermal performance analysis of the house using cooling tubes with natural ventilation aftertime. We also explained the thermal characteristics of the same. In the case of cooling tube system in this paper, calculated outlet temperature were fitted to measured temperature by giving heat transfer coefficient 4.1W/m^2K fixedly for whole area inside of cool tubes.
Although age of air measurement has been carried out frequently in order to evaluate various ventilation systems, it is pointed out that the measurement term is relatively long, and that changes of outdoor and indoor climate often affect the measured results. In this paper, simple measurement method for age of air assuming uniform mixture model is tried, and verified by existing houses experiments and case study with mathematical multizone infiltration model. The results are as follows. (1)As a result of measurement for three highly insulated houses, root mean square error of age of air between simple and detailed method is about 25minutes. (2)This simple method may be applied to following conditions, a) indoor partition is not air tightened and b) nominal ventilation time is less than analysis term (2h, in this paper). These condition is not inconsistent with the measurement for ordinary highly insulated houses designed to the ach index to be 0.5.
The basic characteristics of the wind-induced ventilation of the void located in the center of high-rise apartment buildings was clarified by means of wind tunnel tests. The airflow rates were also measured and the simplified calculation by modified Bernoulli's equation were conducted. As a result, it was made clear that the airflow pattern of void is mainly characterized by wind directions and the heliport at the top of void affects the flow pattern near the top openings. Especially, the interesting phenomenon that the unstable flow occurs at the wind direction of around 135 degrees was observed. The calculated results were practically in good agreement with the measured ones except the wind direction of around 135 degrees.
The buoyant plume above a round heat source was analyzed through the computational simulation based on a weakly compressible Differential Second Moment closure model(DSM)/Differential heat Flux model. The reason why we are considering the fluid compressibility is that there is a very large difference of the temperature between the surface of the heat source and ambient air. The analyzed results were compared with Shabbir's plume-equations and Yokoi's plume-equations. The computational results(DSM) almost corresponded to Shabbir's plume-equations, but these didn't fitted with Yokoi's plume-equations.
In this paper, new indices for evaluating the inhaled air region are proposed. It expresses that the part of the room air which is going to be inhaled by a human body. Indoor air pollutants such as VOCs generated from building materials are transported by room air convection and finally exhausted through the outlet opening. In the process of room air convection, some portion of the pollutant is inhaled by the human body. The human body is covered by rising stream around it. It is generated by a heat discharge due to metabolism. The mechanism of inhalation is greatly influenced by the rising stream, in order to analyze the inhaled air region in a room, we should take into consideration this rising stream around a human body. This paper analyzed the inhaled air region in consideration of human body in three different postures by means of CFD analysis. When human body is standing, human body inhales the air of the lower part of room because the rising stream which generated by metabolic heat draws the air from the lower part of the room to the breathing area of human body. When sitting, inhaled air region distribute the lower region from the mouth like in standing posture. When sleeping, the inhaled air region is distributed over the horizontal direction of the mouth near the floor.
It is well known that water vapor and carbon dioxide in the air have several infrared bands where these gases absorb and emit radiative energy. Therefore the radiative heat absorbed by room moisture may not be neglected in the prediction of room air temperature. Glicksman and Chen(1998) carried out numerical analysis and showed that the effect of radiative heat absorbed by room air moisture should be considered in the prediction of temperature distribution in large enclosed spaces. In this paper the analysis method of the radiative energy absorbed by room moisture is shown and some examples simulated by this method are presented. (1) The numerical analysis with temperature of walls as a given boundary condition was carried out. The simulated results with 25%, 50%, 75% relative humidity were compared to the case with absolutely dry air and the impact of radiative heat absorbed by room moisture on air temperature was confirmed. The effect of moisture on air temperature was remarkable especially when the temperature difference between walls was large and the volume of space was big. (2) The interactive simulation of convective and radiative heat transfer was conducted with the moisture's effect on air temperature simultaneously. The results showed that the impact of the radiative heat absorbed by room moisture appeared not only in air temperature but in the surface temperatures of walls.
In order to study the behavior or the emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in a newly built house, HAPs were measured at various places in residential air. In this investigation we used three different kinds of sampling method: that is, USEPA method TO-11 and TO-17 as an active sampling method for HAPs in residential air, DSD-carbonyl as a diffusive sampling method for carbonyl compounds in a closed space and FLEC (field and laboratory emission cell) as a chamber method for the determination of emission rates from building materials. As a result, the following was clarified. (1) In the newly built house before moving, the concentrations of toluene, formaldehyde, acetone and CFC-11 were higher than other compounds. (2) 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were carried into the house by residents. (3) The emission rates of formaldehyde, acetone and CFC-11 were rapid and a wall cabinet in the kitchen emitted those compounds. (4) The concentration of formaldehyde, acetone and CFC-11 in indoor air was directly proportional to the room temperature. (5) It was recognized that the material of a wall cabinet in the kitchen emitted styrene and benzaldehyde and emission rates of those compounds were 470 and 200 μMg/(m^2 h), respectively. (6) Styrene and formaldehyde are remarkable compounds because their concentrations were very high (max 72 and 390 μg/m^3, respectively) and they are known to increase the risk of asthma and cancer.
The small-sized municipal rivers had been filled in or covered from the economic and social factors. Especially in the period of industrialization, the conception of water went through a rapid change, and the small-sized rivers were covered and turned into the sewage system. But now, the restoration of natural environment in urban areas is becoming a very important issue. This study is focused on a river which could be restored without acquiring the new land. Furthermore, we aimed to develop an energy-efficient method for retaining the source of river and water-conducting energy that is closed within the region.
So as to clarify the characteristic of preference for the view from buildings fronting a river, the authors carried out the questionnaires on the psychological evaluation for the view and taking photographs with 35mm and 70mm lens of camera through the window by inhabitants living in the apartment houses located at the central areas of Hiroshima City. The authors analyzed the size, the positions of the constituent elements and the image features derived from textural analysis of these photographs. From these results, the authors clarified some characteristics of preferable compositions of views and the relationships between the constituent elements and the image features of these photographs and psychological evaluation.
The study will propose designing dwellings to support and enrich the elderly and aged people. This study reports on a survey on the condoiiniui houses built about 20 years ago. In the survey, some characteristics of life style and way of living for their generation. In the parti, main findings are as follows. Characteristics are discussed; the increase of smaller dweller for aging after the separation of children; the increase of stay at home and that of accompany of wife and husband; the active hobby life, as the life style and way of living; the change of closed to open door of children's rooms; the change to separate sleeping of the couple.
This study aims to clarify the relationship between the elderly's social life in community and participation in community work. For this objective, 39 elderly living in one region which has animated community work were surveyed by means of deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) The community work permits intimate secondary relationship and diverse communication as compared with general community activities such as old people's club, woman club and PTA. 2) Each elderly can live a full life in community by selecting the degree of participation in the community work.
Based on the real project promoted by the residents, welfare staffs and architects, which aimed to plan an innovative nursing home complex and reliable community for the elderly, this study verifies that workshop method is effective to realize the de-institutionalization of facilities for the elderly in the aspects of social context as well as physical design. Workshop program and process design were analyzed from an insider's point of view to examine how collaborative work to produce the comfortable place was developed through the interactions of participants. This study also examines the role of professional team at each phase.
This paper's aim is to clarify the characteristics of spatial composition by analyzing typologically contemporary extended buildings as groups of volumes with arrangement and connection. Initially, the external compositions are analyzed in terms of articulation of the whole building into volumes, toporogical relations between exsisting volumes and extensions, and exterior space. Secondly, the internal compositions are analyzed in terms of circulation between exsisting volumes and extensions. Thirdly, typological compositions are found by analyzing the external and internal compositions all together. Finally, through comparing those compositions, the composional form is structured with the functions of arrangement and connection such as actuarizing a potential worth of exsiting buildings.
Relationship between total evaluation of townscape, element's evaluation, element's attention level and element's area rate are analyzed by studying 1.whole sidewalk view evaluation, 2.composed elements evaluation, 3.composed elements attention level, 4.composed elements area rate from a photograph. As a result, the relationship between total evaluation of townscape and composed elements from evaluation, attention level, area rate, can be defined by using their correlation. And composed elements are classified by using total evaluation and correlation, evaluation, attention level, area rate and correlation. Besides, realizations of classified composed elements are considered.
The type of urban housing with an inner court, "court-house" effectively realizes a comfortable living environment in the downtown area. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the inner court and the space characteristics contribute to improve the quality of life in the dense urban area. The results are as follows; 1) According the published design purposes, the planned function of court-house is not only the defense of interior space or the acquisition of the buffering space against the surrounding environment but also the adjustment of psychological distance between each inner space. 2) Through transforming the organization of court-houses into the adjoining diagram, they can reasonably be classified into 4 principle groups based on the sorts of access route. Each group has several respective features. 3) The physical features are integrally resumed to 7 indicators through the statistical analysis. These indicators have obviously a certain relation to the design purposes.
In the previous papers, we constructed a model determining a place by the expression "in front of object" for describing a sense of direction produced by objects. The model is presupposed that the surrounding space of object has no spatial restriction. A new model proposed in this paper describes in the case of restricted surrounding space. Furthermore, this model includes the old model as a special case. The expanded model is verified by investigations.
The objective of this study is to find a set of principles of action in design. The set is expected to explain some characteristic phenomena in a design process. This paper discusses the feasibility of the design research employing the methods of artificial intelligence. We generate software agents in dynamic and virtual environment and let them evolve to fit the environment. Each agent is allowed to change the internal process that couples information acquired from the environment and action to change it. It is observed that some agents get to perform intentional action. Genetic programming is used for the evolution.
In this study we made clear the spatial composition of villages in the Tonami Plain by comparison among a dispersed village, a row shaped village and a street village. We realized that for all villages the direction in which water flowed was a primary regulating factor relating to things from housing to the homesteads and village composition. There were also farm lands directly connected to the homesteads in all villages. We defined the unit as "living field". The relationship between a watercourse and a living field was the same in all types of villages. The watercourses flowed along the boundaries of the living field. It meant the three villages were based on the same model.
The purpose of this paper is to describe features of the going-out activities of the elderly urban residents, and to clarify the differences among them who have various demographic characteristics, and the spatial differences in Kumamoto-city. In this paper, we analyze the elderly's going-out activity based on the large-scale survey, that is "person-trip survey data(PT-data)", and try to discuss the problems of the life-environment surround the elderly at not only the individual but the city levels. The findings can be summarized as follows: 1. PT-data is useful statistical data for analyzing the elderly's going-out activities at both the individual and the city levels. 2. The elderly change the extension of their activity space and time, their travel mode, the purpose of their activities according to their sex, age, and whether they are job-holder or not. 3. There are some spatial differences in the elderly's going-out activity, and it is guessed that those differences are influenced by the density of land-use pattern, the level of public transportation service, the distribution of their activity chances.
An experiment was done in one area with grid shaped street pattern and in another area with irregularly twisted street pattern. There were two ways to memorize forms in the experiment: a real walk and CG animation presented walk through a fixed pathway. After learning the course, the subject walked the pathway by themselves. Originally the subjects were 25 males and 15 females. The results were analysed based on gender difference-14 male and 14 female subjects. Analysing errors in the abstract distance and abstract angle errors on the cognitive maps, it was recognized that the drawn street lengths are shorter than the actual distances for both genders. Concerning a real walk through the irregularly twisted street the females' errors in the abstract angles were smaller than the males' errors. However both gender's found the irregularly twisted street more legible than the grid shaped one.
This study aims to compare the application of laws to treat land contamination, and to consider the long-term approach to include information openings, care for the public, and redevelopment. This paper (Part 1) aims to compare the application of national acts to treat land contamination in Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United Kingdom. It concludes that the Japanese national acts have limitations on applicable types of land and stages of the land contamination treatment process, whereas in the Netherlands, Germany, the U.K. have national acts are applicable for any types of land and a number of stages.
This paper describes a GIS-based city planning support system for congested areas of wooden houses. Firstly, we developed GIS-based planning support system which is composed of three tools, that is, the tool which grasps the present condition, the tool which evaluates the risk of fire damage using expert system, and the tool which plans for improving congested areas of wooden houses. Secondly, we applied this system to Kitakyushu City, and had planners and experts on disaster prevention evaluate the result of application. As a result, we could get good evaluation.
This is an outcome of the survey which I conduct to draw up the disaster prevention plan for the Sanneizaka Preservation District for Groups of Histric Buildings in Kyoto. The workshop which was held prior to the compilation of the questionnare made it especially focused on their community. Residents in the Sannneizaka Area supported to put there area's historical buildings into full performance and do more efforts in frequent communication in everyday life to protect their community from disasters. Thus,through their participation in this research work, theie awareness about disaster prevention has been shown increased.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the urban forming process in the modern silk raising area from the two aspect. The first is the action of wealthy people and second is the urban space, through the analysis of the modernizing process in Honjo-machi. The results are the followings 1) In Honjo-machi, it mordernized rapidly with the change of silk raising system 2) The action of wealthy people kept pace with flow of modernization, and contributed to form the social system 3) And thier action largely affected to industrialization, Finally, the space structure was affected by the silk mill.
In this paper, a method has been presented to predict the maintenance cost and renewal period of air-conditioning system in office buildings, through analysizing yearly maintenance record data of two office buildings. The results have been found that 1) heat resource and air handling equipments give the main effect on the maintenance cost in air-conditioning system. 2) the percentage of cumulative maintenance cost is to change sharply after legal durable years. From the results, simple formulae on estimating the cumulative maintenance cost of heat resource and air handling equipments have been introduced. The formulae have been validated with the maintenance record data of another office building. The method of predicting renewal period of air conditioning system has been established by finding minimum between initial and running cost. Finally a case study has been carried out for an office building.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. In Yamashina villages of Uji country, some documents record the process of obligating farmers to present the application forms for building up to Kyoto machibugyosho or Kyoto daikansho. This paper takes up them.
In Shizuoka Prefecture, mainly in Shizuoka city, "Hiyoke",used to denote the quality of the tea crop, were fixed to the facade of houses involved in the tea industry. The purpose of this paper is to shed right on the character of architecture connected with the tea industry by focussing on the "Hiyoke". We found that "Hiyoke" were rarely used before 1894 but it became popular from around 1898 to the 1920's. It became clear that various matters such as the construction of the tea preparation factories, and legal regulations about the exportation of tea leaves etc., constituted the background against which "Hiyoke" became popular.
In this paper, we analyzed the description form and the KIWARI of ZHA LOU ・ GANG KU ・ TING ・ XIAO SHI which belong to the "MIAN KUO-JIN SHEN TYPE" in the "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE". As a result, in the "MIAN KUO-JIN SHEN TYPE' plane measurements are not used with the KIWARI, which differs from plane measurements which are decided by the module "SAN" in the "DOU-KOU TYPE", and the "SAN " or the actual number in the "HUNHE TYPE" . "MIAN KUO" and "JIN SHEN" are the modules, and this KIWARI is used throughout the buildings from the frame to every part. Every volume is independent and complete, and both its description form and the KIWARI are extremely systematic.
This study is trying to find the formation and changes of the town-houses with arcades in Di-Hwa Street, Taipei City. They are important heritage of Taiwan. Di-Hwa Street is one of the most traditional towns in Taipei, Taiwan. The town-houses with arcades are built side by side, and their beautiful facades are continued over 1 kilometer. The facades' style can be sorted out to 5 different styles. Building of town-houses was started from A.D.1851. And they had been consolidated in the 1930s and 1940s. The change of facades' designs corresponds to the history of the town's development.
This paper deals with requests of the French Court to Bernini's design for the Louvre palace. The principal object of the requests was to preserve the ancient buildings and to make the King's convenient and comfortable apartment. But the preservation made it impossible for Bernini to prepare the required apartment. After canceling Bernini's design, Colbert criticized Bernini for not sufficiently taking King's apartment's convenience into consideration. But the failure of the design was partly caused by the client's contradictory requests.
It is possible to consider C.Boito's medievalism in connection with the urban renewal in the 19th century Milan. In the regularization of the Piazza del Duomo, he chose medieval style and came to insist the irregular form of the Piazza, which was typical in the medieval period. This respect for a medieval city put him in a dilemma, because Medievalism resulted in a negative urban renewal. Therefore, in Beruto's plan (1884-1889), he solely argued the problem of architectural style. In spite of all his efforts, his medievalism was defeated by the municipal architectural regulations leading to neo-Renaissance style.
An ultimate objective of this study is not only to depict the reality of academic society, possibly embracing some sort of ambiguous degrade in its stable and established environment, but also to propose a certain strategy to avoid this, overcome this and build a better preferable future. First of all this study, in this report, a really challenging trial to build a human-academic society model dealing with the future prospect of its activity based on so-called Complexity Model, was done. Mathematical framework of the model was precisely described. And actual calculations of its artificial society were carried out on a particular Discrete Type Simulator. Results of simulations led to consider much interesting and marvelous facts.