Flame length and flame heat transfer were measured on one-dimensional horizontal ceiling confined with two water-cooled parallel soffits by using a porous line burner simulating ceiling fires. Correlations with heat release rate are derived for the flame length and the flame heat transfer. Flame spread tests were then made with the medium density fiberboard (MDF) lined along the ceiling of the same trench apparatus and exposed to upward electric heaters simulating the heating by the hot gas layer. Analysis of the test results suggests that flame spread in ceiling configuration is dominated by the preheating of the unburnt surface rather than by the augmentation of the heat release and is not sensitive to pilot flame intensity. Applicability of the linearized flame spread theory for ceiling fires is examined using the test data.
In order to consider the actual condition of the sound environment in various commercial spaces from the users' point of view, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 5,000 residents in the surrounding Tokyo metropolitan area, in January 1997. Using a mail survey, 1,201 responses (return rate of 25%) were received. Based on the results, we were able to ascertain that the user shares the six different image factors to evaluate the importance of the design of sound environment. In case of the evaluating good or not as to actual experiences, concerning the design of the sound environment in various commercial spaces, we were able to focus on the 3 axes. As key factors. No.1 is "liveliness (lively/quiet)", No.2 is "size of space (large/small)" and No.3 is "the state of use (usual/unusual)". Especially, the single-regression analysis between the category score of "liveliness" (axis No.1) and the measured L_Aeq (personal exposure level) were appeared a relatively good correlation (r=-0.795). Consequently, it was suggested that the L_Aeq-value was an appropriate criterion to apply to a comprehensive investigation about the sound environment in commercial spaces.
In the previous paper, the authors proposed Cubic Model as a method of understanding three-dimensional light properties. The purpose of this paper is to apply the Cubic Model to actual spaces and to examine the adaptability of the model. First of all, a series of measurements was carried out to get dimensional and photometric data in some real spaces selected from university building and private houses. In the second place, the data was input to the Cubic Model program on personal computer in order to derive the light distribution pattern of each space as the result of model application. In conclusion, the following were cleared: 1) Even when the Cubic Model is applied to the actual spaces, the light distribution patterns can be appropriately expressed in almost cases. 2) The effectiveness of the Cubic Model was well ascertained in comparison with the different visualizing media of light distribution such as CG (Computer Graphics).
This paper describes on the development on the daylight calculating method using computer graphics screen. The principle of this method is based on the traditional graphical solution of a configuration factor. First, the projected figure of the surroundings is drawn with specific color correspond iris to its luminance. Second, by scanning the projected fignres on the computer screen and getting pixel color, the luminance at each scanning point can be known and the illuminance of the reference point can be obtained. This method is great useful to visualize the calculation procedure and to apply for any outside conditions.
The models for estimation of global irradiance on tilted surfaces are evaluated. The evaluation is undertaken on the basis of the comparison between estimated and measured values. Measured values at three of the Japanese IDMP sites; Sapporo, Tokyo and Fukuoka, are employed for the comparison. At first, the values of direct irradiation are estimated from the measured horizontal global irradiation using three direct and five diffuse irradiance models. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) obtained from the estimations of Perez, Erbs, Chandrasekaran and Reindl models are comparatively small among the eight irradiance models. Next, global irradiation on vertical surfaces is estimated from measured normal direct and horizontal diffuse irradiations using an isotropic and five anisotropic sky radiance models. RMSE from the estimations of Perez anisotropic sky irradiance model is the smallest. Finally, global irradiation on vertical surfaces are estimated from the measured horizontal global irradiation using each of the 48 combinations of the eight irradiance and six sky radiance models. The combination of the Perez direct irradiance and the Perez anisotropic sky radiance models gives the smallest RMSE value.
The aim of this paper focuses on explicating phenomena of concealed condensation in wood frame construction walls caused by the undesirable temperature rise due to sun burn. Two types of laboratory experiments were carried out to explicate these phenomena. One was a humidity response test for small specimens of porous material, the other was a wood frame wall model test in which specimens of wall were sandwiched between two test chambers, one representing a room and the other representing the outdoor environment simulated to standardized meteorological data for Tokyo. We conclude that concealed condensation was caused by desorption of moisture which porous materials contain and a vented wall can reduce these condensation. But this paper suggest that more study should be done on the prevention of concealed condensation too.
This study focuses on occupants' physiological and psychological responses to fluctuating air movement, like natural outdoor light wind in summertime. Subjects firstly stayed in a hot room (34℃, 60% rh, still air) for 1 hour, then moved to another one (28℃, 50〜60% rh, constant and fluctuating air movements) for 1 hour. The velocity of the constant air movement was 0.4 m/s, while the fluctuating ones were combined with the amplitude in range of 0.2〜1.0 m/s and period of 20s, 30s and 60s using rectangular wave. Skin temperatures, heart rate, thermal sensation, comfort vote and so on were measured. As a conclusion, the fluctuating air movement was more desirable than the constant one and it maintained thermal comfort and increased the occupants' pleasantness.
Thermal environments, indoor air quality, and ventilation effectiveness were measured and evaluated in an office installed both with floor-based and ceiling based systems. Two systems were compared. Major findings are as follows : 1. The horizontal air temperature gradients were within acceptable range and almost same for both systems. 2. The LPPDs were found less than 6% except 6.25% for ceiling-based system in summer. 3. Air temperatures and Δ EHTs at lower level with floor-based system tended to be cooler than those for the ceiling-based system. However the differences were not significant. 4. Subjective acceptability for indoor air quality was no difference between two systems. However lower figures were observed for floor-based airconditioning system in terms of the concentration or the number of air-born particles. 5. Ventilation performance index was greater for the floor-based system than the ceiling-based system. This field study quantitatively makes it clear that floor-based system can provide comparable thermal environment and better air quality in comparison with the ceiling-based system.
Ice/water mixture can transport much greater amount of cooling energy than ordinary water pipings. To find a basic flow characteristics of the ice/water mixture, the model experiments were performed and the results were analyzed based on the Froude Number to satisfy the model relationship. It was found that the pressure loss of the ice/water mixture was increased by the ice packing factor on the horizontal pipings and that the pressure loss was decreased on the upward flow and increased on the downward flow on the vertical pipings. As a result, the relationship between the Froude Number and the coefficient of additional pressure loss was presented for the plant design.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the following two points. First point is the indoor air temperature and humidity fluctuation under an optimal operation of heat source system. Second is the effect of the system composition (heat source equipment capacity ratio) on the optimization results. Method for the optimization is applied to the hybrid energy source system with thermal storage tank of a middle scale office building on a certain summer day. The results are as follows : 1) the suitable change of the room temperature is calculated automatically by optimization process, so there is possibility of realizing effective energy conservation etc. by more active control of the temperature, 2) the relation between heat source equipment capacity and building heat load influences its suitable ratio, and the ratio influences the achievement degree of the optimal operation effect considerably. 3) according to a trial calculation, it is surmised that the system with a few heat source equipment using various energy is advantageous for pursuing energy conservation etc.
This report analyzes the characteristics of an absorption refrigerator driven by steam and hot water and connected with a waste heat recovery system of a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell power-generation plant. First, a simulation of a waste heat recovery system is constructed and the characteristics of this system are confirmed. Next, throughout the experimental research and the simulation analysis, the influences of the cooling water temperature on the heat recovery and cooling capacity of the absorption refrigerator are clarified. And the effectiveness of a year-round cooling system using the absorption refrigerator driven by waste heat from the fuel cell is made clear.
When urban air temperature is simulated using a one dimensional heat budget model, the following coefficients and component are needed besides meteorological data; albedo, roughness parameter, thermal properties of ground (specific heat, specific weight and thermal conductivity), evaporative efficiency and anthropogenic heat component. In this paper, a determination method of the evaporative efficiency and the anthropogenic heat component by means of the comparison between the calculation values and the observation values is described. The estimation accuracy by this method is extremely high, though the accuracy of heat budget components are not clear.
Public behavior is affected by perceotion of other peoples' personal space. This study investigated the influence on this perception of the other person's varied positional relationship with wall and column subspace establishing elements. Full-size experiments demonstrated that there is a perceived occupied space around a person, depending on the position of that person in relationship to a wall or column, and that the boundary of this space is rarely crossed. A second experiment with a scale model of the same previous spatial arrangements was conducted, as a means of discovering the extent of these perceived personal spaces, by the subjects' use of such words as "aside", "between", and "inside". Thus the areas expressed by these words were used to predict the boundary of space that the subjects rarely go into, i.e., the perceived occupied area.
The aim of the study is to obtain the design method for thermal environments inside semi-outdoor space, such as covered mall. First, thermal environments inside covered malls located in West Europe under cold climate in winter were investigated on field observations in winter 1996. Next, taking geographical difference into account, the climate control ratio was proposed and the semi-outdoor space was divided into two types of heating control and cooling control based on the meaning of climate control. Then, the climate control ratio was applied to evaluate the climate inside the semi-outdoor spaces at West Europe, Southwest Asia and Imabari City, Japan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the character of planning of rows of houses for coal miners. We selected 3 mines in Yamada city, which are similar in production but different in scale of the capital. As a whole, the composition of rooms have same tendency, as they were regulated by housing policies. But each variation of plan at the same period is very different. Because it was served as a part of business in every mining settlement under housing policies. This distinction caused experience of business, change of output, personnel management, and so on. We could grasp the changes of housing and supply in the colliery industry, by understanding each housing management.
Based on a one-day observation survey of residents' living activities in 3 districts in Bamako, we analyzed the specificity of each household's daily activity area in the courtyard according to the collectivity form. We also analyzed how those activity areas are shared by residents and which ale the factors influenced it. The conclusion is as follow. More the courtyard house is inhabitate by rental households, more the activity areas tend to be limited in front of each household's room. According to the stay length, the status, some households tend to settle their activity area in a specific space into the courtyard and then fixed it as private space by arranging stones or making a slight difference of level or building hangars. We also conclude that the owner and his relatives are still considering the courtyard as a family space not to be shared with rental households.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual conditions and causes of open space of multifamily housing around built-up areas in Tokyo. We sorted open space into two groups; inner and outer open space, and analyzed planning conditions of 59 housing samples. The pattern of inner and outer open space is various. The reason is architectural planning corresponded to various site patterns and following the Tokyo Metropolitan Building Safety Ordinance. The combination of inner and outer open space is 9 patterns. The most of these patterns has problems to plan rational open space in block.
The aim of this study is to clarify the conditions of spatial composition and signs for a legible library, in which each process of wayfinding behavior is thought to coincide with the informational space, from the analysis of wayfinding experiments on finding books at two public libraries. Subjects' routes, their protocol data and generative sentences have been analyzed depending on their cognitive states and route types. As a result, some of the facts about the relationship between the factor of route selection and the informational space are clarified, for instance, the importance of the information in an early stage of the wayfinding to avoid the one by one search.
The aim of this study is to collect more accurate data on operation and management of facilities for performing arts, through a similar questionnaire survey conducted with 1995 as the target year (the first 1986, the second 1990 as the target year), and to analyze the longitudinal change on three times finally. In this paper we report the longitudinal change of management organization and whether or not independent productions especially. The change of management organization is due to the lack of legal basis for public halls and the field of art culture. Management organization and whether or not independent productions and those relations differ from opening period, complex, name, capacity and size.
In present paper we typologically clarify the characteristics of spatial composition of Japanese contemporary city halls by analyzing the relation between their exterior composition and articulation of spaces and functional divisions. First we find typical characteristics of the city halls' external composition through defining them as several different patterns of external volumes' arrangement. Secondly we analyzed their relation to the spatial and functional articulation. Finally we compare several types of spatial composition, and figure out that the characteristics of spatial composition of Japanese contemporary city halls mainly depends on how the exterior volumes articulates their functions, and that the exterior open space surrounded by building tends to appear with big interior spaces.
Building parts and building systems are changed with the times. But records of development and changes of details are not almost handed down. Those records of change will be helpful to produce better development. In this study, we took notice floor heating systems, and surveyed connection between researches on patent and literature about those changes. As a result, the floor heating systems have importance to the improvement in floor of building parts, panels and dry building systems, and requirements of related to the manufacture/construction and the heat.
We investigated a tend of the conversion of agricultural land and housing supply. The results are as follows: 1. Many of the agricultural land were conversed as soon as the amendment to the law of productive green tract system. Many of them conversed to parking lots. Those will be changed another buildings after that. 2. The supply of rental apartments has increased. But, those are below the targeted housing standard and many residents are not contented with the apartments. 3. The agricultural land in the city area will be converted more slowly. We need to build up a new system for the conversions.
A purpose of this study is showing the effectiveness of quantitative value for estimating the advantage of position in the city. This advantage is an important factor for locating any facilities, and owes much to the accessibility made by street network. On this point an useful idex can be obtained from numerical caliculation using data of pattern of network, and this index explains generally the advantage of position. This paper describes usefulness of this index and characteristic of seven object cities which are seats of the prefectural government in Kyushu. Particularly it is noticeable and heuristic that this index extracted the center of each city.
This study aims to identify geographical distribution of private temporary housing (PTH) and to understand how PTH has been constructed in Kobe city since Hanshin-Awaji great earthquake. According to 1997 survey, 2927 units of PTH are built and pre-fabric building type is the most popular. PTH has contributed to reconstruction of housing and of local industry because the buildings are used for not only dwelling but also shop and work. Prospects of future development of PTH is that in the land re-adjustment programme areas majority of people who live there remove PTH and newly construct permanent housing in the case of exchange of the land. However, in the case of not large-scale exchange of the land PTH would continue to exist. In the re-development programme areas, it is obvious that PTH will be removed when the programme starts. In the other areas permanent housing will be built depending on owners' financial resources.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the forming process of landscape in Waseda University, Nishiwaseda Campus through the analysis of "City beauty" by Prof. Koichi Satow and the history of the building and repairing organization. Prof. Koichi Satow and the city beauty of that he had a concept had affected the design of Nishiwaseda Campus. We interpret the concept of the city beauty as a modern adjustment using the beauty factors of "Change" and of "Unity". Which was, inherited through : 1) the deep relation between the building and repairs organization and the architecture laboratories before the Second World War, 2) The leading engineer Sugiura, who followed the steps of campus designing after the Second World War.
Functions brought by water environments in residential area and their value for surrounding residential environments were clarified from the characteristic of ponds' surroundings based on analyses of questionnaire survey. The discussion was emphasized on the following points: 1. Land use of the water edge and the areas surrounding the water environments. 2. Analyses of characteristics of the functions and their values for surrounding residential environments. The followings were concluded. These functions can be classifled into 7 types. Their characteristics were varied according to the characteristic of surroundings. Together with the type of functions it also influenced their values.
A number of building damage surveys were carried out for different purposes after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. The damage surveys by local governments intended its use for property tax reduction while the survey by the AIJ & CPIJ group, academic societies, aimed to get technical records. This paper compares these building damage data in Ashiya City, using estimated peak ground velocity and fragility curves. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the two evaluations. The result obtained could be used to convert the damage rank by local governments to that by the AIJ & CPIJ group.
Since the 1992 legal reform of the Law of Urban Planning, methods of public participation in the drawing of Urban Master Plan has been in need. This study proposes the use of Internet as a method of public participation. It defines the following 3 issues. 1. Proposal of the use of Internet as a method of public participation. 2. Confirmation of the necessity and propriety of the use of Internet, through the survey of citizen and administration of Uozu city. 3. Estimation of the effection which will consequently occur when Internet is used as a method of public participation.
The previously reported papers proposed new systematical methods based on "Construction Process Chart" to solve resource levelling and term shortening problems on a construction project. That is to say, proposal methods can express many planning items and their mutual relationships, and have the capability of enabling superviser in the front line to formulate plans efficiently, and regarding many planning items comprehensively. Concerning the application of construction process chart methods, this paper focucing on reinforced concrete works, cleared the characteristics of inspections in construction works, and pointed out essential algorithm of practical quality control procedure. Then, the author adapted the improved methods to the practical structuarig works, which proved they would greatly contribute to the successful usage of quality control planning phase.
The purpose of this study is to clear the mechanism on spreading of the styles and materials concerning newly built detached houses in Japan, especially the area and process of spreading of them. As a result, we cleared the fallowings, 1) By analysis of the relation between the adoptting rate and the standerd deviation of the styles and materials, the regional differences are small on both first stage and final stage of spreading, while they are large on middle stage. 2) There are 4 regional chracteristics concerning forming the area of spreading. First is the type formed on large cities as Tokyo and Osaka and their neighbor prefecture. Second is the type formed on northern region as Hokkaido and Tohoku. Third is the type formed on other regions too as Kansai and Kyusyu in addion to northern region. Forth is the type formed on traditional regions as Simane and Mie and their neighbor prefecture. 3) By analysis of spreading process of modern styles and materials, at first they are spreading on large cities as Tokyo and Osaka, soon their neighbor prefecture, and later other large cities as Sapporo, Sendai and Hukuoka. On final stage they are spreading across the whole prefecture in Japan.
There has been a tacit recognition that dwellers of larger rental housing units must have tendency to live much longer period than those of smaller ones, and therefore there is a big difference of the stable settlement ratio between smaller rental housing units and larger ones. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the qualitative characteristics of how the stable settlement ratio and dwellers' living duration are changed in terms of floor area of multistory private rental housing in Tokyo metropolitan area, by using housing census data. Firstly, this paper analyzes the stable settlement ratio by the floor area, from the viewpoints of the relation to distance from the center of Tokyo and household types, and leads the conclusion that there is no big difference of the stable settlement ratio between smaller rental housing units and larger ones. Secondly, it analyzes the dwellers' living duration by the floor area and reaches the conclusion that the trend towards stable settlement in private rental housing itself is very low, regardless of housing size. Finally, it clarifies the relocation pattern from previous private rental housing to another housing types in terms of previous rental housing size and household types.
Authors surveyed and analyzed the architectural programming process of condominiums, and found the following: a) Main contents of programming are survey of site characteristics, concept planning, and examination of revenue and expenditure. b) The standard process begins with collecting site information, and a concept is planned on its characteristics. Acquisition of a site is decided after examination of revenue and expenditure. This process is repeated and the results are implemented in the design phase as requests of clients. c) Specialists are entrusted with surveys, drafting and cost examination. Clients are required to give instructions to specialists and to decide precisely.
A model for calculating the break even points among facilities investments and benefits induced by facilities, was constructed and cost collection of pre-design research for offices was discussed. Applying the model reveals that the rate of building construction to the total expense for office tenants is smaller than that for building owners. Some calculations on break even points reveal that pre-design research with a focus on space saving of one square meter or time saving, especially one minute in every working day for as many workers as possible, is valuable and provides a chance to collect human expenditure for the purpose of research.
In this thesis the actual conditions of Tenno's and the aristocrat's (Kugyo) putting-on-and-off-their-footwear (shoes) through rituals on the floor of "Shishinden" in the Imperial Palace of Heiankyu are described. Especially considering the aristocrat's (Kugyo) way which was different from other ritual way, they were granted a privilege of stepping into "Shishinden" putting off their footwear at the time of the rite to mark Tenno's attainment of manhood (Genpuku). The reason from which this style come is that Chinese (Tang) style was imitated at this time of Seiwa Tenno' s era.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the beginning of Kaisho (meeting space) concerning the room for Uta-awase (meeting of poetical composition matches). By this study, I tried to indicate the change of the room for Uta-awase and its factors. The treatise is organized in the following manner: Introduction Chap.1 A spatial characteristic of the room for Uta-awase. (1) Uta-awase as a pleasure. (2) Uta-awase in the period of ex-Emperor Gotoba. Chap. 2 A primary factor bringing the changes of the spatial characteristic in the room for Uta-awase. (1) A change of Uta-awase. (2) Uta-awase as a temporary meeting. (3) A room for Uta-awase as a private space of ex-Emperor Gotoba. Conclusion
"Yamada Danchi" is a company housing for the executives of Besshi Station of Sumitomo Metal Mining & Co. ltd. etc. The purpose of this study is to make clear states of its history and housing planning. Kageji Washio, a managing director of Bessi Station, planned Yamada Danchi along "Kabu-tetsudo" Mining Railway Line in industrialization of companies. There are about 250 Japanese-style houses with hedges. Its concepts, which he insisted on, are mainly measures of dampness. Totally, the characteristics of this project are both sides of company housing and suburban housing in the early Showa era.
T. Matsugasaki, an architect retired from the special Architecture Bureau in 1888. However, he remained active for 15 years he worked as a designer at the Architect Design Office. One of Mr Matsugasaki's important works was the Bank of 77. He also was the architect for 17 other project one of which was the Goni Hall. He went to Taiwan in 1907 and he was employed by the Taiwan's National Railway, the Taipei and Taichu city governments as a part-time nonregular engineer and engaged in architectural design, Some of his prominent works in Taiwan include the Taiwan Railway Hotel, the Shintyu Station building and the Taipei West Gate Market which are still utilized today.
In constructing a dome and vault in the Orient anf Byzantine districts, they used the method of freehand, that is, the constrution method without a centering. This paper discusses the construction method for the tunnel vault in the Roman and Romanesuque architecture based on the experiments of constructing arch with the simple and temporary framework which can be removed just after all bricks are laid out. This is called the applied method of freehand. And the result of our experiments shows that the Roman type tunnel vault can be constructed by the applied method of freehand.
Through the analysis of the religious functions, this study tries to examine the social position of the church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, which is now lost to us. Many litereatures consider, this church should be dedicated to the Apostles. But the analysis of "Typikon of the Great Church", the liturgical source of the 10th century, eveals the strong ties between the reliques of the saints, which stored in this church, and their memorial feasts, for example St. Luke, St. Andrew and St. Timothy or some important bishops such as John Chrysostome and Gregory Nazianze. Against the precedent studies, the hierarchy of the saints does not play important roll.
This paper deals with the architectural idea of Lluis Domenech i Montaner, one of the most important architects in Catalonia, from the second half of the 19th-century to the beginning of the 20th-century, by reading through his article "In search of a national architecture" on 1878. From the analysis of it, it is clarified as follows: 1) "A national architecture" means the conception of a national and modern architecture. 2) The nationality of the architecture consists of the two traditional styles, Gothic and Mudejar in Spain. 3) The idea of "a national architecture" is regarded as the new and essential eclecticism.
Architectural Space Montage Technique was designed by the authors. The subject's mental schema is represented by spatial composition of miniatures on a 60 cm by 90 cm white plate. The scale for miniatures, such as furniture, people, trees, flowers and many kinds of standardized walls, is 1 to 50. In this experiment twenty-four kindergarten children made 40 models and drawings of the kindergarten. By analyzing each model, the drawing and the children, we clarified characteristics of many types of schema, such as the enclosure of space before structuralization, the birth of the structure, the organization of space.
This paper aims to elucidate the relationship between the architectural conception and the recollection of place in the creation of 'Eglise Saint Pierre' (1960-65) by Le Corbusier. The conception about this church has a close connection with the building site ("the form in the landscape"), at the same time, Le Corbusier recollects "the place of meditation" in 'Eglise de Tremblay' planned in the late 20's and "the silent place" in 'Santa Sophia' (Istanbul) visited in his journey in 1911. Thus, the interaction between the recoltected places and the real site provokes the architect to find out the meaning of the architectural place.
This paper aims to elucidate the process of prototype generation in Le Corbusier's Chapelle de Ronchamp which resembles a sculptural method. In this case, he adapts "la forme acoustique" as a prototype for this site. However, this research investigates the organic transformation of this prototype influenced by the surroundings. Finally, the chapel is a realization of a spatial order as a form-site relationship, however this relationship is already included in Le Corbusier's own notion of 'prototype'. That is to say, the universality of the 'prototype' evolves toward a general composition of the architectural landscape.