In this research, we carried out questionnaire surveys and freely-offered opinion surveys targeting the occupants of public and private multi-family condominium housing with various differing living conditions and examined the structure of occupant awareness of the sound environment in multi-family housing. Concerning the freely-offered opinion surveys, we analyzed everyday terms relating to the sound environment, identified the concepts in the formation of occupant awareness. We formulated an occupant awareness model based on these that forms an "evaluation of the degree of satisfaction of the sound environment" and carried out path analysis of the various main factors involved. As a result, we found that "floor sound insulation properties, "environmental noise," "limitations in living" and "past residential experiences" are factors that exert a direct influence on the evaluation of the degree of satisfaction of the sound environment. These factors are prompting a flow of consciousness further linking to endogenous factors such as the "presence of children," "perception of causing harm," "neighborhood relationships, manners and rules." Through this analysis, we were able to gain an overall comprehension of the structure of occupant awareness in which is formed an evaluation of the degree of satisfaction of the sound environment.
In this study the sensory experiment on sense of horizontal vibration was done. It was over a wide frequency range assuming the vibration in low-rise and high-rise buildings. This paper investigates the characteristics of five scales ; degree of discomfort and magnitude, sensory limit assessment, uneasy feelings and expression with adjectives. Every scale has the opposite slides in a low and a high frequency range. More physical assessment has a clearer relation with a single physical element. More subjective assessment varies more widely and has a stronger effect of acceleration. The comparative result between the scales finds the relative differences of them. Because the highest scale differs on a vibration range, it is needed to grasp such sensory characteristics to reduce inhabitants' complaints.
Daylighting in buildings has been discussed in the various fields in terms of its pleasantness in the room and effective use of natural resources. This paper proposes a new type of venetian blind which slat angles are different to guide daylight into the interior, indicates how to fix the angles of each slat, and verifies the effect of daylighting by an experiment and computer simulations. Using this blind, it would be possible to introduce daylight into the interior zone effectively. Furthermore, the luminance values on the window, intensity of the shadows, and illuminance values by the window would be restrained.
Air change rates in a cross-ventilation model were measured from the decay curves of video image signals obtained by the step down method assuming perfect mixing of tracer mists inside the spaces. From the wind tunnel experiments, the following conclusions were drawn. 1) Good correlation between image signals and luminous reflectances of achromatic color chips was achieved by correctly adjusting the pedestal level of the video camera. 2) The ray extinction due to lighting scattering did not affect the measurement accuracy of the air change rates in the two-dimensional model. 3) The tracer mists in a diameter between 0.25μm and 2.0μm could obtain the same measurement accuracy. 4) For oil mists as tracer, laser powers with more than 0.5 watt were enough to visualize the flow patterns in the model. 5) The air change rates were proportional to the reference velocities. 6) Compared to the air change rates obtained by the tracer gas procedure using a high-speed hydrocarbon analyzer, the proposed method could prove the capability of measuring those with an error of less than 9% in the range between 0.25 m/s and 2.5 m/s of reference velocities.
We proposed "the Map Pointing Method" that examines type, size and quality of green recognized by residence to evaluate it. A questionnaire survey was conducted for 329 college students chosen randomly who newly moved into Higash-hiroshima city in 1994, and the survey for the same set of respondents was repeated 3 times. We found that recognition of green by the respondents had become wider and more specific with enlargement of coverage of their activity at half a year after their environmental transitions. We considered that the green spaces usually recognized were located in 1,000 meter-radius area from each residence. The green was evaluated based on 4 aspects in this method, view, accessibility, management, environmental conservation. And a result showed that green at park was pointed higher, on the contrast, green at riverside was evaluated lowest in term of its accessibility.
The purpose of this study is to suggest the desirable planning of the mid-rise and high-rise multi-family housing with Hanshin-Awaji earthquake-proof. In this purpose, questionnaires were conducted to members of Kinki branch of AIJ. In this report, we analyze problems of rehabilitation in stricken multi-family housing and opinion of AIJ members about planning of multi-family housing. Grasped problems are as follows ; 1) Safety of route for escape in emergency 2) Easily damaged living place 3) Importance of neighbor-ship and common space 4) Problems of closed multi-family housing plan in city area 5) Problems about size of housing estate 6) Legal problems of condominium.
In the present study, undertaken in Tsuyama City, Okayama Prefecture, we have investigated the change of the housing plan from samurai houses to urban independent residences, from the Meiji to Showa eras (before world war II). We aimed to clarify the succession and the modification of the "front facing principle", the primary factor underlying the modification, and the time of the modification. Conclusions; (1) The "zashiki" rooms of samurai houses in the Tsuyama feudal clan faced the front entrance of the land following the so called "front facing principle". In addition, there was a ground plan unique to the Tsuyama feudal Clan. (2) This "front facing principle" and Tsuyama's unique ground plan have been succeeded by matcing plan of urban independent residences build after the Meiji Era, that is, south facing "zashiki" on south facing land and north facing "zashiki" on north facing land. (3) South facing "zashiki" rooms on the north facing lands, however, emerged in the Taisho and early Showa eras. (4) The lateral arrangement of "zashiki" rooms in samurai houses shifted to the tandem arrangement after the Meiji Era.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the way of planning of community library which undertakes direct circulation service to community area. In the former paper (the tenth report), we presented the three models of catchment area of the town library divided into the small, middle and large scale according to the number of open stack books, and also the standard model of catchment area of the village library. We present the way of use of the models here based on our theory, as a case study to plan the library system actually to regional area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors that determine the degree and form of the social exchange inside and outside houses for the eldery (HFE) and going-out behavior there. An interview method was adopted for the research. The results are as follows: A degree of instrumental self-maintenance Activities of Daily Living(IADL) is the prime determinant of their social exchange inside and outside the HFE and going-out behavior. Sharing the room with the other person is the chief factor that affects the social exchange inside the HFE. The distance between the HFE and residents' former home affects outside social exchange and going-out behavior. The HFE location which means access to transportation and commercial facilities has an influence on the frequency of going-out behavior.
This study is to investigate how was the city of Edo with remodeled five compositional elements K.Lynch proposed. I used Edo-zu-byobu and Edo-meisyo-zu-byobu. And this is to investigate factors that form image of the city and support legibility of the districts for the people. As the result, 1) How to image of the city varies according to the social level and life style. 2) There is difference of district's forms between two Edo-zu-byobu. One was characterized by "water", another was characterized by "street". 3) Street furniture would be one of factors on legibility of the district.
This study is to investigate the relation between interior damage and the heights of high-rise apartment houses on the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster. We investigated interior damage in some high-rise apartme nt houses. One of them has several seismometers. As the result, the bigger interior damage are seen for the upper-floor buildings. The damage of household goods was found to be related to the maximum acceleration of building response. In different heights of buildings at the same place, the interior damage was supposed to increase at the building which response coincided the ground motion.
This paper analyzes the relations between management conditions of farmhouses and the sphere of land possession, the designing problems of agricultural land use that are necessary for development as regional agriculture. The results are as follows: 1) In suburban area and plain area the nuclear farmhouses are inclined to possess a few mass area gradually, but in hilly and mountainous area not to possess farmland efficiently. 2) It is necessary for any regions to improve the relations of farmland possession and use by lending farmland of inferior conditions small farmers possess to nuclear farmhouses. 3) In suburban area farmers have little intention of lending their farmland as allotment garden, it s necessary to ease regulations and support measures in lending their farmland as allotment garden. In hilly and mountainous area, farmers intentions of lending their farmland are reflected in farmers management conditions and possessive forms of farmland, therefore the necessity of regional zoning planning is reconfirmed.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the relationship between the traditional arrangement of buildings and the management of the snowy environments through the Yoko-Ido watercourse system. We compared the usage of space and ponds around the house in terms of summer and winter. We have come to understand that different levels of composition elements of the premises constitute the system managing not only snowy environments but also topographical features, weather and planning of the house. Furthermore, we have understood that the system is formed by the idea of acceptance of snowfall.
This paper aims to identify the planning method of the inner citadel of the Japanese castle, Echizen Fukui castle in the age of civil wars, about A.D. 1600. The conclusions are as follows, 1. The planning of the inner citadel in the age of civil wars was carried out owing to the precise drawings by the geometrical method. 2. The principal planning methods for the planning were the right angled triangle by Pyhthagoras's number (3:4:5), the magic square and the perpendicular.
This paper is intended as an invesitigation of Kiyosuna-dori housing, which is the largest housing project established by Dojunkai-Foundation. In this area, there was a large-scale rearrangement of the foundation: the structure of road and land. The plan centered on the construction of the wide arterial street, elementary school and small park. Along with this project, the apartments were constructed stage by stage while being controlled by the regulation of replotting and building removal. As a result, the appartments were arranged as they surrounded the elementary school and the small park. And the roles of the school and the park were strengthened as a center for preventing disasters. In addition, various combinations of space and buildings which could make a good community were realized.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and grasp the present state of designation of districts by municipalities on Preservation Distiricts for Groups of Historic Buildings, as well as to study the characteristics of changing situation of the designation. It claryfies the present state and characteristics of spatial constiuion of the designated districts and measures of landscape design in the districts. The result is as follows; In recent years a growing number of municipalities designate several districts or area surrounding the Preservation Districts. It is considered to be one of the measures on the present system which help preservation and creation of historic landscape.
This study is based on the findings of questionnaire investigations of the co-operative housing residents carried out on two occasions, in 1980 and 1996, in four co-operative housings. The actual conditions in which the evaluation in the group formed by the private enterprises from the residents side were analyzed. This was followed by the consideration of the role and the problem accomplished to the community creation of the co-operative method. The findings indicated that in the case of living environment-making by co-operative method of the group formed by private enterprises, there was a tendency characteristic in creating the community.
This study aims to comprehend the characteristics of fishermen's houses and fishing villages in the southern area of Hokkaido. I surveyed twenty fishermen's houses and analyzed archives about private ownership of land. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. There are 2 types of fisherman's house, one was used by independent tangle-weed fishermen and the other by headmen who manage sardine-seining. The plan of the former consists of a public front part and a private back part, while the latter has a private front part and a public back part. 2. In the 17c-18c, the typical subdivision of tangle-weed fishermen's plots into long and narrow sections was established in Zenigamezawa village. The wide-frontage section of fishery ground for sardine-seining was laid out in the mid-18th century or later.
A Study on the Arrangement process and Disappearance process of the Gangi Arcade in the Modem Ages. 1. In the early part of the Meiji Era the Gangi Arcade were arranged under various instructions from the prefectural governments that aimed at securing the alley function. Arrangement process of the Gangi Arcade had two types. (1) In the early part of the Meiji Era the Gangi Arcade were arranged in public land. (2) The Gangi Arcade had been arranged in private land since then. 2. The Gangi Arcade waned or disappeared. It was the following reasons. (1) Conflagrations (Aomori, Hachinohe, Niigata), (2) The urban planning after the Second World War (Hirosaki).
Kaminoseki was a port in Mouri-Han and Ocha-ya was built there in Edo-Era. Therough the examination of historical materials, the following results are ascertained; (1)Ocha-ya was used as a lodging by the misson from Korea as well as the lord of Mouri-Han. (2)Ocha-ya was composed of three buildings(Hon-chaya, Chukan-sha, Gekan-sha). (3)Hon-chaya was a main building and its plan was similar to other Ocha-ya in Mouri-Han.
I propose a reconstructed model of the main sanctuary at Izumo-Taisha Shrine in the Keicho period. It was 5 ken (35 shaku, approximately 10.605 meters) wide, 5 ken deep, a ken was equivalent to 7 shaku, and 6 jo 5 shaku 4 sun (approximately 19.816 meters) high. I presume that it didn't have a pillar that supports the ridge beam directly (manamoti-bashira), and it had a roof construction system based on one slightly curved beam (koryo) and principal rafter with king-strut (inoko-sasu).
The Bureau of Social Welfare attached to the Tokyo Municipal Office managed the municipal baths as a part of its social welfare services from 1923 to 1940. This paper first shows how public baths developed into urban sanitary facilities-as the regulation regarding the handling of water in the public baths became stricter-by the time the bureau began the service. The paper then analyses the way the bureau operated the municipal baths, and, through the examination, it is found that the bureau clearly recognized the public baths as urban sanitary facilities.
In 1926, the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Board enacted the regulations called Yuenchi-Torishimarikisoku. They were issued for the amusement parks around Tokyo. In the regulations, the police board thought that an amusement park might develop to a facility for sexual pleasure. As a background of this regulations, in the academic magazine of garden design, some informed people wrote articles, in which they maintained that early amusement parks were not founded in sound places and shuold be changed into places for the public benefits. In fact, many amusement parks before the regulations were located near the licensed quarters. This paper clarifies such a social situation concerned with the issue of regulations.
The Temples built by the Hoysala dynasty, although few in number of the temples during their rule, stand apart from the temples of the other dynastic styles of south India. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the temples built by the Hoysalas by typolyzing their groundplans in terms of symmetrical - asymmetrical composition. This plan typology is compared Dr. Del Bonta's the Halebid and the Koravangala types among the temples of the Hoysala Style to reveal that symmetrical plan types are seen in the Halebid type, while asymmetrical ones in the Koravangala type.
Using "Sheng shi zi sheng to" (a landscape painting around Suzhou of China painted in 1759), we could know the formation of its waterside town of those days. It is characterized by the relation between canals and streets, squares and buildings. For example, buildings faced to a canal beyond a street were shops or restaurants, and the street was used as their piers. Such relation was based on the transportation through canals. Canals were also used as an amusement of city life. We consider that such circumstances were common to towns and cities in China Jiangnan district.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the planning of the Treasury of the Massilians at Delphi. Through the analysis of the dimensional proportion of the building, the following conclusion was given. 1) As initial dimensions and proportions, the width of the treasury was given as 20 ft, the naos a square of 20 ft, and the depth of the pronaos one-third of the naos. 2) The proportional relationships between the dimensions are simple and exact. There is a tendency to use submultiple fraction. 3) Many dimensions are defined by successive system of proportion.
In the research of the Byzantine city, the planning idea of the city, which is generally vague in spite of the development of urban culture in the Byzantine Empire, would have reflected into its image; it might be alluded unconsciously in the contemporary description. This paper based on this consideration deals with the symbolized concept of Constantinople by examining the descriptions of Patria written in the 10th century, which is by accident involved in the documents of Kodinos as Περι Κτισματον τηζ Κωυσταυτινουπολεωζ. As the result, Constantinople seems to have been recognized as a religious city without amusement by the contemporaries.
In this paper, I tried to draw out 4 meanings of 'Presupposed - HARMONIA' from description of Le Corbusier's "VER UNE ARCHITECTURE ". First of all, it was common meaning of deep relation with senses, between visual and auditory. Second, universal meaning came up, in the thinking level, that level was tied up the calculation and the law. Third, the meanings of combination and conformity and transmission were connected with the value of good. Last one was meaning 'logos' that hid into sense.
Cities have grown and changed by intricate urban activities, and complex urban land-use patterns have formed. It is reasonable to suppose that complexity is an essential quality of cities. In this paper, the authors try to generate urban land-use patterns using an expanded cellular automata model. The proposed model is composed of three urban activities (residence, business, commerce) which interact economically. Each cell has three kinds of potentials corresponding to urban activities described with real numbers. These potentials can be considered to indicate populations or building areas. Potentials of each cell change by interactions, and each cell takes one of the following three actions: increase, disappearance, and no action. Using this model, urban land-use patterns can be generated. Comparing illustrated results with real cities, it can be said that this proposed model can simulate complex patterns of cities by relatively simple rules.