In this study, the term "equivalent color" is defined as one color that corresponds to color appearances of an architectural surface. The purpose of this study is to consider the relationship between architectural surface color and its equivalent color. In Experiment I, a series of experiments using semantic differential method were conducted to grasp the impressions of 100 architectural surface samples. Five factors; "clear", "complex", "warm", "vivid" and "natural" were extracted from the result of factor analysis. These factors can be characterized by architectural surface color. In Experiment II, subjects were asked to select equivalent colors corresponding with 50 architectural surface samples respectively. In most of the samples, equivalent colors nearly agreed with the mean architectural surface colors. According to this study, it is possible to show architectural surface color as equivalent color with appropriate considerations.
Considering the outside obstacles in heat load simulation, a generalized calculation method of solar radiation and long wave radiation for the external surface is described. At first, a generalized calculation method of the shaded area and the form factors related to sky, to ground, and to the outside. Obstacles is described. The form of obstacles are represented by rectangles, triangles and group of rectangles and triangles in order to distinguish easily whether the point is inside or outside of the rectangle. For calculating the form factors, the Monte-Carlo method is used. Dividing the external surface into small rectangles, shadow areas of the external walls, the windows, the roofs and etc. are calculated. By taking into account the calculated shadow areas and the form factor of the external surface, the solar radiation and the long wave radiation from the sky, ground, outside obstacles to external surfaces is calculated. These algorisms are combined with the generalized heat load simulation called EESL/SM
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooled or heated wall exposed to outside on the vertical distribution of temperature and contaminant concentration in the room with displacement ventilation. An experimental method and theoretical calculations to estimate these distributions were adopted. As an experiment, the part of the walls of the experimental room with displacement ventilation was cooled or heated. As a result, it is turned out that the air below the contaminant interface is contaminated due to the down-draft along the cooled wall and the profile of concentration can be predicted with rather good accuracy.
Volatile organic compounds (VOC_s) and carbonyl compounds emitted from the preformed cellular plastics thermal insulation materials were measured to investigate the emission mechanisms. The emission tests were performed under 30℃ atmosphere by using the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). VOC_s and carbonyl compounds were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The thermal insulation materials tested in this study were classified into four types, namely extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), expanded polystyrene foam (EPS), polyurethane form (PUF) and phenolic resin foam (PRF). EPS emitted styrene and toluene at emission rates ranged from 100-340 and 93-430μg/(m^2 h), respectively. These emission rates showed a good correlation (r=0.909) with densities of materials. XPS emitted low-boiling point compounds such as chlorometh-ane, chloroethane, bromomethane, or bromoethane, and showed emission rate ranged from 2300-6500, 7600-19000, 110-490 or 73-430μg/(m^2 h), respectively. The emission rates of styrene from XPS were 7.2-84μg/(m^2 h). PUF emitted 1,1-dichloro-l-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) and showed emission rates of 790-890μg/(m^2 h). PRF emitted dichloromethane and showed emission rates of 1300-2100μg/(m^2 h). Emission rates of HCFC-141b or dichloromethane from the internal part of material were ranging from 55-77 or 4.9-5.2 times, respectively, as each surface emission rate. Emission of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde was not detected from all materials we tested. The field emission measurements were performed using FLEC at various places in a newly built house. It was observed that the surface of floor, ceiling board and tatami mat emitted styrene, and these emission rates were 19, 32 and 12μg/(m^2 h), respectively. It was suggested that these places emitted styrene through the thermal insulating materials (EPS), because flooring, ceiling and tatami are close to EPS and moreover tatami mat was a so-called "polystyrene tatami".
This paper describes the simulation results of a fabric heat storage system. The effects of operating method of the air-conditioning unit, internal heat generation and building thermal specification on the fabric heat storage system were examined in order to evaluate the total system performance. From the first stage of simulation study, the outlet air temperature of 12℃ with the combination of cooling storage hours of 5 hours for July and August and 3 hours for June and September was considered as the standard operating condition of the air-conditioning unit. From the simulation results using the standard condition, it was found that the peak cut ratio was 30% and the increased cooling coil load was 10% for the fabric heat storage system compared with the usual air-conditioning system. For the comparison of the effects of three levels of internal heat generation, the increased amounts of the electric consumption were 17%, 10% and 8% for small, middle and large levels respectively, while the reduced amounts of the daytime electric consumption were 37%, 29% and 22% for small, middle and large levels respectively. The building thermal specification and the window area showed only small effects on the system performance.
This paper presents results of measurements and analysis on grid-connected PV generation systems installed on 132 residential houses in Tokyo and Kanagawa area. The annual PV efficiency along with its parameters as well as the effect on CO2 emission reduction and on power demand peak cut are shown based on the data obtained from October 1998 to September 1999. Result, of the analysis is that configuration of installed panel, module temperature and inverter efficiency have dominant effect on PV system efficiency. Single-panel configuration has higher efficiency than double panel configuration where two panels are installed on each inclined plane of the roof. The latter configuration suffers from decrease in efficiency by 20% in the winter season. The efficiency of single panel configuration decreases by 0.28% as the backside temperature elevates one degree. It was observed that the smaller the DC input under a certain threshold, the lower the efficiency was. The PV system installed demonstrates the contribution to 250kg-C/year of CO2 emission reduction and 1.15kWh/h of power load peak cut per house on average.
The aim of this study is to clarify that the environmental background characteristics of subjects as a possible influence on landscape preference ratings. The evaluation of scenic landscape photographs (mainly green-scape) by Japanese residents and foreign students of Hiroshima-university who have been living in Higashi-Hiroshima were tested. At the first, the foreign students coming from varied countries were grouped into three similar groups to comparing with Japanese inhabitants. After grasping the cognition and evaluation of green space, the similar and difference on evaluating landscape photographs among the 3 foreign student groups and Japanese residents were detected. Lastly, it was clarified that the factors of influence on landscapes satisfaction were different among the foreign student groups and Japanese inhabitants because of their cross-culture, natural environment, living experience and so on.
This study discusses the combined effect of auditory and visual factors on comprehensive comfortableness. We used the concept of "harmonious sensation" to explain this effect. To clarify the function of this sensation, we conducted two psychological experiments. The result shows that harmonious sensation, visual and auditory comfortableness has an equal influence on comprehensive comfortableness. The effect of harmonious sensation was varied according to the degree of visual and auditory comfortableness; This effect increased as the difference in the degree of comfortableness between visual and auditory factors becomes wide.
The social and cultural background of subjects is one of the important factors on evaluation of environment or landscape. To clarify the effect of these differences, the experiment was carried out using the photographs of river landscape. The subjects were university students who lived in England, Japan and China.-In first, the psychological evaluation of landscapes such as the average evaluative scores of synthetic and individual evaluation, and the structure and the factor scores of evaluation with Image Measurement were analyzed among the three countries. After comparing the relation between the physical character and psychological evaluation, the similarity was found in individual items such as the amount of greenery and water and so on, and the differences were shown on synthetic items such as the feelings of satisfaction for landscape and water stream, because the social and cultural environment of the three countries is different and it would have an effect on evaluation.
This study aims at making the relationship, between making our environment artificial and our health, clear. This study has 2 steps as follows. 1. Defining the 3 valuables, "Regional Naturalness Grade", "Mental Unhealthy Grade", and "Death Grade", and evaluating the 25 study areas from the view of them by using principal component analysis. 2. Making the relationship between "Regional Naturalness Grade" and "Mental Unhealthy Grade", and "Regional Naturalness Grade" and "Death Grade", clear by comparing the 3 valuables. As a result of this study, to make our environment artificial has great influence on our health.
In this report we show the effect when we use fly-ash (typical by-product from coal-fired thermal power plants) as fly-ash cement (FAC) to reduce environmental loadings. Major findings that have been aquired are as follows; 1) When compared with the manufacture of ordinary portland cement, the manufacture of FAC containing 20% fly ash produces the following reduction effects: 17% fewer energy consumption, 19% fewer CO_2 emissions, 15% fewer NO_X emissions, and 9% fewer SO_X emissions. 2) As the effects of using FAC containing 20% fly-ash instead of ordinary portland cement in the construction of coal-fired thermal power plant buildings, the consumption of energy, CO_2, NO_X and SO_X emissions have been cut by 5%, 9%, 13% and 7% respectively.
The purpose of this study is building a Japanese circulation model between the wooden house and forest resources. Japanese circulation model satisfies the following condition. 1. The supply and demand of wood for housing circulate in domestic area. 2. CO_2 emission from housing is all fixed by domestic forest. By building the model, we make it clear the way of building the wooden house to reduce CO_2 emission. And this study shows the possibility of perfect circulation by Re-use the wood and promoting the use for biomass energy system.
In previous studies on Chinese cave architecture (Yao-Dong), there was a premise, that the indigenous people in China's Loess Plateau has the common and firm idea of Yao-Dong in level of recognition. However, a type of architecture to shake this premise is mass-produced recently. It is called ba-ker means thin shell. The purpose of this paper is, by ethnographic data, to analyze the dynamism about ba-ker, and based on this dynamic analysis, to consider the conceptual recognition of Yao-Dong identified by the indigenous people. As a result, it can be reconsidered the above idea concerning essentialism, that researchers have premised.
"Special space" is defined as the space influencing the domain and use of housing space reflecting the life-style of modern Japanese people. This study aims at establishing a methodology for evaluating the way of living using this space. The houses studied were sampled from the 1998 "Jutaku Tokushu", and the study classified "special space" and surveyed its distribution. The analysis derived models showing the relationship between living and special space. Discussions of architecture styles will be discussed after the models are verified.
The main purpose of this study is to propose a planning method and requirements for the integrated planning of internal and external residential areas in order to create a residential environment that reflects the living requirements of the residents. This report clarifies the requirements for various lifestyles (dwelling style) as the design planning methods. Ten spatial models are presented, with different layouts, spatial volumes, numbers of spatial area divisions, and spatial areas inside and outside the residence, and with different wall heights. The authors are thus able to obtain the requirements for creating an area according to lifestyle (dwelling style) Using these design planning methods, and derive the relationships in the daily and temporary living spaces of the residents.
The study analysis the present state of environmental welfare preparation for building entrances in Hokkaido. The research reveals that the state of environmental welfare in buildings has not been entirely improved. It is nescessary that most of the buildings be improved, especially in regard to the accessbility of entrances. The study classified the following five buildings types : 1) facilities concerning everyday life, 2) transportation facilities concerning everyday life, 3) health and welfare facilities for supporting the life of the aged, 4) facilities for supporting the handicapped, children and women, 5) recreational facilities.
In this study, we consider the proportion of a rectangular city consisting of buildings which locate on dense lattice points. Each travelling route is supposed to consist of vertical route in building(s) and recti-linear route on the surface of the earth. The study is to find the shapes of the city which minimizes three values : (i) the average; (ii) the variance; (iii) the maximum value, of travelling time of residents. For many-to-many uniform trip pattern and many-to-one uniform trip pattern, the optimal proportions are derived. After deriving the mathematical results, we apply it to evaluate an existing rectangular city, Shibam, famous skyscraper in a desert in Yemen. To our surprise, the proportion of Shibam is almost equal to the optimal solution derived from our mathematical programing model.
In order to simplify the difficulty in using public lavatories for blind and vis ion-impaired persons, questionnaires and interview investigations were carried out. The result shows that 75.1% of blind and vision-impaired persons could use a lavatory alone, however, 85.2% of men and 97.0% of women feel inconvenience. The most difficult tasks are "finding a lavatory", "distinguishing between men and women" and "flushing the toilet". "Finding the urinal" and "finding the washstand" are particularly difficult for bl ind persons. A standard for planning is requested in order to simplify the use of lavatory facilities for blind and vision-impaired persons.
From the view point of entropy, the following problems should be considered for the study of architectural action. 1. The condition of keeping thermal equilibrium permanently in the open system of the earth environment to the space should be considered to restruct the architectural planning and architectural actions. 2. The industry of construction should be reconstructed not to use the stock of sunshine energy but to use the flow of it to get energy, products, materials, as much as possible. 3. Persons themselves should be change their life style and recreate architectural planning and architectural actions as to use the flow of the sunshine energy, and to reduce the increase of the entropy of the substance. 4. Human history, and urban planning and urban design which are in front of it, could be considered to have been pursuiting the realization of Utopia, under the condition of restriction of the second law of thermodynamics. 5. Even in the person-environment system, fundamental solution should be the reconstruction of mental welfare, and should be connected them to the economic activities including architectural planning.
Underground spaces have been bigger and complicated. This paper studies on the identity of underground cityscape that makes these spaces legible and characteristic , through the questionnaire on area and spot identification. The summary of results is described below. ・Identities of underground cityscapes are classified these of shopping zone and concourse zone. ・Shopping zones have lower spot identities and these identities have little difference between the areas. ・Concourse zones get identity by width , form of pillars and advertisement board. ・Sunken plaza and gateway to the ground make identity higher. ・ Characteristics of identity on each areas were made clear.
Japanese has three word types, Wago(pure Japanese words), Kango(Chinese loan-words) and forein words, in the origin of its vocabulary, and it is well known that the types make not a few defference in each word feeling. However the fact has not been verified concretely even in the field of Japanese linguistics: The purpose of this study is to verify the difference of word feeling, which has been treated as a common sense, based on the questionnaire investigation in order to contribute to the problems of language in the field of architecture and city planning.
In recent years, many environmental problems have been discussed all over the world. Recently, not only the sound management of forest but also regeneration of forest resources has been expected because the acts of forest arc important to protection of global environment. But in reality, management and control of forest are far from idealistic situation. In this report (part 2), effective appliance of forest floor with multi storied forest is described about the sound forest management from the economical effects and ecological points.
The paper focuses on transformations of houses between 1971 and 1998 in a sloping setting of Saikazaki village near Wakayama city. The results of survey done in 1971 and 1998 will be compared in terms of CAD drawings of houses along alleys called Nakano-chou. They show that the basic spatial formation have been kept unchanged in spite of significant change of room arrangement as a result of modernization. Intermediate small spaces covered with Tatami mat and wooden floor in the middle of house take an important roll as buffer zone as if they are the hub of dwelling spaces.
This research clarified influence to the living environment by the rural-urban interchange in intermediate and mountainarea As a result, good influence is seen by a change of the living environment by an environment of space, an economic environment and a social environment under the present condition and ill influence is seen by a natural environment. Moreover, there is existence of a number of the institution which was made ready for use and enterprise application as the factor which has influence on a change of the living environment. Especially, when the number of an institution is plentiful, 2 "good influence and ill influence" directions are seen.
This paper analyzes the trends of buying behavior of Inhabitants from the point of view of attribute, by case study in Sanwa-town, Ibaraki pref. The results are as follows: Trends of buying behavior of Inhabitants from the point of view of attribute is different in each places and at each stores. Inhabitants; longer residense, older age, indepedent worker and person without a regular occupation, often do their buying in the neighborhood, not only in the commercial center zone of the town but also in the commercial center zone of Kyuson and in the neighboring settlement.
The methods of Citizen Participation of Improvement community planning using Improvement regulation for densely, urban housing areas are established in our country up to now, but on the other hand, the problems that the real spatial improvements are not able to develop smoothly have been pointed. In order to position Improvement regulation for densely urban housing area as one of the effective improvement regulations propelling Improvement community planning, it's necessary to verify it's posibility on the objective results of projects. In our study, the basic study to evaluate Spatial improvement Program, we analyzed the peculiar Spatial improvement Program on the objective results of projects in areas where Improvement regulations took place, and examined the posibility of Improvement regulation for densely urban housing area, which is the improvement regulation propelling the spatial improvements in the density residential areas.
Through the analysis of the using conditions of allotment gardens, this study tries to show that these allotment gardens are one of the chief factors to realize the idea of 「Rurban-Chiba」 that aims to build up the city of living with nature in Chiba Newtown. During the course of this study, we try to explore and examine the using conditions and management of 3 types' allotment gardens and their users' opinion. Finally, this study also try to examine the characteristics, trends and ways of the use and management of allotment gardens. The followings were concluded. 1) It is important for an adequate scale of allotment gardens to the needs of Newtown's residents. 2) It is necessary to establish the management and the law systems of the allotment gardens considering the needs of the users.
In this paper, a quantitative and synthetic index was proposed on fire correspondence evaluation. This index is characterized on taking different factors like buildings, bases for fighting fire, character of water supply, road networks and weather information into account and putting them together as one. With the synthetic index proposed in this paper, relative evaluation can be expected on supplement of water & road system, fireproof of buildings and the effect of countermeasure. Generally speaking, this paper aimed principally at grasping regional characters and applying them on prevention of fire spreading at stage of urban planning.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the present condition of disclosure of information in land readjustment project in Minami-kyuhouji area, Yao-city and its recognition by residents. The result of this paper is; 1) there is a time-lag, between disclosure of information by local government and understanding it by residents. This time-lag is due to holding less public meetings with all residents and no disclosure of information about all procedures and performances. 2) Local government didn't disclose information for residents claims. 3) Residents obtained a number of information by citizen council, not by local government.
This study focuses on the inhabitant's characteristics of an urban riverside settlement in Palembang City. The field survey of this study has been carried out by interviews of family members or household heads. We found that the raft and pillar houses in Musi urban riverside settlement constituted a dwelling area for migrants coming from other places. Most of them were Malay coming from the area surrounding Palembang City. The inhabitants of both houses mostly worked as laborers and informal sector workers of Palembang City. Differing from the pillar house inhabitants, most of the raft house inhabitants were river workers. The greater part of both inhabitants intended to move out into the other places. This study therefore identified the raft and pillar houses in Musi urban riverside settlement as a first step Chousing. In addition, because the prices of raft houses were much lower than pillar houses and rental costs for pillar houses were relatively high, the raft houses tended to have more potential as first step houses.
The purpose of this study is to take the viewpoints of other writers into consideration and establish the new viewpoint about the mechanism of the spreading styles and materials of the detached houses in Japan. The results are followings. 1) The spreading of the styles and materials is process of communication. 2) The spreading is influenced by the climate and traditional characteristics of the region. 3) The regions have the filter-system judging whether the new styles and materials agree their climate and traditional characteristics or not. 4) The concept of spreading contains the regional differences.
We have a source book "Osakujidokoro-Oyakuninchou" on the personnel changes in the officials or the carpenters who worked for Qsakujidokoro. In this study, first of all, the writer tells the ranks of the Odaiku in the Osakujidokoro according to the "Osakujidokoro-Oyakuninchou" and the "Kyuhanjiseki-Sitakosirae". Next, the writer confirms the ranks of the Odaiku in the Edo period. Lastly, the writer tells the genealogy of the Matsuehan-Odaiku.
Rural community theaters (Nouson-butai) in Awa, mainly for puppet play, are characterized by the changing mechanism, which makes spatial changes in accordance with each use. The purpose of this research is to establish the composing elements of three lands of stages, pupet play, Kabuki play and annual events, and to clarify the changing mechanism in terms of the composing elements. I set the whole area of Naka county in Tokushima pref. As the object of field survey. Rural community theaters hi Awa are composed hi very rational way with reciprocally related five elements affected by minimal motion.
In the history of Japanese architecture, we considered the Amidado and Jyogyodo halls of the Heian period to be "Western Paradise Architecture". But, we find many elements of esoteric Buddhism in this architecture, and the space of the Hokkai-ji Amidado hall was constructed as a three-dimensional Vajradhatu Mandala. Such Amidado hallsappeared in the middle 12th century through the relationship between retired Emperors and Ninnaji-Omuro. The appearance of such Amidado halls was connected with the extension of the influence of Garbadhatu and Vajradhatu Mandalas upon the space of Buddhist architecture in the late Heian period, and this phenomenon was probably based on the devotion towards Amida Buddha in the Shingon Buddhist sect.
1. Eiji Shimizu was born in Hyogo prefecture. He was a freelance architect, who established his office at his local city. One of the well-known buildings designed by him is Mikage municipal hall. 2. Shimizu, graduated from Tokyo Teikoku university, the first section chief of the architecture section of Kobe municipal office. His main purpose lay in rebuilding the public facilities by using rein-forced concrete. 3. He was inaugurated as the most responsible man in charge of architecture in housing association. 4. He not only edited magazine on dwellings, which aim was enlightening common people, but also taught at a professional school.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the influence of "industrial corporation" on a spatial transformation rural city. The subjects of this study are Kurabo industries.Ltd which is one of the spinning industry shoulding the axis of Japanese Industrial Revolution. Analysis showed that Kurabo industries. Ltd and Magosaburo Ohara, president of the Ltd, had much influence on the City of Kurashiki's urbanization directly or indirectly. It is cleared that the preparation of industlial foundations and modern urban facilities affected so well that urban spatial structure was changed.
In this paper the author defined architects, participating the first head quater office in 1899, Yawata Steel Works. The ducuments which the Works possesses tell the existance of two professionals, one was Hanroku YAMAGUCHI, the other KAMIYA Kuniyoshi. YAMAGUCHI was an architect and learned in France, and had a career in "MONBUSHO", designed many architectures after leaving the ministry. His concept was a correspondence with design and construction. The building is very close to his design concept. KAMIYA was employed as engineer, but his concept was not clear from the survey, so that he might had to be an egineer, because of long career in Navey. It is reasonable to say that the participation of YAMAGUCHI was not as an architect, but a supervisor.
There are many iconological studies on Versailles since 1980, but La maniere de montrer les jardins de Versailles by Louis XIV wasn't referred well because of its simple writing. I think it provides useful information, abstracting the garden composition from the visit method given here. Particularly, it's possible to suppose the north-south axis would be separated in front of the chateau, analysing the eyes from viewpoints to objects, contrary to former studies where this axis wasn't respected or was interpreted as one axis. That is to say, two iconological worlds could be conceived on the both sides of the chateau.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the simplicity of the ornament on the ideas of Voysey. It was interpreted as the exclusion of ornament in Modern Architecture, and so the modern architectural critics have placed Voysey as a pioneer of Modern architecture. Voysey made efforts to be free from the sensational satisfaction of Victorian design. As a result, he aimed for the real richness which is obtained from the simplicity. The simplicity on the ideas of Voysey was on expression of simple ornament which was predicated on the principle of English Gothic style because he had asserted the importance of English tradition.
This paper is an analysis of the architectural form and proportion of Le Corbusier's Maison Suisse, one of his principal work, comparing to those of the hypothetical model (source or reference) works: Pantheon and Palzzo Massimo by Peruzzi, and of Le Corbusier's already realized principal works: Villa Stein and Villa Savoye. The normative proportion applied to the works is the golden proportion. The golden proportion applied to Pantheon has not been a historical fact, which Le Corbusier discovered creatively for himself. Maison Suisse's north and south elevations are determined by the ratio (6:16=3:8), the theoretical (1:Φ^2), articulated by six (6:16/6=9:4) ratio , the theoretical (1:1/√5), which are east and west elevation's form; the plan by the square: (1:6).
We study the works by Mies van der Rohe from a viewpoint of the connection with the theory "Dynamic Symmetry" advocated by Jay Hambidge in 1920's. On this paper we analyze the plan of "Brick Country House" using the method to cut the diagonal at right angles. This method is the most fundamental one in Hambidge's theory. Through this analysis we understand that the arrangement of many elements in this plan is corresponding to the lines appeared by this method. Especially primary elements, the "extended wall" and the "chimney" in this house are corresponding to the lines of the famous figure seen in his writings. We also discover the disposition of housing plan on the drawing sheet is ruled on the method by Hambidge.